Publikasjoner

NIBIOs ansatte publiserer flere hundre vitenskapelige artikler og forskningsrapporter hvert år. Her finner du referanser og lenker til publikasjoner og andre forsknings- og formidlingsaktiviteter. Samlingen oppdateres løpende med både nytt og historisk materiale. For mer informasjon om NIBIOs publikasjoner, besøk NIBIOs bibliotek.

2021

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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex disease with a wide range of underlying susceptibility factors. Recently, dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) in RA have been reported in several immune cell types from blood. However, B cells have not been studied in detail yet. Given the autoimmune nature of RA with the presence of autoantibodies, CD19+ B cells are a key cell type in RA pathogenesis and alterations in CD19+ B cell subpopulations have been observed in patient blood. Therefore, we aimed to reveal the global miRNA repertoire and to analyze miRNA expression profile differences in homogenous RA patient phenotypes in blood-derived CD19+ B cells. Small RNA sequencing was performed on CD19+ B cells of newly diagnosed untreated RA patients (n=10), successfully methotrexate (MTX) treated RA patients in remission (MTX treated RA patients, n=18) and healthy controls (n=9). The majority of miRNAs was detected across all phenotypes. However, significant expression differences between MTX treated RA patients and controls were observed for 27 miRNAs, while no significant differences were seen between the newly diagnosed patients and controls. Several of the differentially expressed miRNAs were previously found to be dysregulated in RA including miR-223-3p, miR-486-3p and miR-23a-3p. MiRNA target enrichment analysis, using the differentially expressed miRNAs and miRNA-target interactions from miRTarBase as input, revealed enriched target genes known to play important roles in B cell activation, differentiation and B cell receptor signaling, such as STAT3, PRDM1 and PTEN. Interestingly, many of those genes showed a high degree of correlated expression in CD19+ B cells in contrast to other immune cell types. Our results suggest important regulatory functions of miRNAs in blood-derived CD19+ B cells of MTX treated RA patients and motivate for future studies investigating the interactive mechanisms between miRNA and gene targets, as well as the possible predictive power of miRNAs for RA treatment response.

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Denne rapporten sammenstiller resultater fra prosjektet «Lukket hogst – hvor godt har det fungert?». Hovedfokuset har vært å analysere i hvilken grad uttaksstyrke og ulike bestandskarakteristika bidrar til å forklare variasjonen i produksjon og foryngelse etter hogstene. Videre har vi utført skogøkonomiske analyser for å vurdere økonomien av lukket hogst opp mot et alternativt scenario med flatehogst og etterfølgende planting, der vi forutsetter at den lukkede hogsten gjennomføres som en skjermstillingshogst i to omganger (etablering av skjerm og fjerning av skjermen etter etablert foryngelse). Fem temporære prøveflater à 314 m2 (radius 10 m) ble etablert per bestand, som grunnlag for å rekonstruere tilvekst og stående volum før og etter hogst. Datamaterialet omfatter 19 bestand på bonitet 11-20 (90-545 m.o.h.) der det var utført lukket hogst for 6-27 år siden med en gjennomsnittlig uttaksstyrke på 52 prosent av grunnflaten (variasjon: 3-90). Foryngelse (trær med høyde minst 10 cm og diameter i brysthøyde < 5 cm) ble registrert på fem «telleflater» med radius 2,26 m (16 m2) innen hver prøveflate. Uttaket har i noen tilfeller vært orientert primært mot de grøvste trærne, dvs. en bledningslignende hogstføring. I andre bestand har uttaket derimot vært konsentrert til de mindre trærne, der hogsten kan karakteriseres som tradisjonell skjermstillingshogst (høgskjerm). Den betydelige variasjonen i hogstføring indikeres også ved tynningskvotienten (middeldiameter i uttaket/middeldiameter før hogst), som varierte fra 0,77 til 1,69 mellom de ulike bestandene. Utgangstilstanden med hensyn på diameterfordeling før og like etter hogst varierte følgelig også betydelig mellom bestand...

