Publikasjoner

NIBIOs ansatte publiserer flere hundre vitenskapelige artikler og forskningsrapporter hvert år. Her finner du referanser og lenker til publikasjoner og andre forsknings- og formidlingsaktiviteter. Samlingen oppdateres løpende med både nytt og historisk materiale. For mer informasjon om NIBIOs publikasjoner, besøk NIBIOs bibliotek.

2020

Sammendrag

” Aksjon pærebrann” ble etter den første påvisning av pærebrann i Norge i 1986 opprettet som et samarbeidsprosjekt mellom Mattilsynet og NIBIO (Norsk Institutt for Bioøkonomi, Divisjon for Bioteknologi og Plantehelse). Formålet med prosjektet er å overvåke, kartlegge og bekjempe pærebrann. For å oppnå et best mulig resultat i dette arbeidet er landet blitt delt opp i tre soner..... Kommune- og fylkesinndeling er som i 2019. Fra 01.01 2020 trer det i kraft en en ny inndeling av kommuner og fylker med nye navn..

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Sammendrag

1. Due to globalisation, trade and transport, the spread of alien species is increasing dramatically. Some alien species become ecologically harmful by threatening native biota. This can lead to irreversible changes in local biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, and, ultimately, to biotic homogenisation. 2. We risk-assessed all alien plants, animals, fungi and algae, within certain delimitations, that are known to reproduce in Norway. Mainland Norway and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard plus Jan Mayen were treated as separate assessment areas. Assessments followed the Generic Ecological Impact Assessment of Alien Species (GEIAA) protocol, which uses a fully quantitative set of criteria. 3. A total of 1519 species were risk-assessed, of which 1183 were species reproducing in mainland Norway. Among these, 9% were assessed to have a severe impact, 7% high impact, 7% potentially high impact, and 49% low impact, whereas 29% had no known impact. In Svalbard, 16 alien species were reproducing, one of which with a severe impact. 4. The impact assessments also covered 319 so-called door-knockers, i.e. species that are likely to establish in Norway within 50 years, and 12 regionally alien species. Of the door-knockers, 8% and 10% were assessed to have a severe and high impact, respectively. 5. The impact category of most species was driven by negative interactions with native species, transformation of threatened ecosystems, or genetic contamination. The proportion of alien species with high or severe impact varied significantly across the different pathways of introduction, taxonomic groups, time of introduction, and the environments colonised, but not across continents of origin. 6. Given the large number of alien species reproducing in Norway and the preponderance of species with low impact, it is neither realistic nor necessary to eradicate all of them. Our results can guide management authorities in two ways. First, the use of quantitative assessment criteria facilitates the prioritisation of management resources across species. Second, the background information collected for each species, such as introduction pathways, area of occupancy and ecosystems affected, helps designing appropriate management measures.

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Sammendrag

Allelopathic potential of 10 teff varieties was assessed in laboratory experimentation (conducted in NIBIO, Norway), and determined with an agar-based bioassay using ryegrass and radish as model weeds. Field experiments were conducted in Tigray, Ethiopia during 2015 and 2016 to identify the most important agronomic traits of teff contributing to its weed competitive ability. A split plot design with three blocks was used considering hand weeding as the main plot and varieties as the subplot. Randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four blocks was used in the laboratory experiment. The highest potential allelopathic activity (PAA) and specific potential allelopathic activity (SPAA) were recorded from a local landrace with an average PAA value of 11.77% and SPAA value of 1.21%/mg respectively, when ryegrass was used as the model weed. ‘Boset’ had the highest average PAA value of 16.25% and an SPAA value of 1.53%/mg, when using radish as the model weed. The lowest PAA and SPAA values were recorded from ‘DZ-Cr-3870 when using ryegrass and radish as model weeds. Days to emergence, height, tiller no./plant, biomass yield, and PAA of the crop significantly contributed to the variance of the weed biomass, cover, and density. Hence, they were the most important agronomic traits enhancing the competitive ability of teff.

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Sammendrag

In this study, aqueous extracts of Calliandra haematocephala Hassk. leaves and inforescences were tested on seeds of quinoa (Chenopodium album L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), and on some of the most noxious-associated weeds, Chenopodium album L. and Holcus lanatus L. in quinoa, and Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv., Echinochloa colona L., Eclipta prostrata L. and Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lou.) W.D. Clayton in rice. The objectives were to identify extract concentrations at which 50 and 90% of germination (GR[50,90] ) and radicle elongation (RR[50,90] ) were inhibited, to fractionate inforescence extracts for facilitating identifying the chemical group causing allelopathic efects, and to evaluate the fraction showing the stronger weed suppression efects and the least crop damage. Increasing extract concentration rates (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100% crude extract) were applied to seeds of target crops and weeds. Flower extracts at rates < 0.30 produced GR[50] and RR[50] on H. lanatus, and GR[90] and RR[90] in C. album, while quinoa seeds were not afected. Rice and its target weeds were minimally afected by fower extracts, whereas radicle elongation of all species was signifcantly reduced. A concentration rate > 0.52 caused the RR[50] on rice and all its target weeds. Fractions were quantitatively and qualitatively analysed to detect phytochemical groups, using specifc chemical reagents and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The fraction F3 from aqueous fower extract showed a high content of favonoids, assumed as the potential allelochemical substance. Total favonoid content in F3 was quantifed as 2.7 mg of quercetin per g F3, i.e., 12.8 mg of quercetin per g of inforescence material. Additionally, feld equivalent extract rates obtained from the harvested fresh inforescence biomass could be determined. These rates ranged between 90 and 143 mL l −1 of F3 aqueous fraction, while for ethanol F3 were 131 mL l −1. Our results are encouraging for fnding sustainable and ecologically friendly alternatives for weed management in crops of high nutritional value, contributing also to counteract the growing problem of herbicide resistance.