Publikasjoner

NIBIOs ansatte publiserer flere hundre vitenskapelige artikler og forskningsrapporter hvert år. Her finner du referanser og lenker til publikasjoner og andre forsknings- og formidlingsaktiviteter. Samlingen oppdateres løpende med både nytt og historisk materiale. For mer informasjon om NIBIOs publikasjoner, besøk NIBIOs bibliotek.

2019

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Sammendrag

The notion of the Anthropocene does not fit well into the frame of scientific disciplines. The proposed onset of a new geological epoch has become closely linked with human history and with notions such as purposeful human actions. Purposefulness, however, is also subject to interpretation in the humanities and does not fit into analytical methods in Earth sciences. Scholars have taken up this challenge and engage with Earth scientists in public discourse on the Anthropocene. Due to the lack of a common frame of reference, discussions suffer from incompatible abstractions, notions, methods and results. Here, we propose an abstract model-framework facilitating communication between Earth scientists and scholars. In Earth sciences, models are often employed to provide a representation of an independent reality which imposes limits to growth. In the humanities, self-reference and reflexivity of modernity at all scales including the globe becomes a key issue. In the former view models can be decomposed and locally tested, in the latter models and concepts involving human action need to be considered in all their contextual and semantic relations. Typically, such concepts, for example in anthropology, do not come in a mathematical language. Nevertheless, we suggest that a common reference can be sought in an abstract model language, rather than in realistic models. Category theory and formal notions developed in computer science may provide such an abstract framework to accommodate the apparently incompatible views of models and concepts, which are considered as successful by their respective home disciplines. Diverse models such as examples from game theory (economics), from dynamic system theory (Earth science) and from a classification of ethnocosmologies (anthropology) can be formulated as different instances within a joint and abstract framework. Such a framework allows to investigate implications of the Anthropocene for logical similarities with past environmental events by seeking historical analogies (for example with the great oxygenation event) or formulating consistency requirements for the future (for example by defining sustainability). The prize for the common basis is a strict ‘epistemic hygiene’, avoiding most ontological assumptions and criticisms which often appear as dear to Earth scientists and scholars, but which may prevent a more fruitful exchange on an urgent interdisciplinary topic

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Seasonal variations in wood supply are linked to the regional operating environment. This study constitutes the Norwegian contribution to Era-Net MultiStrat (Multimodal strategies for more resilient wood supply) covering oceanic, sub-arctic and continental climate zones. The oceanic zone is characterized by considerable seasonal variation in both temperature and precipitation. The goal of the study was to seek solutions for more resilient wood supply under these conditions. The study started with a general mapping of wood supply management processes including common demand and supply risks (WP1). The work continued with analysis of three years of production and transport reports (2014-2016) with tracking of roadside stocks and transport lead times (WP2). Daily temperature, precipitation, and snowpack were tracked with data from 65 surrounding weather stations. A simple multimodal transport problem with a rolling selection of planning horizons was then used to find the efficient multimodal solutions for the core, adjacent and peripheral supply regions through 12 balance periods per year (WP3). The transport analysis covers 65 supply districts feeding 6 assortment groups to 10 mills via 11 shipping terminals. The transport analysis varied both vessel cargo capacity and cargo collection practices. The results demonstrated a wide range of solutions to ensure roundwood availability with limited increases in system costs. While the transport analysis demonstrated the contribution of the multimodal solutions to structural flexibility, it also revealed a bottleneck for resilience of the wood supply system; seasonal variation in truck transport output (m3km/week). The geographical distribution of seasonality showed the main source to be one particular supply region. A subsequent wood supply planning workshop with production managers indicated that a bottleneck for improved production planning was short wood purchase and planning horizons. A simple optimization experiment was therefore set up to quantify the feasibility of more specific site-type selection according to actual soil and seasonal weather conditions for the selected region. On-line grid-based groundwater modeling was used to monitor weekly geographical variations in bearing capacity and the experiment provided a plausible re-scheduling of flows to reduce variation in delivery volumes and transport output.

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This study addresses the use of multiple sources of auxiliary data from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and airborne laser scanning (ALS) data for inference on key biophysical parameters in small forest properties (5–300 ha). We compared the precision of the estimates using plot data alone under a design-based inference with modelbased estimates that include plot data and the following four types of auxiliary data: (1) terrain-independent variables from UAV photogrammetric data (UAV-SfM); (2) variables obtained from UAV photogrammetric data normalized using external terrain data (UAV-SfMDTM); (3) UAV-LS and (4) ALS data. The inclusion of remotely sensed data increased the precision of DB estimates by factors of 1.5–2.2. The optimal data sources for top height, stem density, basal area and total stem volume were: UAV-LS, UAV-SfM, UAV-SfMDTM and UAV-SfMDTM. We conclude that the use of UAV data can increase the precision of stand-level estimates even under intensive field sampling conditions.

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Arion vulgaris Moquin-Tandon, 1855 is regarded as one of the 100 most invasive species in Europe. The native distribution range of this species is uncertain, but for many years, the Iberian Peninsula has been considered as the area of origin. However, recent studies indicate that A. vulgaris probably originated from France. We have investigated the genetic structure of 33 European populations (Poland, Norway, Germany, France, Denmark, Switzerland) of this slug, based on two molecular markers, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI, mtDNA) and nuclear zinc finger (ZF, nDNA). Our investigation included published data from two previous studies, giving a total of 95 populations of A. vulgaris from 26 countries. This comprehensive dataset shows comparable haplotype diversity in Central, North and Western Europe, and significantly lower haplotype diversity in the East. All haplotypes observed in the East can be found in the other regions, and haplotype diversity is highest in the Central and Western region. Moreover, there is strong isolation by distance in Central and Western Europe, and only very little in the East. Furthermore, the number of unique haplotypes was highest in France. This pattern strongly suggests that A. vulgaris has originated from a region spanning from France to Western Germany; hence, the slug is probably alien/invasive in other parts of Europe, where it occurs. Our results indicate the necessity to cover as much of the distribution range of a species as possible before making conclusive assumptions about its origin and alien status.