Sammendrag

Short-term (three to four years) effects of forest harvesting on soil solution chemistry were investigated at two Norway spruce sites in southern Norway, differing in precipitation amount and topography. Experimental plots were either harvested conventionally (stem-only harvesting, SOH) or whole trees, including crowns, twigs and branches were removed (whole-tree harvesting, WTH), leaving residue piles on the ground for some months before removal. The WTH treatment had two sub-treatments: WTH-pile where there had been piles and WTH-removal, from where residues had been removed to make piles. Increased soil solution concentrations of NO3–N, total N, Ca, Mg and K at 30 cm depth, shown by peaks in concentrations in the years after harvesting, were found at the drier, less steep site in eastern Norway after SOH and WTH-pile, but less so after WTH-removal. At the wetter, steeper site in western Norway, peaks were often observed also at WTH-removal plots, which might reflect within-site differences in water pathways due largely to site topography.

Sammendrag

Skogens helsetilstand påvirkes i stor grad av klima og værforhold, enten direkte ved tørke, frost og vind, eller indirekte ved at klimaet påvirker omfanget av soppsykdommer og insektangrep. Klimaendringene og den forventede økningen i klimarelaterte skogskader gir store utfordringer for forvaltningen av framtidas skogressurser. Det samme gjør invaderende skadegjørere, både allerede etablerte arter og nye som kan komme til Norge som følge av økt handel og import. Eksempler på begge er omtalt i denne rapporten som presenterer resultater fra skogskadeovervåkingen i Norge i 2016........

Sammendrag

NIBIO har på oppdrag fra Miljødirektoratet testet en ny metodikk utviklet for kartlegging og verdisetting av naturtyper av nasjonal forvaltningsinteresse (NNF). 39 ruter a 500x500 meter ble kartlagt sommeren 2017 og 33 naturtyper ble registrert fordelt på 130 lokaliteter. Evaluering av metodikken er basert på resultater fra denne kartleggingen. Metodikken er evaluert generelt og for hvert hovedøkosystem (naturlige åpne områder i lavlandet, semi-naturlig mark, skog og våtmark) og naturtype.

Sammendrag

Effects of clear-cut harvesting on ground vegetation plant species diversity and their cover are investigated at two Norway spruce sites in southern Norway, differing in climate and topography. Experimental plots at these two sites were either harvested conventionally (stem-only harvesting) or whole trees including crowns, twigs and branches were removed (whole-tree harvesting), leaving residue piles on the ground for some months. We compare the number of plant species in different groups and their cover sums before and after harvesting, and between the different treatments, using non-parametric statistical tests. An overall loss of ground vegetation biodiversity is induced by harvesting and there is a shift in cover of dominant species, with negative effects for bryophytes and dwarf shrubs and an increase of graminoid cover. Differences between the two harvesting methods at both sites were mainly due to the residue piles assembled during whole-tree harvesting and the physical damage made during the harvesting of residues in these piles. The presence of the residue piles had a clear negative impact on both species numbers and cover. Pile residue harvesting on unfrozen and snow-free soil caused more damage to the forest floor in the steep terrain at the western site compared to the eastern site.

