Kjersti Holt Hanssen

Forsker

(+47) 996 44 123
kjersti.hanssen@nibio.no

Sted
Ås - Bygg H8

Besøksadresse
Høgskoleveien 8, 1433 Ås

Biografi

Utdanning: Naturforvalter fra Norges landbrukshøgskole (nå NMBU) 1993. Doktorgrad fra Institutt for skogfag, NLH 2002.
 
Forskningsfelt: Skogskjøtsel, særlig knyttet til foryngelse av skog, gjødsling og næringsstoffer.

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Sammendrag

The production of ash from wood has greatly increased the last years, because biofuels are increasingly being used for heating and energy production. The ash may either be viewed as a waste problem, or as a resource. Wood ash has a liming effect and contains essential nutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg) which can be exploited for soil fertilisation. With enhanced knowledge about where and how wood ash addition may increase forest growth - without having negative effects on the environment - wood ash may become a renewable nutrient source. We studied the effect of fertilizing a Norway spruce (Picea abies) stand on relatively high site index in SE Norway with ash, nitrogen, or ash + nitrogen. After five years, both current annual increment and standing volume was best in the ASH + N treatment and least in the Control plots. The field trial should be followed for a longer period of time, as the ASH + N treatment still shows an increasing growth trend after five years.

Sammendrag

Several studies have shown the positive effect of nitrogen fertilization on conifer growth. In young Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands, an additional effect of including a mixture of other nutrients has often, but not always, been found. We studied effects of repeated fertilization in 28 stands with young Norway spruce in central Norway. The treatments consisted of plots without nutrient addition (Control), fertilization with 150 kg N ha−1 (150 N), and fertilization with 150 kg N plus addition of P, K, Mg, B, Mn and Cu (150 N + mix), repeated three times with approximately eight years interval. There was a clear positive effect on volume increment of the 150 N and 150 N + mix treatments compared to Control, and the effect was significantly higher for 150 N + mix than for 150 N. Fertilization had a stronger effect in the first fertilization period than in the second, while the third period was intermediate. The effect of 150 N + mix was strongest at plots > 300 m a.s.l. However, this correlation may be due to geological conditions rather than elevation. Further studies are needed to find out under which edaphic conditions a nutrient mixture will increase growth substantially in young spruce stands.

Sammendrag

For å kunne utvikle kunnskapsbaser for forskning innen en bærekraftig forvaltning av skog og skogbruk, er det viktig å ha skogforsøk og å ta vare på de langsiktige feltforsøk i skog som NIBIO i dag forvalter. Rammebetingelser for skog og skogbruk er imidlertid i endring, og hensynet til nye problemstillinger skal også ivaretas. Den lange tidshorisonten i skog på minst 50-100 år, og i noen tilfeller lenger, understreker også viktigheten av å ha en stor portefølje av langsiktige feltforsøk i skog.......

Sammendrag

Gransnutebiller (Hylobius abietis) kan gjøre stor skade i plantefelt, ved at de gnager barken av småplantene slik at de skades eller dør. Høsten 2017 ble 200 ett- til toårige granplantefelt i Sør-Norge, fra Trøndelag og sørover, undersøkt for skader og avgang av snutebiller og andre årsaker. Undersøkelsen viser at snutebillene er til stede i hele Sør-Norge, og i alle høydelag opp til 800 m o.h. I kun 10 % av feltene ble det ikke funnet granplanter med snutebillegnag. Plantetetthet, målt som antall levende kulturplanter én til to sesonger etter planting, var i snitt 153 per dekar. I gjennomsnitt var det en avgang på grunn av snutebiller på minst 7 %, og en total avgang på 10 %. Fordi det er vanskelig å finne igjen plantene såpass lenge etter planting, særlig de som er døde, må dette ses på som et minimumsestimat. Snutebillene vil være til stede på hogstflatene inntil 3-5 år etter hogst, slik at avgangen må forventes å øke ytterligere. Problemet er størst i Vestlandsfylkene, særlig i Møre og Romsdal og Sogn og Fjordane. I deler av Østlandet er problemet mindre. Undersøkelsen viser at lenger ventetid mellom hogst og planting ga mindre avgang på grunn av snutebiller. Plantetype spilte også en rolle, ved at de mindre M95 1-årige plantene hadde større avgang enn 2-årige M95-planter. Bruk av markberedning virket positivt inn på overlevelsen, og ga også mindre gnagskader på plantene. Andre faktorer som virket positivt inn på andel planter med gnag var å vente med planting til tredje vår, og bruk av voksbehandling. Videre var det mindre skader på felt med lav bonitet eller tørr mark enn fuktige, rike felt.

Sammendrag

Short-term (three to four years) effects of forest harvesting on soil solution chemistry were investigated at two Norway spruce sites in southern Norway, differing in precipitation amount and topography. Experimental plots were either harvested conventionally (stem-only harvesting, SOH) or whole trees, including crowns, twigs and branches were removed (whole-tree harvesting, WTH), leaving residue piles on the ground for some months before removal. The WTH treatment had two sub-treatments: WTH-pile where there had been piles and WTH-removal, from where residues had been removed to make piles. Increased soil solution concentrations of NO3–N, total N, Ca, Mg and K at 30 cm depth, shown by peaks in concentrations in the years after harvesting, were found at the drier, less steep site in eastern Norway after SOH and WTH-pile, but less so after WTH-removal. At the wetter, steeper site in western Norway, peaks were often observed also at WTH-removal plots, which might reflect within-site differences in water pathways due largely to site topography.

