Publikasjoner

NIBIOs ansatte publiserer flere hundre vitenskapelige artikler og forskningsrapporter hvert år. Her finner du referanser og lenker til publikasjoner og andre forsknings- og formidlingsaktiviteter. Samlingen oppdateres løpende med både nytt og historisk materiale. For mer informasjon om NIBIOs publikasjoner, besøk NIBIOs bibliotek.

2020

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Sammendrag

Land-sea riverine carbon transfer (LSRCT) is one of the key processes in the global carbon cycle. Although natural factors (e.g. climate, soil) influence LSRCT, human water management strategies have also been identified as a critical component. However, few systematic approaches quantifying the contribution of coupled natural and anthropogenic factors on LSRCT have been published. This study presents an integrated framework coupling hydrological modeling, field sampling and stable isotope analysis for the quantitative assessment of the impact of human water management practices (e.g. irrigation, dam construction) on LSRCT under different hydrological conditions. By applying this approach to the case study of the Nandu River, China, we find that carbon (C) concentrations originating from different land-uses (e.g. forest, cropland) are relatively stable and outlet C variations are mainly dominated by controlled runoff volumes rather than by input C concentrations. These results indicate that human water management practices are responsible for a reduction of ∼60% of riverine C at seasonal timescales, with an even greater reduction during drought conditions. Annual C discharges have been significantly reduced (e.g. 77 ± 5% in 2015 and 39 ± 11% in 2016) due to changes in human water extraction coupled with climate variation. In addition, isotope analysis also shows that C fluxes influenced by human activities (e.g. agriculture, aquaculture) could contribute the dominant particulate organic carbon under typical climatic conditions, as well as drought conditions. This research demonstrates the substantial effect that human water management practices have on the seasonal and annual fluxes of LSRCT, especially in such small basins. This work also shows the applicability of this integrated approach, using multiple tools to quantify the contribution of coupled anthropogenic and natural factors on LSRCT, and the general framework is believed to be feasible with limited modifications for larger basins in future research.

Sammendrag

Remediation using nanoparticles depends on proper documentation of safety aspects, one of which is their ecotoxicology. Ecotoxicology of nanoparticles has some special features: while traditional ecotoxicology aims at measuring possible negative effects of more or less soluble chemicals or dissolved elements, nanoecotoxicology aims at measuring the toxicity of particles, and its main focus is on effects that are unique to nano-sized particles, as compared to larger particles or solutes. One of the main challenges when testing the ecotoxicity of nanoparticles lies in maintaining stable and reproducible exposure conditions, and adapt these to selected test organisms and endpoints. Another challenge is to use test media that are relevant to the matrices to be treated. Testing of nanoparticles used for remediation, particularly red-ox-active Fe-based nanoparticles, should also make sure to exclude confounding effects of altered red-ox potential which are not nanoparticle-specific. Yet another unique aspect of nanoparticles used for remediation is considerations of ageing of nanoparticles in soil or water, leading to reduced toxicity over field-relevant time scales. This review discusses these and other aspects of how to design and interpret appropriate tests and use these in hazard descriptions for subsequent risk assessments.

2019

Sammendrag

Vi lever i et samfunn som har kommet langt i likestilling mellom kjønn. Likevel opplever mange daglig tilfeller av hersketeknikk og forskjellsbehandling, også innen forskermiljø. Men kvinner kan gjøre mye selv for å ta kontroll over disse forskjellene. Gjennom å sikte høyt og gi litt faen, stole på seg selv, sin kompetanse og magefølelsen. Og må du rope litt høyere for å bli hørt? Ja, så rop!

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Sammendrag

The notion of the Anthropocene does not fit well into the frame of scientific disciplines. The proposed onset of a new geological epoch has become closely linked with human history and with notions such as purposeful human actions. Purposefulness, however, is also subject to interpretation in the humanities and does not fit into analytical methods in Earth sciences. Scholars have taken up this challenge and engage with Earth scientists in public discourse on the Anthropocene. Due to the lack of a common frame of reference, discussions suffer from incompatible abstractions, notions, methods and results. Here, we propose an abstract model-framework facilitating communication between Earth scientists and scholars. In Earth sciences, models are often employed to provide a representation of an independent reality which imposes limits to growth. In the humanities, self-reference and reflexivity of modernity at all scales including the globe becomes a key issue. In the former view models can be decomposed and locally tested, in the latter models and concepts involving human action need to be considered in all their contextual and semantic relations. Typically, such concepts, for example in anthropology, do not come in a mathematical language. Nevertheless, we suggest that a common reference can be sought in an abstract model language, rather than in realistic models. Category theory and formal notions developed in computer science may provide such an abstract framework to accommodate the apparently incompatible views of models and concepts, which are considered as successful by their respective home disciplines. Diverse models such as examples from game theory (economics), from dynamic system theory (Earth science) and from a classification of ethnocosmologies (anthropology) can be formulated as different instances within a joint and abstract framework. Such a framework allows to investigate implications of the Anthropocene for logical similarities with past environmental events by seeking historical analogies (for example with the great oxygenation event) or formulating consistency requirements for the future (for example by defining sustainability). The prize for the common basis is a strict ‘epistemic hygiene’, avoiding most ontological assumptions and criticisms which often appear as dear to Earth scientists and scholars, but which may prevent a more fruitful exchange on an urgent interdisciplinary topic