Sammendrag

Skogens helsetilstand påvirkes i stor grad av klima og værforhold, enten direkte ved tørke, frost og vind, eller indirekte ved at klimaet påvirker omfanget av soppsykdommer og insektangrep. Klimaendringene og den forventede økningen i klimarelaterte skogskader gir store utfordringer for forvaltningen av framtidas skogressurser. Det samme gjør invaderende skadegjørere, både allerede etablerte arter og nye som kan komme til Norge i framtida. Eksempler på begge er omtalt i foreliggende rapport. I denne rapporten presenteres resultater fra skogskadeovervåkingen i Norge i 2015: (i) Overvåking av skogens helsetilstand på de landsrepresentative flatene. (ii) Skogøkologiske analyser og målinger av luftkjemi på de intensive overvåkingsflatene. (iii) Barkbilleovervåking og analyse av klimaeffekter. (iv) Import skadegjørere og analyse av invasjonspotensialet til fremmede billearter. (v) Overvåking av askeskuddsyke. (vi) Andre skaderegistreringer fra Skogskader.no og befaringer i 2015. Skogovervåkingen på de landsrepresentative flater viser at gran- og furuskogens generelle helsetilstand var god i 2015, selv om det ble registrert uvanlig mange skader på gran og kronetettheten hos furu hadde sunket i forhold til året før. Siden 2007 har kronetettheten likevel økt hos begge treslagene mens trenden har vært motsatt i ICP Forests’ nettverk. Det var lite misfarging på gran og furu og få skader på furu i 2015, mens bjørk, som tidligere, hadde flest skader av alle undersøkte treslag. Det ble ellers registrert få spesielle skader på skog i 2015. Konsentrasjon og atmosfærisk avsetning av både svovel og nitrogen var generelt veldig lave i 2015. Konsentrasjonen av uorganiske nitrogenforbindelser i jordvann og nivået av bakkenært ozon var også lave i Norge i 2015. Ozonnivåene er i stor grad styrt av værforholdene og vil derfor kunne oppvise store årlige variasjoner. Kjemiske analyser på de intensive skogovervåkings-flatene i Norge har dokumentert en betydelig reduksjon over tid i nivåer av svovelkomponenter både i luft, nedbør og jordvann som følge av store utslippsreduksjoner i Europa. Overvåkingsflata på Sørlandet, som er mest utsatt for langtransporterte forurensinger, hadde som i tidligere år de høyeste nitrogen- og svovelverdier i barnålene i 2015. Verdiene hadde økt i forhold til 2013 og var på det høyeste nivået siden hhv. 1995 og 1999, til tross for at både tilførselen og deposisjonen av disse elementene har avtatt sterkt siden 1990. På de to andre flatene var nitrogenverdiene vesentlig lavere, og i Osen var det dessuten for lite nitrogen i forhold til de andre næringsstoffene. Nitrogenmangel er imidlertid normalt i boreale barskoger. Vegetasjonsanalyser på den intensive skogovervåkingsflata i Hurdal viser at dekningen av etasjehusmose og to vmoser har økt siden 1999, mens flere andr mosearter har gått tilbake. Økt vekst av store bladmoser som etasjehusmose er også dokumentert av andre norske studier og har blitt forklart som et resultat av at mange milde og nedbørrike høster har gjort vekstsesongen lengre. Resultatene fra granbarkbilleovervåkingen i 2015 viste en moderat økning av populasjonene for landet sett under ett. Analyser av tidsserier for klimaeffekter og utviklingen i granbarkbillebestanden indikerer en trend mot økende barkbillemengder i Trøndelag og Nordland, som har mye hogstmoden gran. Denne økningen er mest markert i tørre og varme år. Tidligere modellberegninger har predikert at den forventete temperaturøkningen kan føre til at granbarkbillen får to generasjoner per sommer i stedet for én så langt nord som Trøndelag, noe som kan gi en markert økning i antall angrep på stående trær...

Sammendrag

Whole-tree harvest (WTH), i.e. harvesting of forest residues (twigs, branches and crown tops) in addition to stems, for bioenergy purposes may lead to biodiversity loss and changes in species composition in forest ground vegetation, which in turn also will affect soil properties. Effects of clear-cut harvesting on ground vegetation have been investigated at two Norway spruce sites in southern east and western Norway, respectively, differing in climate and topography. Experimental plots at these two sites were either harvested conventionally (stem-only harvest, SOH), leaving harvest residues spread on the site,or WTH was carried out, with the residues collected into piles at the site for six - nine months prior to removal. Vegetation plots in the eastern site were established and analysed before WTH and SOH in 2008 and reanalysed after harvesting in 2010, 2012 and 2014. In the western site vegetation plots were established before WTH and SOH in 2010 and reanalysed after harvesting in 2012 and 2014 (and planned for 2016). All vegetation plots are permanently marked. Pre-as well as post-harvesting species abundances of all species in each vegetation plot were each time recorded as percentage cover (vertical projection) and subplot frequency. Environmental variables (topographical, soil physical, soil chemical, and tree variables) were recorded only once; before WTH and SOH. Effec ts of WTH and SOH on ground vegetation biodiversity and cover are presented.