Sammendrag

Natural regeneration of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) is a relatively common practice in Norway on medium to low site indices. However, seedling establishment is often hampered by rapid regrowth of competing vegetation in scarified patches. The aim of our study was to examine the effect of coordinating scarification towards an expected seed-fall, by studying germination and seedling establishment in scarified patches of different age (fresh, one- and two-year-old). The experiment was conducted in two stands in southeast Norway that were clear-cut in 2007. Scarification was applied to subplots in autumn 2008–2010. To simulate seed-fall, seeds were sown in fresh scarification patches in spring 2009–2011, in one-year-old patches in 2010 and 2011, and in twoyear- old patches in 2011. Both germination and seedling survival were negatively affected by the age of the scarified patches. Germination was higher, and mortality lower, at the small fern woodland site, compared with the bilberry woodland site. Sowing in fresh patches also resulted in increased height and root collar diameter of the seedlings compared with sowing in older patches. It is likely that the competing vegetation both on the site and in the scarification patches affected the growth of the seedlings. In conclusion, the age of the scarified patches affected both germination and mortality, as well as early growth of the seedlings.

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Sammendrag

Å gjødsle med nitrogen er et av de få tiltakene som gir en rask effekt på tilvekst og karbonbinding i skog. Riktig utført kan gjødsling gi økt tømmervolum, høyere andel av skurtømmer og god økonomi for skogeier, samtidig som den gir en positiv klimaeffekt. Gode støtteordninger til gjødsling som et klimatiltak har bidratt til at interessen for skoggjødsling nå har økt kraftig. Gjødsling av skog krever kunnskaper hos både skogeier og rådgivningsapparat. Denne håndboka gir informasjon om effekter, og gode råd om valg av bestand og praktisk utførelse, basert på forskning fra Norge og de andre nordiske landene.

Sammendrag

Removal of logging residues causes significant nutrient losses from the harvesting site. Furthermore,collection of residues into piles could lead to small-scale differences in establishment conditions for seedlings. We studied the effects of stem-only (SOH) and aboveground whole-tree harvesting (WTH) on Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedling growth and pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) damage at two sites (SE and W Norway). We also compared two planting environments within the WTH plots (WTH-0: areas with no residues, WTH-1: areas where residue piles had been placed and removed before planting). In practice, one-third of the residues were left on site after WTH. After three growing seasons there were no differences for height or diameter increment between SOH and WTH (WTH-1 and WTH-0 combined) treatments. However, relative diameter increment was largest for WTH-1 seedlings and lowest for WTH-0 seedlings. Few seedlings sustained pine weevil attacks at the W Norway site, with no differences among treatments. At the SE Norway site, the percent of seedlings damaged by pine weevils and average debarked area were significantly higher after WTH (82% and 3.3 cm2) compared to SOH (62% and 1.7 cm2). We conclude that WTH may lead to spatial differences in establishment conditions.

Sammendrag

Fokus i denne rapporten er på skogbehandlingen, og på maksimering av verdiproduksjon. En forutsetning for dette er høy sagtømmerproduksjon, samtidig som det er viktig å vurdere arealets totale tømmerverdi. Følgende forutsetninger ligger til grunn for rapporten: Bevaring av biologisk mangfold og ivaretakelse av andre flerbrukshensyn Det legges til grunn at all skogbehandling utføres i henhold til dagens lovverk og frivillige sertifiseringsordninger, og at dette ivaretar hensyn til biologisk mangfold og andre flerbrukshensyn. Vi går derfor ikke inn på betydningen ulik skogbehandling vil ha for biologisk mangfold eller andre flerbrukshensyn, eller tilpasninger av skogbehandlingen for dette. Bærekraftig skogbruk i klimasammenheng Miljødirektoratet mfl. (2016) drøfter vern eller bruk av skog som klimatiltak. I rapporten konkluderes det med at det ikke er grunnlag for å vektlegge vern av norsk skog som klimatiltak. En forutsetning er at det drives et bærekraftig skogbruk i klimasammenheng. Dette ble definert som følger: «Bærekraftig skogbruk i klimasammenheng innebærer at skogens produktivitet og evne til å lagre karbon ikke forringes, og at karbonbeholdninger ikke reduseres permanent.» (Miljødirektoratet mfl. 2016). Vi forutsetter gjennom rapporten at skogbehandling drives bærekraftig i tråd med denne definisjonen, uten at vi går nærmere inn på betydningen og eventuelle nødvendige tilpasninger. Skogbehandling for å motvirke klimaendringer Skogbehandling som motvirker klimaendringer, for eksempel ved å øke karbonopptaket, vil i mange tilfeller være i samsvar med skogbehandling for maksimal verdiproduksjon, men ikke alltid. Vi har i denne rapporten kun fokusert på verdiproduksjon, og betydning av skogbehandling på ulike karbonbeholdninger er ikke vurdert. Driftstekniske forhold («hvordan ta ut tømmeret») Driftskostnader vil være av stor betydning for skogeiers økonomiske resultat, og både de endringer vi allerede ser og forventede klimaendringer er forventet å gi større driftstekniske utfordringer. I denne rapporten ser vi imidlertid utelukkende på den betydning skogbehandlingen vil ha for antatt verdiproduksjon.