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Mixed-species stands have been found to be more productive than would be expected from the performance of their component species in monocultures due to facilitation and complementarity between species, although these interactions depend on the combination of species present. Our study focuses on monospecific and mixed-species stands of Scots pine and Norway spruce using 20 triplets established in nine countries along a climatic gradient across Europe. Differences in mean tree and stand characteristics, productivity and stand structure were assessed. Basal area increment in mixed stands was 8% higher than expected while volume increment was only 2% greater. Scots pine trees growing in mixed-species stands showed 11% larger quadratic mean diameter, 7% larger dominant diameter, 17% higher basal area and 25% higher stand volume than trees growing in monospecific stands. Norway spruce showed only a non-significant tendency to lower mean values of diameters, heights, basal area, as well standing volume in mixtures than monocultures. Stand structure indices differed between mixed stands and monocultures of Scots pine showing a greater stratification in mixed-species stands. Furthermore, the studied morphological traits showed little variability for trees growing in monospecific stands, except for diameter at breast height, crown length and crown length ratio. For trees growing in mixed stands, all the morphological traits of the trees were identified as different. Some of these morphological traits were associated with relative productivity. Nevertheless, relative productivity in mixed-species stands was not related to site conditions.

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Mixed forests are suggested as a strategic adaptation of forest management to climate change. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) are tree species of high economic and ecological value for European forestry. Both species coexist naturally in a large part of their distributions but there is a lack of knowledge on the ecological functioning of mixtures of these species and how to manage such stands. This paper analyses these species' intra-and inter-specific competition, including size-symmetric vs. size-asymmetric competition, and explore the effect of weather conditions on tree growth and competition. We studied basal area growth at tree level for Scots pine and Norway spruce in mixed versus pure stands in 22 triplets of fully-stocked plots along a broad range of ecological conditions across Europe. Stand inventory and increment cores provided insights into how species mixing modifies tree growth compared with neighbouring pure stands. Five different competition indices, weather variables and their interactions were included and checked in basal area growth models using a linear mixed model approach. Interspecific size-asymmetric competition strongly influenced growth for both tree species, and was modulated by weather conditions. However, species height stratification in mixed stands resulted in a greater tree basal area growth of Scots pine (10.5 cm 2 year − 1) than in pure stands (9.3 cm 2 year − 1), as this species occupies the upper canopy layer. Scots pine growth depended on temperature and drought, whereas Norway spruce growth was influenced only by drought. Interspecific site-asymmetric competition increased in cold winters for Scots pine, and decreased after a drought year for Nor-way spruce. Although mixtures of these species may reduce tree size for Norway spruce, our results suggest that this could be offset by faster growth in Scots pine. How inter-specific competition and weather conditions alter tree growth may have strong implications for the management of Scots pine-Norway spruce mixtures along the rotation period into the ongoing climate change scenario.

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Increasing atmospheric nitrogen deposition and climate change are considered the main factors accelerating the long-term growth of forests. Quantification of changes in growth rate can be extremely useful in monitoring and assessing the impact of climate change on site productivity. In this study, we carried out a country-wide analysis of long-term (100 years) dynamics and changes in the height growth rate and site index (SI) of Scots pine in Poland. To ensure representativeness we used a large sample of stem analysis trees collected on 312 plots selected using stratified sampling. To control the effect of site fertility and thus avoid the over-representation of older stands on infertile sites, we measured a range of soil properties that, together with environmental indicators characterising climatic conditions and topography, were used in growth trend modelling as explanatory variables. We found that trees planted in successive years have grown faster. The SI calculated for individual trees is linearly dependent on the year of germination and with increasing age of germination, the SI at the base age of 100 years has increased by 8.4 cm per year. Despite the differences in the growth dynamics of pines planted in different germination years, tree growth follows the same growth pattern. The observed continuous changes in site productivity correspond to an increase in the SI by over 29% between 1900 and 2000. A consequence of continuous changes in site conditions and height growth rate is ambiguity in derived SI values. Under changing site conditions, SI values calculated based on stand height and age depend not only on site productivity but also the year of germination. As a consequence, stands growing under identical site conditions show different SIs, which should be acknowledged if the SI is to be used in forest management. Therefore, determining the SI of newly established stands based on the SI of older generations requires the application of an amendment to account for stand age. Continuously improving our understanding of potential climate change impacts on forest ecosystems is essential and provide information to support forest managers seeking to develop effective adaptation measures and determine sustainable forestry production. As such, our results provide valuable support when making long-term decisions and developing effective adaptation strategies in forest management.