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Sammendrag

Tree harvest and different harvesting methods may affect the soil carbon (C) pool in forest ecosystems. In con- ventional stem-only timber harvesting (SOH), branches and tops that are left in the forests may contribute to the build-up of the soil carbon pool. In whole-tree harvesting (WTH), inputs of organic matter from branches and tops are strongly reduced. We established field experiments at Gaupen, SE and Vindberg, SW Norway, to study the short-term effects of SOH and WTH on processes affecting the accumulation and loss of soil C. Logging residues on the WTH plots were collected in piles that were removed after 6 months, rendering two sub treatments (WTH- pile and WTH-removal areas). We weighed selected trees and logging residues, surveyed understorey biomass production, quantified pre-harvest soil C and nutrient pools down to 30 cm. Soil respiration was measured and soil water sampled monthly during the growing season, while temperature and moisture were measured continuously. Organic and mineral horizons were incubated at different temperatures to estimate potential C and N mineraliza- tion, and deep sequencing of the ITS2 barcode region of fungal DNA was performed on the samples. Litterbags were deployed in the SOH plots. The logging residues amounted to 2.2-2.4 kg C m-2 At Gaupen, the mean in situ soil respiration rates increased following harvest with all treatments, but were significantly higher in WTH-pile and SOH relative to the WTH- removal areas in the first year as well as the fourth year of treatment. The former rates included aboveground decomposing needles and twigs but excluded coarser branches. The observed increase in the WTH-removal areas may be related to decomposing roots, as well as to increased C mineralization partly due to the higher soil tem- peratures following harvest. Soil temperature was the single most important factor explaining the variability in soil respiration rates over all treatments. At Vindberg, a decrease in soil respiration was observed with all treatments in the second and third years following harvest. At both sites, decomposition of logging residues from needles was more rapid relative to twigs and fine roots. The decomposing residues released a substantial amount of nitrogen which was gradually reflected in the soil water at 30 cm soil depth. A considerable increase in the NO3-N concen- tration also in the WTH-removal areas in the second year following harvest suggests an increase in N availability from decomposing fine roots and/or soil organic matter. The increased N availability in the WTH-removal areas was supported by results from short term lab incubations of undisturbed soil from the forest floor. The changes in the WTH-removal areas were also reflected in the soil fungal diversity: saprophytic ascomycetes on decaying plant material showed a striking increase in all treatments. For the WTH-removal areas, this may, again, be related to the increased input of root litter; however, the decrease in mycorrhizal basidiomycete species and the vigorous increase of ascomycetes following harvest may also affect the C mineralization of soil organic matter.

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Sammendrag

Peat bogs have accumulated more atmospheric carbon (C) than any other terrestrial ecosystem today. Most of this C is associated with peat moss (Sphagnum) litter. Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition can decrease Sphagnum production, compromising the C sequestration capacity of peat bogs. The mechanisms underlying the reduced production are uncertain, necessitating multifactorial experiments.•We investigated whether glasshouse experiments are reliable proxies for field experiments for assessing interactions between N deposition and environment as controls on Sphagnum N concentration and production. We performed a meta-analysis over 115 glasshouse experiments and 107 field experiments.•We found that glasshouse and field experiments gave similar qualitative and quantitative estimates of changes in Sphagnum N concentration in response to N application. However, glasshouse-based estimates of changes in production – even qualitative assessments – diverged from field experiments owing to a stronger N effect on production response in absence of vascular plants in the glasshouse, and a weaker N effect on production response in presence of vascular plants compared to field experiments.•Thus, although we need glasshouse experiments to study how interacting environmental factors affect the response of Sphagnum to increased N deposition, we need field experiments to properly quantify these effects.

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Sammendrag

Peatlands in the northern hemisphere have accumulated more atmospheric carbon (C) during the Holocene than any other terrestrial ecosystem, making peatlands long-term C sinks of global importance. Projected increases in nitrogen (N) deposition and temperature make future accumulation rates uncertain. •Here, we assessed the impact of N deposition on peatland C sequestration potential by investigating the effects of experimental N addition on Sphagnum moss. We employed meta-regressions to the results of 107 field experiments, accounting for sampling dependence in the data. •We found that high N loading (comprising N application rate, experiment duration, background N deposition) depressed Sphagnum production relative to untreated controls. The interactive effects of presence of competitive vascular plants and high tissue N concentrations indicated intensified biotic interactions and altered nutrient stochiometry as mechanisms underlying the detrimental N effects. Importantly, a higher summer temperature (mean for July) and increasedannual precipitation intensified the negative effects of N. The temperature effect was comparable to an experimental application of almost 4 g N m−2 yr−1 for each 1°C increase. •Our results indicate that current rates of N deposition in a warmer environment will strongly inhibit C sequestration by Sphagnum-dominated vegetation.