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Sammendrag

Feeding by pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) causes severe damage to newly planted conifer seedlings in most parts of Scandinavia. We investigated the effect of planting time and insecticide treatment on pine weevil damage and seedling growth. The main objective was to study if planting in early autumn on fresh clear-cuts would promote seedling establishment and reduce the amount of damage caused by pine weevil the following season. The experiment was conducted in southern Sweden and in south-eastern Norway with an identical experimental design at three sites in each country. On each site, Norway spruce seedlings with or without insecticide treatment were planted at four different planting times: August, September, November and May the following year. In Sweden, the proportion of untreated seedlings that were killed by pine weevils was reduced when seedlings were planted at the earliest time (August/September) compared to late planting in November, or May the following year. This pattern was not found in Norway. The average length of leading shoot, diameter growth and biomass were clearly benefited by planting in August in both countries. Insecticide treatment decreased the number of seedlings killed or severely damaged in both Norway and Sweden.

Sammendrag

Whole-tree harvest (WTH), i.e. harvesting of forest residues (twigs, branches and crown tops) in addition to stems, for bioenergy purposes may lead to biodiversity loss and changes in species composition in forest ground vegetation, which in turn also will affect soil properties. Effects of clear-cut harvesting on ground vegetation have been investigated at two Norway spruce sites in southern east and western Norway, respectively, differing in climate and topography. Experimental plots at these two sites were either harvested conventionally (stem-only harvest, SOH), leaving harvest residues spread on the site,or WTH was carried out, with the residues collected into piles at the site for six - nine months prior to removal. Vegetation plots in the eastern site were established and analysed before WTH and SOH in 2008 and reanalysed after harvesting in 2010, 2012 and 2014. In the western site vegetation plots were established before WTH and SOH in 2010 and reanalysed after harvesting in 2012 and 2014 (and planned for 2016). All vegetation plots are permanently marked. Pre-as well as post-harvesting species abundances of all species in each vegetation plot were each time recorded as percentage cover (vertical projection) and subplot frequency. Environmental variables (topographical, soil physical, soil chemical, and tree variables) were recorded only once; before WTH and SOH. Effec ts of WTH and SOH on ground vegetation biodiversity and cover are presented.

Sammendrag

Tree harvest and different harvesting methods may affect the soil carbon (C) pool in forest ecosystems. In con- ventional stem-only timber harvesting (SOH), branches and tops that are left in the forests may contribute to the build-up of the soil carbon pool. In whole-tree harvesting (WTH), inputs of organic matter from branches and tops are strongly reduced. We established field experiments at Gaupen, SE and Vindberg, SW Norway, to study the short-term effects of SOH and WTH on processes affecting the accumulation and loss of soil C. Logging residues on the WTH plots were collected in piles that were removed after 6 months, rendering two sub treatments (WTH- pile and WTH-removal areas). We weighed selected trees and logging residues, surveyed understorey biomass production, quantified pre-harvest soil C and nutrient pools down to 30 cm. Soil respiration was measured and soil water sampled monthly during the growing season, while temperature and moisture were measured continuously. Organic and mineral horizons were incubated at different temperatures to estimate potential C and N mineraliza- tion, and deep sequencing of the ITS2 barcode region of fungal DNA was performed on the samples. Litterbags were deployed in the SOH plots. The logging residues amounted to 2.2-2.4 kg C m-2 At Gaupen, the mean in situ soil respiration rates increased following harvest with all treatments, but were significantly higher in WTH-pile and SOH relative to the WTH- removal areas in the first year as well as the fourth year of treatment. The former rates included aboveground decomposing needles and twigs but excluded coarser branches. The observed increase in the WTH-removal areas may be related to decomposing roots, as well as to increased C mineralization partly due to the higher soil tem- peratures following harvest. Soil temperature was the single most important factor explaining the variability in soil respiration rates over all treatments. At Vindberg, a decrease in soil respiration was observed with all treatments in the second and third years following harvest. At both sites, decomposition of logging residues from needles was more rapid relative to twigs and fine roots. The decomposing residues released a substantial amount of nitrogen which was gradually reflected in the soil water at 30 cm soil depth. A considerable increase in the NO3-N concen- tration also in the WTH-removal areas in the second year following harvest suggests an increase in N availability from decomposing fine roots and/or soil organic matter. The increased N availability in the WTH-removal areas was supported by results from short term lab incubations of undisturbed soil from the forest floor. The changes in the WTH-removal areas were also reflected in the soil fungal diversity: saprophytic ascomycetes on decaying plant material showed a striking increase in all treatments. For the WTH-removal areas, this may, again, be related to the increased input of root litter; however, the decrease in mycorrhizal basidiomycete species and the vigorous increase of ascomycetes following harvest may also affect the C mineralization of soil organic matter.

