Hopp til hovedinnholdet


NIBIOs employees contribute to several hundred scientific articles and research reports every year. You can browse or search in our collection which contains references and links to these publications as well as other research and dissemination activities. The collection is continously updated with new and historical material.


To document


We address the question of nature-culture synergies in protected mountain landscapes with a specific focus on the Norwegian National Park of Hardangervidda. Fragile and complex ecosystems developed from long-lasting socio-ecological grazing processes that started approximately 4000 years ago in Scandinavia are facing manifold environmental challenges and societal issues that endanger both natural and cultural heritages. Our goals are to clarify the nature-culture synergies and relationships and investigate holistic management and preservation of natural and cultural values. Our results highlight an urgent need to develop holistic conservation frameworks and methodologies for protected landscapes that integrate cultural and natural heritages and enhance the potential of local communities to protect threatened semi-natural environments and experienced-based knowledge for the future.


Ensiling is a common mode of preservation of animal feed. In this process, the feed undergoes lactic acid fermentation in an anaerobic environment, which decreases pH and inhibits degradation of the feed and its nutritive value. Common silos include top loaded tower silos, side loaded bunker silos (also called horizontal silos), underground pit and trench silos, and bales and tubes wrapped in plastic film. Previous studies have revealed that the type of silo often have an impact on silage properties and feed value, but these effects can vary between silage materials. Silage density is another key factor for silage nutritive value and losses. Generally, high density results in smaller losses than low density, both in bunker silos and bales, but the density effect can also be influenced by properties of the ensiled material. The objectives of this literature review were to identify factors and conditions that can modify the effect of i) silage density, and ii) silo type on dry matter losses, leaching of nutrients, fermentation characteristics, silage feed value and mycotoxins contamination. A systematic literature search was carried out in in the Web of Science core collection platform of databases. Most studies showed positive correlations between silage density, and fermentation and feed value, and negative correlations with DM losses. The majority of these studies were conducted at laboratory scale and there was also a great variation in the magnitude of these effects. Further investigations at farm scale may provide more information about the consistency of these effects across experimental scales. The silo type comparisons indicate that silage bales, bags and tubes can be favourable for silage quality and dry matter preservation compared to bunker silos, but information on silo type effects on important crops such as maize is missing.