Publikasjoner

NIBIOs ansatte publiserer flere hundre vitenskapelige artikler og forskningsrapporter hvert år. Her finner du referanser og lenker til publikasjoner og andre forsknings- og formidlingsaktiviteter. Samlingen oppdateres løpende med både nytt og historisk materiale. For mer informasjon om NIBIOs publikasjoner, besøk NIBIOs bibliotek.

2019

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Deforestation and forest degradation (D&D) in the tropics have continued unabated and are posing serious threats to forests and the livelihoods of those who depend on forests and forest resources. Smallholder farmers are often implicated in scientific literature and policy documents as important agents of D&D. However, there is scanty information on why smallholders exploit forests and what the key drivers are. We employed behavioral sciences approaches that capture contextual factors, attitudinal factors, and routine practices that shape decisions by smallholder farmers. Data was collected using household surveys and focus group discussions in two case study forests—Menagesha Suba Forest in Ethiopia and Maasai Mau Forest in Kenya. Our findings indicate that factors that forced farmers to engage in D&D were largely contextual, i.e., sociodemographic, production factors constraint, as well as policies and governance issues with some influences of routine practices such as wood extraction for fuelwood and construction. Those factors can be broadly aggregated as necessity-driven, market-driven, and governance-driven. In the forests studied, D&D are largely due to necessity needs and governance challenges. Though most factors are intrinsic to smallholders’ context, the extent and impact on D&D were largely aggravated by factors outside the forest landscape. Therefore, policy efforts to reduce D&D should carefully scrutinize the context, the factors, and the associated enablers to reduce forest losses under varying socioeconomic, biophysical, and resource governance conditions

Sammendrag

Although supporting high productivity, modern agriculture caused a long-term impact on natural trophic interactions, releasing pests from pressure linked with their natural enemies. Studies have demonstrated that volatiles released under herbivory can recruit natural enemies of pests from a distance. Here, we used a novel biodegradable formulation loaded with induced and food-signalling volatiles with the aim to attract the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea, and increase biological control of two cereal aphids Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi. The new product consisted of a biodegradable matrix loaded with a 3-component blend of methyl salicylate, acetic acid and phenylacetaldehyde in a 1:1:1 ratio. Field experiments were carried out in a barley field in Norway. Single plants were provided with a 1 ml dollop of the new formulation or with a standard polyethylene emballage dispenser loaded with the same amount of compounds. The number of lacewing eggs and larvae as well as the attraction of additional natural enemies was recorded both on the treated and surrounding plants by visual inspection. At the same time, an assessment of aphid infestation was carried out. A higher local density of lacewing adults, eggs and larvae over an 8-week period was observed for both the standard and the biodegradable formulation in comparison with untreated plants. Chemical analysis of the volatiles emitted from the slow-release matrix showed an active emission of the blend over at least a 4-week period. Significant biological control of aphid was measured in the vegetation surrounding the odour source. Both aphid populations were significantly reduced, with no difference between the new and the standard treatment. While coccinellids and hoverflies were not affected by the treatment, a lower number of mummified aphids were measured in some of the treated plants in comparison with untreated ones. Results show the potential for semiochemical-based targeted attraction of lacewings to enhance biological control of aphids in a prevalent monoculture field setting. Additional studies are required to support the development of practical integrated pest management guidelines, including optimization of application density, threshold value for pest and natural enemies and practical recommendation for the establishment of non-crop vegetation within and around the crop.

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Sammendrag

Etter oppdrag fra Statens vegvesen Region sør og prosjektet E18 Bommestad – Sky har NIBIO utført forundersøkelser og miljøoppfølging i Farriselva i forbindelse bygging av nytt lokalveisystem ved Farriseidet (EK3). NIBIO har utført oppdraget i samarbeid med FAUN naturforvaltning og Laboratorium for ferskvannsøkologi og innlandsfisk, UiO (LFI). Byggeprosjektet har omfattet riving av to gamle bruer over Farriselva samt bygging av nye. Forundersøkelsene har omfattet biologiske kvalitetsparametere, kjemiske støtteparametere og automatiske målinger av vannkvalitet. Miljøoppfølging av Farriselva under anleggsaktivitet, herunder riving og fjerning av bruer, har omfattet automatiske målinger av vannkvalitet, månedlig uttak av vannprøver og befaringer med fotodokumentasjon av forholdene i elva (se vedlegg 5).