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Publications

NIBIOs employees contribute to several hundred scientific articles and research reports every year. You can browse or search in our collection which contains references and links to these publications as well as other research and dissemination activities. The collection is continously updated with new and historical material.

2023

Abstract

It is critical to analyze the performance of enterprises to achieve sustainable agricultural development. Several studies have been conducted to assess farm performance. However, the studies have been criticized for failing to account for farm heterogeneity (which is frequently unobserved) in their evaluation of Norwegian agricultural performance. Technically, a farm is efficient if it can produce a certain amount of output with the fewest possible inputs and no input waste. In this paper, efficiency scores are calculated using a production function with both a random intercept and a random slope parameter, addressing the issue of unobserved heterogeneity in stochastic frontier analysis. Using Norwegian dairy and crop farms as a case study, we demonstrate the viability of improving the agriculture industry and reducing resource waste. The case study was established on data collected from 5884 dairy farms and 1880 crop farms from the years 2000 to 2019. According to the empirical findings of the case study, dairy and crop producers used inefficient technologies and squandered production resources. If all farmers follow a sustainable and efficient path to produce agricultural output, they could increase output by 15–18%. Farmers must follow sustainable paths, and politicians must encourage farm experience exchange so that less efficient dairy and crop-producing farms can learn from the most efficient farms to achieve sustainable development. Keywords: agriculture; performance; heterogeneity; panel data

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Abstract

Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) Hermetia illucens is fastest growing and most promising insect species especially recommended to bring high-fat content as 5th generation bioenergy. The fat content can be fully optimized during the life-cycle of the BSFL through various organic dietary supplements and environmental conditions. Enriched fat can be obtained during the larval stages of the BSF. The presence of high saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in their body helps to produce 70 % of extractable oil which can be converted into biodiesel through transesterification. The first-generation biodiesel process mainly depends on catalytic transesterification, however, BSFL had 94 % of biodiesel production through non-catalytic transesterification. This increases the sustainability of producing biodiesel with less energy input in the process line. Other carbon emitting factors involved in the rearing of BSFL are less than the other biodiesel feedstocks including microalgae, cooking oil, and non-edible oil. Therefore, this review is focused on evaluating the optimum dietary source to produce fatty acid rich larvae and larval growth to accumulate C16–18 fatty acids in larger amounts from agro food waste. The process of optimization and biorefining of lipids using novel techniques have been discussed herein. The sustainability impact was evaluated from the cultivation to biodiesel conversion with greenhouse gas emissions scores in the entire life-cycle of process flow. The state-of-the-art in connecting circular bioeconomy loop in the search for bioenergy was meticulously covered.

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Abstract

Coprophagy, the eating of feces, has been documented in a wide range of species but appears to be rare or difficult to detect in deer (Cervidae). Here, we report the first observation of coprophagy in moose Alces alces, which was recorded using camera collars on free-ranging moose in Norway. The footage shows an instance of allocoprophagy by an adult female moose in spring (May). We summarize the current knowledge about coprophagy in deer and briefly discuss potential drivers and possible implications for disease transmission. Further research is needed to determine whether coprophagy occurs frequently in moose and whether this behavior is positive (e.g., increased intake of nutrients) or negative (increased infection by parasites or pathogens). Alces alces, camera collar, chronic wasting disease, coprophagy, foraging, moose