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Cambisol er selvdrenert jordsmonn med utviklet jordstruktur. Arealer med Cambisol er stort sett lettdrevne jordbruksarealer.


Climate change is already reducing carbon sequestration in Central European forests dramatically through extensive droughts and bark beetle outbreaks. Further warming may threaten the enormous carbon reservoirs in the boreal forests in northern Europe unless disturbance risks can be reduced by adaptive forest management. The European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) is a major natural disturbance agent in spruce-dominated forests and can overwhelm the defences of healthy trees through pheromone-coordinated mass-attacks. We used an extensive dataset of bark beetle trap counts to quantify how climatic and management-related factors influence bark beetle population sizes in boreal forests. Trap data were collected during a period without outbreaks and can thus identify mechanisms that drive populations towards outbreak thresholds. The most significant predictors of bark beetle population size were the volume of mature spruce, the extent of newly exposed clearcut edges, temperature and soil moisture. For clearcut edge, temperature and soil moisture, a 3-year time lag produced the best model fit. We demonstrate how a model incorporating the most significant predictors, with a time lag, can be a useful management tool by allowing spatial prediction of future beetle population sizes. Synthesis and Applications: Some of the population drivers identified here, i,e., spruce volume and clearcut edges, can be targeted by adaptive management measures to reduce the risk of future bark beetle outbreaks. Implementing such measures may help preserve future carbon sequestration of European boreal forests.

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Regeneration of polyploidy from young thallus segments of Kappaphycus alvarezii was optimized for genetic improvement. Kappaphycus thallus segment cultured on sterile sea water supplemented with various combinations of Indole acetic acid, Kinetin and Acardian Marine Plant Extract Powder revealed differential response on callus proliferation and development of new thallus. Presence of Acardian Marine Plant Extract Powder (3 mg/l) in combination with Indole acetic acid and Kinetin (0.01 mg/l each) had induced the longest emerging thallus. Exposure of thallus to colchicine at 0.01% with above combination was optimal to induce high frequency regeneration of polyploidy mostly from the meristematic cells. Anatomical study of colchicine induced polyploidy revealed larger cortical cells with irregular thickening of epidermal layer. Phase contrast and Scanning Electron Microscopic study revealed increase in cell size in cortical region with significantly larger number of spherical shaped carrageenan globules in colchicine induced polyploidy than normal thallus. Single cells isolated using enzymatic treatments from colchicine induced polyploidy, shown chromosome number with a ploidy status of 4n ≈ 40. Whereas in normal thallus, only half the number of chromosomes (2n ≈ 20) were observed. Polyploidy were successfully acclimatized gradually using raft method for further evaluation. This is the first report reveals the induction and regeneration of polyploidy in Kappaphycus. The possible application of this finding in genetic improvement of Kappaphycus is discussed.