Sammendrag

Produksjon av aske fra trevirke har økt kraftig de siste ti årene, fordi biobrensel i stadig større grad blir tatt i bruk til fornybar varme- og energiproduksjon. Aske fra trevirke inneholder viktige næringsstoffer og kalk som kan utnyttes til gjødslingsformål, alene eller sammen med andre næringsstoffer. Anvendelse av aske i skog øker pH-verdien og innholdet av de fleste hovednæringsstoffene i jordsmonnet, unntatt nitrogen. Askens egenskaper avhenger av hvilken type biobrenselsortiment som benyttes i forbrenningen, styring og prosessparametre i forbrenningsprosessen, samt behandling og lagring av asken. Treaske inneholder tungmetaller som trærne har tatt opp fra jorda de vokser i. Konsentrasjonene varierer avhengig av jordsmonn og treslag, forbrenningsmetode, askefraksjon og andre faktorer. Analyser av askeprøver fra 19 norske biobrenselanlegg viste at kvaliteten på de ulike askeprøvene varierte i betydelig grad. Som forventet var det mer tungmetaller i flyveasken enn i bunnasken. Til en eventuell bruk i skogen vil bunnasken derfor være mest aktuell. Flere studier har undersøkt konsekvensene av å føre tungmetaller fra treaske tilbake til skogøkosystemer. Resultatene tyder på at askegjødsling ikke fører til økt tungmetallinnhold i jordvann, fordi økt pH som følge av gjødslingen gjør at metallene blir ennå mer tungt oppløselige. Innholdet av tungmetaller i bær eller andre plantedeler øker ikke etter asketilførsel, men det er funnet økt innhold i noen typer sopp rett etter gjødsling. Etter en askegjødsling vil det ofte bli en konsentrasjonsøkning av ioner fra lettløselige salter i jordvannet. Etter noen måneder går konsentrasjonene tilbake. Askegjødsling kan også øke pH-verdiene i jorda. Effektene på pH-verdier og ionekonsentrasjoner i jordvann er avhengig av dose, og skjer i hovedsak i de øvre jordlagene. På mineraljord er det vanligvis mangel på nitrogen som begrenser veksten av skogen. Fordi aske ikke inneholder nitrogen, ser man ofte små effekter på tilveksten etter en ren askegjødsling. På god mark kan man få en viss positiv effekt, mens effekten kan være negativ på fattige marktyper. Aske gitt sammen med nitrogen kan forlenge effekten av nitrogengjødslingen. På grøftet torvmark vil man ofte få en tydelig økning i tilveksten, fordi asken øker pH og tilfører fosfor og kalium, som det ofte er mangel på i torvjorda. Få studier tar for seg klimagassbalansen i hele økosystemet etter askegjødsling. Ut fra de rapportene som foreligger, er det sannsynlig at askegjødsling på grøftet torvmark vil ha en positiv effekt på klimagassregnskapet, mens det ikke vil ha særlig effekt i hverken positiv eller negativ retning på mineraljord. På fastmark er endringene i vegetasjonen etter askegjødsling stort sett beskjedne og av kort varighet. Ofte er effekten en redusert dekning av moser i en periode, mens urter og gress kan øke. På grøftet torvmark gir askegjødsling mer varige endringer i vegetasjonen, gjerne i retning av en mer fastmarksliknende vegetasjonstype. Dosering og askeform påvirker effektene på vegetasjonen.

Sammendrag

The relative volume growth effects of thinning after whole-tree harvesting (WTH) compared to a conventional stem-only harvest (CH) in young stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) were analyzed, using a series of four pine and four spruce field experiments. The series was established in the years 1972–1977, and thinning was performed only once. Results are shown periodically and cumulatively. All sites were included for 20 (19) years in pine and 25 years in spruce. The total experimental period varied between 19 and 35 years for individual sites. Four models assuming additive or multiplicative effects gave only slightly varying results. The inclusion of standing volume after thinning as a covariate was effective in spruce independent of whether the covariate was treated as multiplicative or additive. A logarithmic model with a multiplicative effect of the covariate was preferred in further presentations. Results for pine stands after 20 years indicated a nonsignificant loss of 5% with confidence limits (p = 0.05) of ±6–7%, while the spruce stands showed a significant growth loss of 11% with confidence limits of ±4–5% after 25 years. The difference between the species in relative growth effects was significant, and amounted to 8% for a cumulative 20-year period. No indications of trends in response were found during a 20-year period in pine and a 25-year period in spruce. An analysis of growth effects in the first years showed that basal area increment in spruce was significantly reduced already in the first growing season after thinning.

