Academic – A comparative study of food values between the United States and Norway
Claudia Bazzani, Geir Wæhler Gustavsen, Rodolfo M. Jr. Nayga, ...
We compare the food values in the USA and Norway using the best–worst scaling approach. The food values examined are aimed at capturing the main issues related to food consumption such as naturalness, taste, price, safety, convenience, nutrition,novelty, origin, fairness, appearance, environmental impact and animal welfare. Results show that respondents in both countries have mostly similar food values,with safety being the most important value; while convenience and novelty are the least important values. Specifically, US respondents consider price more important and naturalness less important than Norwegian respondents.
Academic – A comparison of two methods of data collection for modelling productivity of harvesters: manual time study and follow-up study using on-board-computer stem records
Julia Brewer, Bruce Talbot, Helmer Belbo, ...
Productivity of a mechanized P. patula cut-to-length harvesting operation was estimated and modelled using two methods of data collection: manual time study and follow-up study using StanForD stem files. The objective of the study was to compare the productivity models derived using these two methods to test for equivalence. Manual time studies were completed on four different machines and their operators. Two Ponsse Bear harvesters fitted with H8 heads, and two Ponsse Beaver harvesters, fitted with H6 heads, were included. All machines were equipped with Ponsse Opti2 information system. All four operators had approximately 1 year of experience working with their respective machines. The four machines worked in separate four-tree-wide harvesting corridors, and they each harvested 200 trees. Individual tree diameter at breast height (DBH), and height measurements were made manually. Subsequently, data on the trees in each study were extracted from the StanForD stem reports from each of the harvesters. Cycle times in the stem reports were determined based on the difference between consecutive harvest timestamps. The two methods were compared in terms of their abilities to estimate equivalent measures for tree DBH, volume, and productivity. In all four cases, significant differences were found between the DBH and volume measures derived using the two methods. Subsequently, the volume measures from the manual methods were used as the basis for productivity calculations. Results of the productivity comparisons found no significant differences between the models developed from the two methods. These results suggest that equivalent productivity models can be developed in terms of time using either method, however volume discrepancies indicate a need to reconcile bark and volume functions with the high variability experienced in the country.
Academic – A mathematical model for infrastructure investments in the forest sector of coastal Norway
Truls Flatberg, Vibeke Stærkebye Nørstebø, Knut Bjørkelo, ...
Forestry in coastal Norway has traditionally been a marginal activity with a low annual harvest rate. However, the region is now faced with large areas of spruce plantations that will reach harvest maturity within the next 25 years. Due to the poor infrastructure in the region, the current challenge is to harvest the maturing spruce plantations at an acceptable cost. Hence, there is considerable interest both from the forest sector and politicians to invest in infrastructure that can provide the basis for profitable forest sector development in coastal Norway. This paper presents a mathematical optimization model for timber transportation from stump to industry. The main decision variables are location of quays, upgrade of public road links, the length of new forest roads, and when the investments should happen. The main objective is to provide decision support for prioritization of infrastructure investments. The optimization model is combined with a dynamical forest resource model, providing details on available volumes and costs. A case study for coastal Norway is presented and solved to optimality. The instance includes 10 counties comprising more than 200 municipalities with forest resources, 53 possible new quays for timber export and 916 public road links that also can be upgraded. Compared with a no investment case, the optimal solution improved the objective by 23%. The study shows that consistent, informative and good analyses can be performed to evaluate trade-offs, prioritization, time and order of investment, and cost saving potentials of infrastructure investments in the forest industry. The solution seems reasonable based on present infrastructure and state of the forest.
Academic – A preliminary study on the genetic structure of Northern European pinus sylvestris L. by means of neutral nuclear microsatellite markers
Katrin Zimmer, Jørn Henrik Sønstebø
This paper aimed to investigate the genetic structure (GS) of Scots pine in the northern area of its distribution range by means of seven neutral nuclear microsatellite markers. In particular, the postglacial recolonization of these areas and possible different adaptation patterns in distinct refugia were studied. The GS and diversity were assessed with seven pairs of neutral nuclear microsatellite primers. A high genetic diversity was found in the Scots pine material tested, along with a shallow GS. This pattern is typical for recolonized areas and species with large population sizes, which are connected by pollen-mediated gene flow. A STRUCTURE analysis found two genetic groups to be the most likely, one south-eastern and one north-western group that meet in Fennoscandia. This indicates that Scots pine recolonization of Fennoscandia might have taken place from two different directions (south-west and north-east). Scots pine that recolonized the area originated in at least two different refugia during the last glacial maximum. The glacial survival in distinct refugia can have led to different adaptation patterns and growth optima in the different groups as reflected in the formation of latewood content, where lineage was a significant influencing factor.
No abstract has been registered
Academic – Accelerated increase in plant species richness on mountain summits is linked to warming
Manuel J. Steinbauer, John-Arvid Grytnes, Gerald Jurasinski, ...
