Publikasjoner

NIBIOs ansatte publiserer flere hundre vitenskapelige artikler og forskningsrapporter hvert år. Her finner du referanser og lenker til publikasjoner og andre forsknings- og formidlingsaktiviteter. Samlingen oppdateres løpende med både nytt og historisk materiale. For mer informasjon om NIBIOs publikasjoner, besøk NIBIOs bibliotek.

2020

Sammendrag

Etter oppdrag fra Statens vegvesen Region sør og prosjektet E18 Bommestad – Sky har NIBIO utført miljøoppfølging i Farrisvannet og Farriselva i forbindelse bygging av nytt lokalveisystem ved Farriseidet (EK3). I 2019 har det pågått arbeider med frigraving av gammel tørrmur samt oppfylling for ny steinmur ved akse 7. En siltgardin har vært plassert ved akse 7 for å hindre eventuell spredning av partikler. Mulig påvirkning av Farrisvannet har blitt overvåket av to miljøbøyer, Farris Øst og Farris Vest, plassert ca. 90 m på utsiden av siltgardinen. Bøyene har hatt automatiske målinger av turbiditet, pH, ledningsevne og vanntemperatur i to dyp, henholdsvis 1 og 8 m. De ble programmert til å sende SMS-alarm til entreprenør, byggherre og miljøkonsulent dersom utslippsgrensen for turbiditet på 7 NTU ble overskredet for tre påfølgende målinger (0, 15 og 30 minutter). Det ble også satt ut en miljøbøye nær vanninntaket for Larvik vannverk som registrerte vannkvalitetsparametere i tre dyp, henholdsvis 1, 10 og 13 m. I tillegg til nevnte målinger har det blitt tatt ut flere omganger med vannprøver på inn- og utsiden av siltgardinen. Resultatene er diskutert i rapporten. De automatiske målingene har vist at utslippskravet, der turbiditeten ikke skal overskride 7 NTU, har blitt overholdt.....

Sammendrag

Remediation using nanoparticles depends on proper documentation of safety aspects, one of which is their ecotoxicology. Ecotoxicology of nanoparticles has some special features: while traditional ecotoxicology aims at measuring possible negative effects of more or less soluble chemicals or dissolved elements, nanoecotoxicology aims at measuring the toxicity of particles, and its main focus is on effects that are unique to nano-sized particles, as compared to larger particles or solutes. One of the main challenges when testing the ecotoxicity of nanoparticles lies in maintaining stable and reproducible exposure conditions, and adapt these to selected test organisms and endpoints. Another challenge is to use test media that are relevant to the matrices to be treated. Testing of nanoparticles used for remediation, particularly red-ox-active Fe-based nanoparticles, should also make sure to exclude confounding effects of altered red-ox potential which are not nanoparticle-specific. Yet another unique aspect of nanoparticles used for remediation is considerations of ageing of nanoparticles in soil or water, leading to reduced toxicity over field-relevant time scales. This review discusses these and other aspects of how to design and interpret appropriate tests and use these in hazard descriptions for subsequent risk assessments.

Sammendrag

The commercial cultivation of marine macroalgae is a young and rapidly growing industry sector in Norway. Although it is currently limited to a few brown macroalgae, other species such as the green marine macroalga Ulva fenestrata (formerly Ulva lactuca) has also a high potential for an industrial biomass production, for example to be used for the food marked. However, this process is strongly affected by the presence of marine diatoms transported along with the seawater into the cultivation system of U. fenestrata. These diatoms not only proliferate in the water tanks, they also colonise the green macroalgal biomass with many brown spots, which reduces its value for the food marked significantly. This presentation shows the results of a project that studied the use of germanium dioxide (GeO2) as a known growth inhibitor of diatoms to control their contamination during the biomass production process of U. fenestrata. First, the co-occurring diatom was morphologically identified as Fragilaria sp. using light microscopy. Thereafter, a dose-response experiment was conducted to reveal the concentrations of GeO2, resulting in an effective growth inhibition of Fragilaria sp. Based on this knowledge, the impact of different GeO2 concentrations was studied on how the photophysiolgy (photosynthetic characteristics, pigment patterns) and growth of U. fenestrata are affected in both small-scale (2 L) and large-scale (100 L) cultivation systems. An effective control of the proliferation of Fragilaria sp. during the cultivation process of U. fenestrata may result in the production a high-quality biomass with a high value for the food marked.

Sammendrag

Skoleprosjektet “Phenology of the North Calotte” (PNC) startet opp i 2001, og er et prosjektsamarbeid som omfatter ungdomsskoler og naturvitenskaplige forsknings-institusjoner i Norge og Russland. Prosjektet ledes av NIBIO sammen med de russiske statlige naturreservatene «Kandalaksha» og «Pasvik». Hovedmål-setningen i prosjektet er å øke kompetansen og interessen for naturfag i skolen, samt å stimulere til kontakt mellom norske og russiske lærere og elever.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

This study aims to understand the environmental factors, focusing on rain and fungal infection, affecting the assembly of glutenin polymers during grain maturation. Spring wheat was grown in the field and grains were sampled from 50% grain moisture until maturity. Grain moisture content, protein content, size of glutenin polymers, the presence of proteases, and the amount of DNA from common wheat pathogenic fungi were analysed. Rain influenced the rate of grain desiccation that occurred parallel to the rate of glutenin polymer assembly. Rapid desiccation contributed to faster glutenin polymer assembly than gradual desiccation. Severe reduction in the glutenin polymer size coincided with increased grain moisture due to rain. Furthermore, increased fungal DNA followed by presence of gluten-degrading proteases was observed in the grain after humid conditions. The presence of gluten-degrading proteases was presumably involved in reducing the size of glutenin polymers in grain. Our study gave new insight into how environmental conditions could be associated with the assembly of glutenin polymers during grain maturation. The results suggest that rain and/or fungal proteases play an important role in reducing the molecular size of glutenin polymers.