Sammendrag

Rapporten presenterer resultater fra en undersøkelse om skader i skogplantefelt etter gnag fra gransnutebille (Hylobius abietis). Til sammen 154 foryngelsesfelt på Sør- og Østlandet ble undersøkt, de fleste på høsten 2010, og noen vår 2011. Denne oppdragsrapporten omhandler spesielt resultatene fra 55 felt i Hedmark og Oppland fylker. Snutebillene ser ut til å være til stede i alle områder i innlandsfylkene. Det er imidlertid stor variasjon mellom felt. I snitt kommer Oppland godt ut, med stort sett liten avgang (4 %) og relativt beskjedne skader (14 % av plantene har snutebillegnag). Hedmark ligger omtrent på gjennomsnittet blant fylkene, med henholdsvis 6 % avgang på grunn av snutebiller og 22 % planter med gnag. Lokalt i Hedmark finnes det imidlertid områder med mye skader, særlig i Glåmdalen og rundt Mjøsa. Planter som hadde stått i felt i to sesonger hadde mer enn dobbelt så stor avgang som de som kun hadde stått en sesong. Gjennomsnittlig avgang vil derfor til slutt bli større enn det som er presentert i denne undersøkelsen. Plantetypen hadde betydning ved at 1-årige M95-planter hadde mer skader og høyere dødelighet enn de større plantetypene 2-årige M95 og M60. Høstplanting kom positivt ut for feltene i Hedmark og Oppland. Snutebiller er den vanligste årsaken til avgang i plantefelt på Østlandet, men i perioder vil andre faktorer også bety mye. Smågnagerår er et eksempel på det, og vinteren 2010/2011 var det stor planteavgang i noen felt på grunn av musegnag.

Sammendrag

In this report, the oral and poster contributions of the scientific conference “Forest Management and Silviculture in the North – Balancing Future Needs” have been compiled. The conference was arranged 6-8 September 2011 in Stjørdal, Norway, gathering more than 50 delegates from seven countries. The conference was hosted by the Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute and was initiated jointly by IUFRO WP 1.01.01 Boreal forest silviculture and management and the SNS network group Sustainable forest management in northern Fennoscandia (NORFOR).

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Sammendrag

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of whole-tree harvesting (WTH) on the growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) as compared to conventional stem harvesting (CH) over 10 and 20 years. Compensatory (WTH+ CoF) and normal nitrogen-based (CH + F or WTH+ F) fertilisation were also studied. A series of 22 field experiments were established during 1977–1987, representing a range of site types and climatic conditions in Finland, Norway and Sweden. The treatments were performed at the time of establishment and were repeated after 10–13 years at 11 experimental sites. Seven experiments were followed for 25 years. Volume increment was on average significantly lower after WTH than after CH in both 10-year periods in the spruce stands. In the pine stands thinned only once, the WTH induced growth reduction was significant during the second 10-year period, indicating a long-term response. Volume increment of pine stands was 4 and 8% and that of spruce stands 5 and 13% lower on the WTH plots than on CH during the first and the second 10-year period, respectively. For the second 10- year period the relative volume increment of the whole-tree harvested plots tended to be negatively correlated with the amount of logging residue. Accordingly, the relative volume increment decreased more, the more logging residue was harvested, stressing the importance of developing methods for leaving the nutrient-rich needles on site. If nutrient (N, P, K) losses with the removed logging residues were compensated with fertiliser (WTH+ CoF), the volume increment was equal to that in the CH plots. Nitrogen (150–180 kg ha−1) or N+ P fertilisation increased tree growth in all experiments except in one very productive spruce stand. Pine stands fertilised only once had a normal positive growth response during the first 10-year period, on average 13m3 ha−1, followed by a negative response of 5m3 ha−1 during the second 10-year period. The fertilisation effect of WTH+ F and WTH+ CoF on basal area increment was both smaller and shorter than with CH+ F.

Sammendrag

The pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) is an important pest to conifer seedlings in large parts of Europe. To get an objective measure of the extent of damages related to pine weevils in South-Eastern Norway, a survey was implemented in the autumn of 2010 in nine counties. Altogether, 155 stands regenerated by planting in 2009 or 2010 were examined. The percentage of seedlings killed from pine weevil attacks varied between 0 and 63 % in the surveyed fields. On average, 7 % of the seedlings were killed by pine weevils, while 23 % had bark wounds. In addition, 3 % of the seedlings were killed by other causes. Few of the registered field variables were correlated to the degree of damage, but there was a tendency towards higher mortality at the largest clear cuts, in hilly areas, and for dry soil types. The present survey shows that in unscarified stands in SE Norway pine weevils are the most important cause of seedling mortality. A total seedling mortality of at least 10% should be expected the first two years.

Sammendrag

The use of logging residues for bioenergy is encouraged in many countries, due to an increasing demand for renewable energy. However, there is concern that removal of logging residues may cause a long-term reduction in soil nutrient availability, reducing forest growth in the remaining stand. To quantify the growth response of Norway spruce and Scots pine to whole-three harvesting at first thinning a series of eight field experiments was set up in SE Norway in the seventies. Results after 25 years showed that whole-tree thinning lead to a decrease in forest growth. The effect was present more or less immediately after thinning, and was still present after 25 years. The average reduction in growth was around 10 % after 25 years in the spruce stands, while in the pine stands a non-significant average growth reduction of 4 % was found. The results are generated under experimental conditions, and in practice a share of the residues is left on site, decreasing the nutrient loss.