Lecture – Active wildlife adventures – guidelines in a changing world
Hallvard Jensen, Paul Eric Aspholm, Bjørn Frantzen, ...
No abstract has been registered
Academic – Adaptive biodiversity management of semi-natural hay meadows: The case of West-Norway
Sølvi Wehn, Rob J.F. Burton, Mark Riley, ...
Worldwide semi-natural habitats of high biological value are in decline. Consequently, numerous AgriEnvironment Schemes (AESs) intended to halt biodiversity loss within these habitats have been implemented. One approach has been the application of “adaptive management”, where scientific knowledge is applied alongside the traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of stakeholders in order to establish an integrated approach that is adjusted as outcomes are assessed. In this paper we examine the effectiveness of the adaptive management approach of Norway’s Action Plan for Hay Meadows (APHM). Twenty-nine hay meadows from fourteen farms in the county of Møre og Romsdal were ecologically surveyed over a 2 year period. Interviews were also conducted with owners and land managers to explore TEK and management issues. The interdisciplinary study found that the disembedding of hay meadow management from its initial commercial purpose (in particular the loss of much of the livestock from the region) has contributed to a significant loss of TEK – which is now largely limited to knowledge of how the fields were managed recently. While, the APHM is limiting biodiversity decline by promoting traditional practices there were indications that the standardisation of management actions might negatively affect species composition in the long term. More critically, continued farm abandonment within the region means that without alternatives to management by farmers many of these meadows are likely to disappear in the next couple of decades. We conclude that adaptive management provides an effective short-term means of preserving hay meadows, but long term conservation will require a means of addressing the continued decline of local farming communities.
Academic – Amino acid profiles of nine seaweed species and their in situ degradability in dairy cows
Charlotte Gaillard, Hamzah Shahbaz Bhatti, Margarita Novoa-Garrido, ...
The potential of seaweeds as alternative protein source was investigated in relation to their amino acid (AA) profiles and the ruminal and total tract digestibility of these AAs. Three red (Mastocarpus stellatus, Palmaria palmata, and Porphyra sp.), four brown (Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata, Pelvetia canaliculata, and Saccharina latissima), and two green (Cladophora rupestris. and Ulva sp.) seaweed species were used in this study (hereafter, referred to by Genus name only). All seaweeds were collected in Bodø, Northern Norway, during Spring and Autumn in 2014 and 2015, except Ulva, which was only sampled in Autumn of both years, and Saccharina which was not sampled in Spring 2014. All the samples were studied for AA concentration. Six species (Cladophora, Laminaria, Mastocarpus, Palmaria, Porphyra and Ulva) were selected for the more resource demanding in situ study. Species and season interactively affected the content of total AA in crude protein in different seaweeds investigated (P=0.02), with values ranging from 67.2 for Laminaria in Spring to 90.2 gAA/16 g N for Ulva in Autumn. in situ AA degradability was also species specific. The seasonality of total AA in crude protein of different seaweed species mostly did not affect their ruminal degradability, except for alanine, while species and season interactively affected proline’s ruminal degradability. The total tract degradability showed that for Laminaria and Mastocarpus, methionine followed by leucine, isoleucine, histidine and lysine, were protected against rumen degradation. These protections seemed to be acid labile allowing digestion in the lower digestive tract. However, due to high indigestible fractions, these two seaweeds provided low amounts of AA to the intestines. Total tract AA digestibility values were the highest for Porphyra (906 g/kg) followed by Palmaria (843 g/kg) and the green seaweeds. To conclude, Laminaria and Mastocarpus are beneficial sources for bypass protein supply as they contain AA protected against rumen degradation. Based on their amount of AA and their AA degradability, Porphyra, followed by Palmaria and the green seaweeds (Ulva and Cladophora) can be considered as relevant sources of protein for ruminants.
Academic – An operational UAV-based approach for stand-level assessment of soil disturbance after forest harvesting
Bruce Talbot, Johannes Rahlf, Rasmus Astrup
The effectiveness of generating virtual transects on unmanned aerial vehicle-derived orthomosaics was evaluated in estimating the extent of soil disturbance by severity class. Combinations of 4 transect lengths (5–50 m) and five sampling intensities (1–20 transects per ha) were used in assessing traffic intensity and the severity of soil disturbance on six post-harvest, cut-to-length (CTL) clearfell sites. In total, 15% of the 33 ha studied showed some trace of vehicle traffic. Of this, 63% of was categorized as light (no visible surface disturbance). Traffic intensity varied from 787 to 1256 m ha−1, with a weighted mean of 956 m ha−1, approximately twice the geometrical minimum achievable with CTL technology under perfect conditions. An overall weighted mean of 4.7% of the total site area was compromised by severe rutting. A high sampling intensity, increasing with decreasing incidence of soil disturbance, is required if mean estimation error is to be kept below 20%. The paper presents a methodology that can be generally applied in forest management or in similar land-use evaluations.