Publikasjoner

NIBIOs ansatte publiserer flere hundre vitenskapelige artikler og forskningsrapporter hvert år. Her finner du referanser og lenker til publikasjoner og andre forsknings- og formidlingsaktiviteter. Samlingen oppdateres løpende med både nytt og historisk materiale. For mer informasjon om NIBIOs publikasjoner, besøk NIBIOs bibliotek.

2018

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Sammendrag

Introduction and purpose: The ability of apple rootstocks to become infected by Neonectria ditissima, the cause of European canker, was studied over two years. Materials and methods: Rootstocks B9 and M9 with a size suitable for grafting (6-10 mm stem diameter, termed rootstocks), and smaller sized rootstocks (<5 mm stem diameter, termed transplants) of B9, M9, M26, MM106 and Antonovka were inoculated with N. ditissima at different times, either with contaminated map pins or with spore suspensions. In addition, the rootstocks were either defeathered (side shoots removed), topped (top shoot headed) or both, to create wounds that would normally occur during propagation, while wounds on transplants were made by removing leaves. Results and discussion: One month after inoculation, slightly sunken canker lesions had developed around the inoculation points of the map pins or wounds. No lesions developed on the non-inoculated controls. Map pin inoculation resulted in 30% to 89% infection and spore suspension sprayed on wounds from 5% to 45% infection. When the cankered areas were split open, brown lesions with necrotic tissue due to infection by N. ditissima appeared. The transplants of M9, M26 and MM106 inoculated with contaminated map pins in 2014 developed necrosis on 40% to 67% of the plants, but there were no differences in the incidence or severity among the different types. On the transplants of B9, Antonovka and M9 inoculated in 2015, there was more necrosis on B9 (42%) than on Antonovka (11%) and more sporulating lesions on B9 (29%) than on M9 (9%) or on Antonovka (4%). Conclusion: It can be concluded that rootstocks used for apple trees may become infected by N. ditissima, and wounds should thus be protected during propagation.

Sammendrag

Unike nordlige klimaforhold med lange dager og lave temperaturer, kan påvirke egenskaper hos mat, fôr og beitevekster. En gjennomgang av vitenskapelige studier av slik Arktisk kvalitet viser effekter for både sensorisk kvalitet og ulike innholdsstoffer for flere produkter. Innen kålvekster påvirker klimaet utseende (brokkoli) og reduserer glukosinolatinnhold og bittersmak (brokkoli og kålrot). Gulrot og kålrot får tydeligere søtsmak på grunn av lavere innhold av bitterstoffer, selv om sukkerinnholdet er uendret. På den annen side får gulrot i nord lavere innhold av karoten og lysere farge enn i varmere klima. Resultatene for kålrot, brokkoli og gulrot tyder også på mer sprø og saftig konsistens, og friskere smak, ved lave dyrkingstemperaturer. Ville bær i nordlig klima har litt høyere innhold av enkelte antioksidanter enn i sørligere områder, men lokale forskjeller i vekstforhold (fjell, kyst) kan ha like stor betydning. Hagebær i nordlig klima kan smake søtere (jordbær) eller mindre søte (solbær) på grunn av forskjellige klimaresponser. Jordbær og bringebær får noe svekket rødfarge ved lave dyrkingstemperaturer. Klimatiske og geografiske effekter på kvalitet i potet, urter til mat og krydder, fôrvekster og kjøtt- og melkeprodukter er per idag for lite undersøkt til å gi entydige konklusjoner.....

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In recent years, rising competition for water coupled with new environmental regulations has exerted pressure on water allocations for turfgrass irrigation. In this article, we reviewed published scientific and industry evidence on the agronomic and environmental impacts of turfgrass irrigation using a robust systematic review methodology. Our focus was on the links between (i) irrigation management (amount and frequency), (ii) agronomic responses to irrigation (turf quality, growth rates and rooting) and (iii) environmental impacts (nitrogen leaching). Based on an initial screening of 653 studies and data extracted from 83 papers, our results show that in most cases, under moderate levels of deficit irrigation (50%–60% of actual evapotranspiration), turf quality can be maintained at an acceptable level but with lower water consumption compared to irrigating back to field capacity. Irrigation beyond field capacity was found to increase the risk of nutrient leaching. However, evidence also showed that the concentration and total loss of urn:x-wiley:09312250:media:jac12265:jac12265-math-0001 in leachate were influenced more by nitrogen (N) rates, soil characteristics, turfgrass species and turfgrass growth rates than by irrigation practices. Our analyses suggest that turfgrass irrigation should be scheduled to apply water at moderate levels of deficit irrigation, sufficient to maintain turfgrass quality but limited to promote a deep and extensive rooting system. The findings provide new insights and valuable evidence for both scientists and practitioners involved in turfgrass research and management.