Sammendrag

De siste årene har det blitt rapportert om stedvis kraftige angrep av gransnutebiller i foryngelsesfelt i Norge. En undersøkelse ble utført på Vestlandet og i Trøndelag i 2009, og det var et ønske fra skognæring og -forvaltning å utføre en tilsvarende undersøkelse på Øst- og Sørlandet. Til sammen 142 foryngelsesfelt i fylkene Østfold, Akershus, Hedmark, Oppland, Buskerud, Vestfold, Telemark, Aust-Agder og Vest-Agder ble undersøkt høsten 2010. Disse var plantet til i 2009 eller 2010, og det hadde ikke gått mer enn to sesonger siden hogst ved tilplantingen. På hvert felt ble alle kulturplantene på 20 sirkelflater á 20 m2 undersøkt for snutebillegnag og andre skader, og vitaliteten ble bedømt i fire klasser. For hvert felt ble variabler som høyde over havet, flatestørrelse, jordfuktighet, helling, eksposisjon og plantetype registrert....

Sammendrag

Hogstavfall er nøkkelen til økt satsing på bioenergi i Norge. Men vil dette påvirke bærekraften i skogøkosystemet og skogproduksjonen? Blir skogsjorda mer næringsfattig? Endres sammensetningen av arter i vegetasjonen? Vil artsmangfoldet bli redusert? Blir det mindre av de soppene som bryter ned planterester? Dette er noen av spørsmålene vi prøver å besvare gjennom prosjektet «Økologiske virkninger av økt biomasseuttak fra skog i Norge» (ECOBREM), som varer fra 2009 til 2013.

Sammendrag

Grana avslutter normalt strekningsveksten midtsommers, og begynner forberedelsene til høsten og vinteren. Av og til kan en imidlertid se at knoppene som dannes etter vekstavslutningen bryter på nytt senere samme sommer, og treet utvikler høstskudd. Dette pågår utover sensommeren og tidlig høst, og resulterer i en forsinket vekstavslutning og innvintring. Det nye skuddet tåler lite frost så lenge det er i aktiv vekst, og risikoen for frostskader på høsten øker derfor. Forsinket innvintring kan også resultere i dårligere vinterherdighet, og øke risikoen for frostskader gjennom vinteren.

Sammendrag

De siste årene har det blitt rapportert om stedvis kraftige angrep av gransnutebiller i foryngelsesfelt på Vestlandet og i Trøndelagsfylkene. Vi ønsket derfor å gjennomføre en undersøkelse av snutebilleskader i felt på Vestlandet og i Trøndelag. Til sammen 50 flater i kystfylkene Rogaland, Hordaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Møre og Romsdal, Sør-Trøndelag og Nord-Trøndelag ble undersøkt høsten 2009. Disse var plantet til i 2008 eller 2009, og det hadde ikke gått mer enn to sesonger siden hogst ved tilplantingen. På hvert felt ble alle kulturplantene på 20 sirkelflater á 20 m2 undersøkt for snutebillegnag og andre skader, og vitaliteten ble bedømt i fire klasser. For hvert felt ble variabler som høyde over havet, flatestørrelse, helling, eksposisjon og plantetype registrert.....

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Gransnutebiller (Hylobius abietis) er et problem i norsk skogbruk, fordi de gnager bark av unge gran- og furuplanter og forårsaker skader og avgang i foryngelsene de første årene etter hogst. Intensiteten i angrepene varier i rom og tid, men uten bruk av en form for plantebeskyttelse kan avgangen i noen tilfeller bli nær 100 %. Det er derfor standard i norske skogplanteskoler å behandle salgsplanter av gran og furu med et kjemisk snutebillemiddel.....

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Rapporten tar for seg effekten av insekticidene Karate Zeon og Merit Forest på snutebillegnag og planteutvikling hos granplanter. Forskjellige konsentrasjoner av midlene (1, 2 og 3 % bruksløsning) ble testet ved både rothalsbehandling og behandling av hele planten. Disse behandlingene ble foretatt om høsten før kjølelagring av plantene. I tillegg ble behandling av hele planten på våren med 1 % bruksløsning av begge midler testet. Behandlede planter ble satt ut på tre forsøksfelt i Buskerud våren 2007. Avgang og skader ble undersøkt etter én og to sesonger i felt. Det ble ikke observert sviskader, skader på knopper eller problemer med utvikling av toppskuddet etter noen av behandlingene. På grunn av beskjedent snutebilletrykk på alle tre forsøksfelt i perioden (maks 15 % av de ubehandlede kontrollplantene på hvert felt hadde store snutebilleskader) kan vi ikke trekke vidtgående konklusjoner når det gjelder effekten mot snutebiller av de forskjellige behandlingene. Det vi kan trekke ut av materialet er imidlertid 1) at hel behandling av plantene har bedre effekt enn rothalsbehandling, 2) at Merit Forest bør brukes i noe høyere konsentrasjon enn Karate Zeon, 3) at konsentrasjonene bør være høyere enn (laveste) angitte bruksløsning på midlenes etikett.

