Publikasjoner

NIBIOs ansatte publiserer flere hundre vitenskapelige artikler og forskningsrapporter hvert år. Her finner du referanser og lenker til publikasjoner og andre forsknings- og formidlingsaktiviteter. Samlingen oppdateres løpende med både nytt og historisk materiale. For mer informasjon om NIBIOs publikasjoner, besøk NIBIOs bibliotek.

2018

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Worldwide semi-natural habitats of high biological value are in decline. Consequently, numerous AgriEnvironment Schemes (AESs) intended to halt biodiversity loss within these habitats have been implemented. One approach has been the application of “adaptive management”, where scientific knowledge is applied alongside the traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of stakeholders in order to establish an integrated approach that is adjusted as outcomes are assessed. In this paper we examine the effectiveness of the adaptive management approach of Norway’s Action Plan for Hay Meadows (APHM). Twenty-nine hay meadows from fourteen farms in the county of Møre og Romsdal were ecologically surveyed over a 2 year period. Interviews were also conducted with owners and land managers to explore TEK and management issues. The interdisciplinary study found that the disembedding of hay meadow management from its initial commercial purpose (in particular the loss of much of the livestock from the region) has contributed to a significant loss of TEK – which is now largely limited to knowledge of how the fields were managed recently. While, the APHM is limiting biodiversity decline by promoting traditional practices there were indications that the standardisation of management actions might negatively affect species composition in the long term. More critically, continued farm abandonment within the region means that without alternatives to management by farmers many of these meadows are likely to disappear in the next couple of decades. We conclude that adaptive management provides an effective short-term means of preserving hay meadows, but long term conservation will require a means of addressing the continued decline of local farming communities.

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PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Genetic differentiation in plant species may result from adaptation to environmental conditions, but also from stochastic processes. The drivers selecting for local adaptation and the contribution of adaptation to genetic differentiation are often unknown. Restoration and succession studies have revealed different colonization patterns for Brachypodium retusum, a common Mediterranean grass. In order to understand these patterns, we tested population differentiation and adaptation to different environmental factors. METHODS: Structured sampling of 12 populations from six sites and two soil types within site was used to analyze the spatial and environmental structure of population differentiation. Sampling sites differ in grazing intensity and climate. We tested germination and growth in a common garden. In subsets, we analyzed the differential response to stone cover, grazing and soil moisture. KEY RESULTS: We found significant differences among populations. The site explained population differentiation better than soil, suggesting a dominant influence of climate and/or genetic drift. Stone cover had a positive influence on seedling establishment, and populations showed a differential response. However, this response was not related to environmental differences between collection sites. Regrowth after clipping was higher in populations from the more intensively grazed Red Mediterranean soils suggesting an adaptation to grazing. Final germination was generally high even under drought, but germination response to differences in soil moisture was similar across populations. CONCLUSIONS: Adaptive population differentiation in germination and early growth may have contributed to different colonization patterns. Thus, the provenance of B. retusum needs to be carefully considered in ecological restoration.

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På oppdrag fra vannområdet Bunnefjorden med Årungen- og Gjersjøvassdraget (PURA) er den empiriske modellen Agricat 2 brukt til å beregne potensialet for erosjon og fosforavrenning fra jordbruksarealer i 16 tiltaksområder, ved faktisk drift i 2017. Arealfordelingen av faktisk drift (vekst, jordarbeiding og miljøtiltak) i 2017, har framkommet av registerdata fra Landbruksdirektoratet og føringer/informasjon fra Follo Landbrukskontor, og er fordelt på de dyrka arealene etter bestemte rutiner i modellen. Arealfordelingsrutinen i modellen ga følgende utbredelse av kombinasjon vekst/jordarbeiding i vannområdet for 2017: 31 % stubb (jordarbeiding vår eller direktesåing), 14 % gras, 38 % vårkorn med høstpløying, 4 % høstkorn med høstpløying, 10 % høstharving til vår- og høstkorn, og 3 % poteter og grønnsaker. Den største forskjellen fra 2016 var mindre høstkornareal og større areal med stubb og høstpløying med vårkorn i 2017. Arealfordelingen varierte mellom tiltaksområder. Eksisterende grasdekte buffersoner og fangdammer inngikk også i beregningene. Jord- og fosfortap i vannområdet PURA i 2017 ble beregnet til henholdsvis 4,3 kilotonn SS og 8,6 tonn TP, dvs. på samme nivå som i 2014 og 2015, og litt lavere enn i 2016. For individuelle tiltaksområder varierte jordtapet fra nær 0 til 2 kilotonn, og fosfortap fra nær 0 til knapt 4 tonn. I fem tiltaksområder var fosfortapet noe økt i 2017 sammenliknet med i 2016, i resten av tiltaksområdene var fosfortapet redusert eller tilnærmet uendret. Endret drift bidro til å forklare forskjellene.