Publikasjoner

NIBIOs ansatte publiserer flere hundre vitenskapelige artikler og forskningsrapporter hvert år. Her finner du referanser og lenker til publikasjoner og andre forsknings- og formidlingsaktiviteter. Samlingen oppdateres løpende med både nytt og historisk materiale. For mer informasjon om NIBIOs publikasjoner, besøk NIBIOs bibliotek.

2021

Sammendrag

Proximal sensing technologies are becoming widely used across a range of applications in environmental sciences. One of these applications is in the measurement of the ground surface in describing soil displacement impacts from wheeled and tracked machinery in the forest. Within a period of 2–3 years, the use photogrammetry, LiDAR, ultrasound and time-of-flight imaging based methods have been demonstrated in both experimental and operational settings. This review provides insight into the aims, sampling design, data capture and processing, and outcomes of papers dealing specifically with proximal sensing of soil displacement resulting from timber harvesting. The work reviewed includes examples of sensors mounted on tripods and rigs, on personal platforms including handheld and backpack mounted, on mobile platforms constituted by forwarders and skidders, as well as on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The review further highlights and discusses the benefits, challenges, and some of the shortcomings of the various technologies and their application as interpreted by the authors. The majority of the work reviewed reflects pioneering approaches and innovative applications of the technologies. The studies have been carried out almost simultaneously, building on little or no common experience, and the evolution of standardized methods is not yet fully apparent. Some of the issues that will likely need to be addressed in developing this field are (i) the tendency toward generating apparently excessively high resolution micro-topography models without demonstrating the need for or contribution of such resolutions on accuracy, (ii) the inadequacy of conventional manual measurements in verifying the accuracy of these methods at such high resolutions, and (iii) the lack of a common protocol for planning, carrying out, and reporting this type of study.

Sammendrag

Denne publikasjonen presenterer en ny metodikk for estimering av endringer i lageret av jordkarbon som følge av arealbruksendringer på mineraljord. Metodikken er utviklet for bruk i den nasjonale rapporteringen av arealbrukssektoren under FNs klimakonvensjon. Metodikken baserer seg på den enkleste tilnærming i følge IPCC sine retningslinjer, en såkaldt Tier 1. Tier 1 metodikken baseres i stor grad på standardverdier fra retningslinjene (IPCC default), men trenger en kopling mot nasjonal arealinformasjon. Denne koplingen beskrives i rapporten. Metodikken tar utgangspunkt i standardverdier for lageret av jordkarbon (SOCREF). Disse er basert på jordtype-grupperinger og klimasone som stammer fra en verdensdekkende jorddatabase. Endringer i jordkarbon etter arealbruksendring estimeres ved hjelp av SOCREF i kombinasjon med et sett faktorer (også standardverdier) som er arealbruksavhengige. Metodikken legger til grunn at endringer i jordkarbon skjer lineært over 20 år (ifølge 2006 IPCC Guidelines). Grunnleggende informasjon for å kunne kople standardverdier mot arealer på en konsistent måte er stort sett manglende for Norge på nasjonal skala. Rapporten gir derfor detaljert informasjon om de datakildene som har vært brukt til å kunne definere hvilke standariserte verdier som tilhører et bestemt areal i overgang....

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Identifying and characterizing cold responsive genes in Fragaria vesca associated with or responsible for low temperature tolerance is a vital part of strawberry cultivar development. In this study we have investigated the transcript levels of eight genes, two dehydrin genes, three putative ABA-regulated genes, two cold–inducible CBF genes and the alcohol dehydrogenase gene, extracted from leaf and crown tissues of three F. vesca genotypes that vary in cold tolerance. Transcript levels of the CBF/DREB1 transcription factor FvCBF1E exhibited stronger cold up-regulation in comparison to FvCBF1B.1 in all genotypes. Transcripts of FvADH were highly up-regulated in both crown and leaf tissues from all three genotypes. In the ‘ALTA’ genotype, FvADH transcripts were significantly higher in leaf than crown tissues and more than 10 to 20-fold greater than in the less cold-tolerant ‘NCGR1363’ and ‘FDP817’ genotypes. FvGEM, containing the conserved ABRE promoter element, transcript was found to be cold-regulated in crowns. Direct comparison of the kinetics of transcript and protein accumulation of dehydrins was scrutinized. In all genotypes and organs, the changes of XERO2 transcript levels generally preceded protein changes, while levels of COR47 protein accumulation preceded the increases in COR47 RNA in ‘ALTA’ crowns.

Sammendrag

Agroforestry can be defined as sustainable and multifunctional land-use systems where trees are managed together with agricultural crops or livestock on the same piece of land. This definition fits with how the outfield has been managed in generations in Norway. The Norwegian outfields are a multifunctional land-use system. In the northern periphery area, agroforestry has a long history with woodland grazing, reindeer husbandry and gathering of different non-wood forest resources as herbs, mushrooms, and berries. Traditional agroforestry has gradually disappeared during the 20th century with the intensification of agriculture and forestry. Currently agroforestry systems are gaining new interest, not only from farmers but also from politicians, as this practice can possibly contribute to a more sustainable way of agricultural production. In the northern periphery area, the benefits of agroforestry practices can be manifold not only promoting traditional practices, but also novel systems with the use of new technology. In addition, agroforestry has environmental benefits as a method for conservation and enhancement of biodiversity, improved nutrient cycling, and water quality. Soil humus layer will also increase with several agroforestry systems leading to carbon sequestration. The Norwegian population of 5.3 mill populate an area of 323805 km2. The mainland of Norway is 323805 km2 while Svalbard and Jan Mayen represent 61022 and 377 km2, respectively. Number of persons per km2 are 14, however, as much as 82% of the Norwegian population inhabits cities/densely populated areas. These figures tell us that Norway have a large outfield with forests and mountains. The biggest owner of Norwegian outfield1 is the Norwegian state by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food. The state-owned enterprise Statskog SF is set to administer the property, that alone consist of about 23% of the total outfield-area of Norway. Almost 80% of the state-owned property is above the treeline and covers mountains and alpine grassland who are valuable grazing resources for reindeer herders and local farmers. Most of the forests are also used as grazing areas for local farmers and reindeer herders. The state-owned property in the southern Norway are managed as commons, where locals have rights in commons, typically this is right to graze, hunt and fish on the state ground. In the northern part of Norway, the grazing-rights are defined as user-rights and technically not rights in commons while the right to hunt, fish and gathering of berries and herbs etc. is an “all-mans-right”.