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In this study we demonstrate how airborne laser scanning (ALS) can be applied to map effective leaf area index (LAI(e)) in a spruce forest, after being calibrated with ground based measurements. In 2003 and 2005, ALS data and field estimates of LAI(e) were acquired in a Norway spruce forest in SE Norway. We used LI-COR's LAI-2000 (R) Plant canopy analyzer ("LAI-2000") and hemispherical images ("HI") for field based estimates of LAI(e). ALS penetration rate calculated from first echoes and from first and last echoes was strongly related to field estimates of LAI(e). We fitted regression models of LAI(e) against the log-transformed inverse of the ALS penetration rate, and in accordance with the Beer-Lambert law this produced a linear, no-intercept relationship. This was particularly the case for the LAI-2000, having R-2 values > 0.9. The strongest relationship was obtained by selecting ALS data from within a circle around each plot with a radius of 0.75 times the tree height. We found a slight difference in the relationship for the two years, which can be attributed to the differences in the ALS acquisition settings. The relationship was valid across four age classes of trees representing different stages of stand development, except in one case with newly regenerated stands which most likely was an artifact. Using LAI(e) based on HI data produced weaker relationships with the ALS data. This was the case even when we simulated LAI-2000 measurements based on the HI data. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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Manipulation of the canopy cover and site preparation are the most important silvicultural measures to enhance the conditions for natural regeneration of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). During the early regeneration phase however, seedling mortality may be high, so it is important to study how different combinations of stand-level treatments and site preparation methods affect seedling establishment. We studied emergence, 1st winter and 2nd summer mortality for naturally regenerated spruce seedlings in a field experiment that combined four harvest treatments (shelterwoods of high (SH), medium (SM) and low (SL) residual basal area, and a 50 x 50 m clear-cut (CC)) and two site preparation methods (patch scarification and inverting). The CC had significantly fewer seedlings the 1st fall than the SL and SH (p = 0.0377), and in all harvest treatments, fewer seedlings emerged in inverted than in patch scarified spots (p = 0.0351). Mortality was also lower with patch scarification than inverting (1st winter: p = 0.0565, 2nd summer: p = 0.0377), but was not affected by harvest treatment (1st winter: p = 0.9211, 2nd summer: p = 0.1896). On average, mortality from 1st to 2nd fall reached 38% and 27% after inverting and patch scarification, respectively. First winter mortality accounted for approximately two thirds of the accumulated mortality, regardless of the harvest treatment and site preparation method.

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The relationships between measures of forest structure as derived from airborne laser scanner data and the variation in quantity (Q) and vitality (V) of young trees in a size-diverse spruce forest were analyzed. A regeneration success rate (Q), leader length (V), relative leader length (V), and apical dominance ratio (V) were regressed against 27 different laser-derived explanatory variables representing three different spatial scales. The resulting 81 different models for each response variable were ranked according to their Akaike information criterion score and significance level. Each laser variable was then associated with four categories. These were scale, return, fraction, and type. Within the scale category, laser variables were grouped according to the spatial scale from which they originated. Similarly, within the return, fraction, and type categories, the variables were grouped according to if they originated from first or last return echoes; if they originated from lower, middle, or upper fraction of the range of laser heights or values derived from the full range of laser pulses, and if they were canopy height or canopy density metrics. The results show that the laser variables were strongest correlated with the quantity of small trees and that these variables could be attributed to large-scale, last return, lower fraction, and density metrics. The correlations with the vitality responses were weaker, but the results indicate that variables derived from a smaller scale than for the quantity were better in order to explain variation in leader length, relative leader length, and apical dominance ratio. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Rapporten tar for seg foryngelsesresultatet etter lukkede hogster i barskog innenfor Markagrensen i Oslo og Akershus. Med utgangspunkt i alle hogstmeldinger i dette området i perioden 1992- 1997, ble alle flater hvor det var meldt om at det ble benyttet lukket hogstform plukket ut for en gjenvekstundersøkelse. Med lukket hogstform menes her gruppe-/småflatehogst, kanthogst, bledning, gjennomhogst og plukkhogst. I alt 134 felt med et samlet areal på 1856 dekar ble undersøkt 7-12 år etter avvirkning. Feltene lå i all hovedsak i granskog. Foryngelsen ble registrert på prøveflater, og opplysninger om vegetasjonstype, bonitet, hogst- og foryngelsesform og andre relevante faktorer ble samlet inn for hvert felt. 22 % av arealet var avvirket med flatehogst, selv om feltene var meldt inn som lukkede hogster. 93 % av arealet var forynget med naturlig foryngelse eller med en kombinasjon av planting og naturlig foryngelse. Foryngelsesresultatet varierte sterkt mellom flatene, fra under 50 til opp mot 300 granplanter pr. dekar. Omtrent halvparten av flatene hadde under 150 utviklingsdyktige planter (gran + lauv) pr. dekar. Det var generelt få skader på foryngelsen, men omtrent en tidel av flatene hadde større beiteskader. En fjerdedel av feltene hadde en del eller mye konkurrerende grasvegetasjon, mens konkurranse fra øvrig vegetasjon synes lite problematisk. Småflater var den mest brukte hogstformen. Markberedning var brukt på maksimalt 7 % av det takserte arealet. Det var ingen statistisk sikker forskjell i plantetall mellom arealer med og uten markberedning. Vegetasjonstype ga heller ikke utslag for forekomsten av naturlig granforyngelse. Felt med høy jordfuktighet hadde generelt flest planter. Det var et svakt økende granantall med økende bonitet fra G11 til G20. Fordi kravene til plantetall blir strengere ved høyere bonitet, var det imidlertid størst andel tilfredsstillende foryngelse på bonitet G11, og lavest andel på G20. Under de forutsetninger om tilfredsstillende plantetall som er benyttet i rapporten hadde 55 % av arealet tilfredsstillende foryngelse, 28 % delvis tilfredsstillende, og 17 % av arealet ikke tilfredsstillende foryngelse.

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We studied first winter frost-heaving damage to one-year-old Picea abies (L.) Karst. seedlings planted in gaps made by group fellings (large circular gaps, ca. 500 m(2)) and single-tree selection cuttings (small irregularly shaped gaps, ca. 175 m 2), as well as in uncut forest. One-month-old seedlings were planted on manually exposed LF, Ae, and B horizons that emulated various intensities and depths of scarification. The three experimental sites were located in multistoried Pinus sylvestris L. or P. abies forests on sandy loam or silt loam in southeastern Norway. Altogether, 5% of seedlings sustained frost heaving damage on the LF horizon, compared with 20% on the Ae horizon and 45% on the B horizon. On average, 31% of the seedlings in large gaps incurred frost-heaving damage compared with 20% in small gaps and 19% in uncut forest. Exposed roots and poorly anchored or uplifted seedlings were recurring classes of damage, especially on the B horizon and in large gaps. The above- versus below-ground biomass ratio of seedlings was higher on the B than on the Ae horizon in uncut forest and large gaps, inferring broken roots. Therefore, to reduce the risk of frost-heaving damage, shallow soil preparation and smaller gap sizes should be used.

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På vegetasjonstypen blåbærskog vil spireforholdene ofte være ugunstige på grunn av et relativt kraftig råhumuslag. I dette forsøket inntraff et svært godt frøår for gran året etter hogsten, men på tross av dette er foryngelsen ved siste revisjon fremdeles utilfredsstillende når det ikke ble markberedt. Andelen sirkelflater uten granforyngelse var svært høy både på kontrollruta og på bledningsrutene med svak og middels uttak. Tilslaget av naturforyngelse på rutene med høyt hogstuttak og småflatehogst var noe bedre, med henholdsvis 43 og 33 % nullruter. Det er likevel klart at markberedning har vært en forutsetning for å oppnå en tilfredsstillende gjenvekst også her.

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The relationships between measures of forest structure as derived from airborne laser scanner data and the variation in quantity of young trees established by natural regeneration in a size-diverse spruce forest were analyzed. A regeneration success rate (RSR) was regressed against 27 different laser-derived explanatory variables. The 27 different models were ranked according to their Akaike information criterion score. Each laser variable was then associated with two categories. These were return and type. Within the return and type categories, the variables were grouped according to if they originated from first or last return echoes and if they were canopy height or canopy density metrics. The results show that the laser variables strongest correlated to the quantity of small trees could be attributed to last return and density metrics.

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In a balanced experiment based on 20 field plots located in a 21 km(2) Scots pine forest in southeast Norway covering age classes from newly regenerated to old forest, leaf area index (LAI) was determined in field by a LAI-2000 instrument and hemispheric photography. Based on a fortualized framework, i.e., the so-called Beer-Lambert law, gap fraction derived from small-footprint airborne laser scanner data was regressed against field-measured LAI. LAI was strongly (R-2 =0.87-0.93), positively, and linearly related to the log-transformed inverse of the gap fraction derived from the laser scanner data. This was as expected according to the Beer-Lambert law, as was the absence of an intercept, producing a directly proportionality of the two variables. We estimated an extinction coefficient for the first return echoes to be 0.7, fortunately fairly stable across age classes, and this is likely to be a parameter specific for the applied laser scanner system under the given flight and system settings, such as flying altitude and laser pulse repetition frequency. It was demonstrated that airborne laser was able to detect defoliation in terms of estimated changes in LAI, by three repeated laser data acquisitions over the area where severe insect attacks were going on in between the acquisitions. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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Establishment, survival and height growth of sown and naturally regenerated Picea abies (L.) Karst. seedlings were examined in a 6 yr period in eight stands on bilberry woodland in south- east Norway. Five harvesting treatments (shelterwoods of high, medium and low density, 253/25 m patch-cut, 503/50 m clear-cut) and three scarification alternatives (unscarified, patch scarification, inverting) were combined in a split-plot design. Establishment, survival and plant height after 6 yrs were positively affected by scarification. Significant differences between patch scarification and inverting were not observed, although mortality tended to be lower, and seedlings slightly taller, after patch scarification. Establishment after natural seedfall was least successful on the clear-cut, but more or less equal at the other stand treatments. Height growth increased with decreasing overstorey retention, while there was a tendency towards lower survival on the clear-cuts and patch-cuts. Natural regeneration in the unscarified plots was unsuccessful after 6 yrs, while the different combinations of harvesting and scarification treatments usually gave sufficient regeneration.