Sammendrag

Rapporten presenterer sammendrag av resultatene for 2010 fra tre overvåkingsprogrammer: “Overvåking av langtrans­portert forurenset luft og nedbør”, ”Overvåkingsprogram for skogskader” (OPS) og “Program for terrestrisk naturovervåking” (TOV). The report presents results for 2010 from three national monitoring programmes on long-range transboundary air pollution.

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Sammendrag

The collapse of the Soviet Union in the Central Asian countries has led to enormous challenges for them in ensuring a sustainable environment. Weak economies and lack of expertise in environmental sciences were important reasons for the Norwegian support to the environmental sector in this region. The State Forest Service of the Kyrgyz Republic and the Norwegian Forestry Group initiated the TEMP project, later renamed TEMP-CA, in the Kyrgyz Republic in 2004. Activities in the Republic of Tajikistan were included in 2007 and in the Republic of Uzbekistan from 2008. […]

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Sammendrag

The collapse of the Soviet Union in the Central Asian countries has led to enormous challenges for them in ensuring a sustainable environment. Weak economies and lack of expertise in environmental sciences were important reasons for the Norwegian support to the environmental sector in this region. The State Forest Service of the Kyrgyz Republic and the Norwegian Forestry Group initiated the TEMP project, later renamed TEMP-CA, in the Kyrgyz Republic in 2004. Activities in the Republic of Tajikistan were included in 2007 and in the Republic of Uzbekistan from 2008. The forestry sectors in the Kyrgyz Republic and neighbouring countries in Central Asia, surrounding the Fergana Valley, are closely linked to the environmental and emergency planning sectors. Overgrazing and overharvesting have contributed to a dramatic decline in forest cover. The TEMP-CA project contributes to a better understanding of environmental problems and sustainable forestry in Central Asia. The TEMP-CA project has promoted institutional co-operation between Norway and the Central Asian countries as well as between different institutions both within and between the countries of Central Asia. Increased expertise for scientists, fieldworkers, laboratory staff and staff in different forest departments as well as institutional development in general are important outputs from the TEMP-CA project. The Umalak monitoring site in Tashkent region, the Republic of Uzbekistan, was the tenth of ten monitoring sites established in forests in Central Asia: 1: ”Kara-Koi” in the Osch oblast, the Kyrgyz Republic. 2: ”Sogot in the Jalal-Abad oblast, the Kyrgyz Republic. 3: “Dugoba” in Batken oblast, the Kyrgyz Republic. 4: “Besh-Tash” Talas oblast, the Kyrgyz Republic. 5: “Sary-Chelek”, in Jalal-Abad oblast, the Kyrgyz Republic. 6: “Navobod” in Sogdi oblast, the Republic of Tajikistan. 7: “Gauyan” in Batken oblast, the Kyrgyz Republic. 8: “Zaamin” in Djizak region, the Republic of Uzbekistan. 9: “Urumbash” in Jalal-Abad oblast, the Kyrgyz Republic. 10: “Umalak Teppa”, Tashkent region, the Republic of Uzbekistan. […]

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Sammendrag

The collapse of the Soviet Union in the Central Asian countries has led to enormous challenges for them in ensuring a sustainable environment. Weak economies and lack of expertise in environmental sciences were important reasons for the Norwegian support to the environmental sector in this region. The State Forest Service of the Kyrgyz Republic and the Norwegian Forestry Group initiated the TEMP project, later renamed TEMP-CA, in the Kyrgyz Republic in 2004. Activities in the Republic of Tajikistan were included in 2007 and in the Republic of Uzbekistan from 2008. The forestry sectors in the Kyrgyz Republic and neighbouring countries in Central Asia, surrounding the Fergana Valley, are closely linked to the environmental and emergency planning sectors. Overgrazing and overharvesting have contributed to a dramatic decline in forest cover. The TEMP-CA project contributes to a better understanding of environmental problems and sustainable forestry in Central Asia. The TEMP-CA project has promoted institutional co-operation between Norway and the Central Asian countries as well as between different institutions both within and between the countries of Central Asia. Increased expertise for scientists, fieldworkers, laboratory staff and staff in different forest departments as well as institutional development in general are important outputs from the TEMP-CA project. […]

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Sammendrag

The collapse of the Soviet Union in the Central Asian countries has led to enormous challenges for them in ensuring a sustainable environment. Weak economies and lack of expertise in environmental sciences were important reasons for the Norwegian support to the environmental sector in this region. The State Forest Service of the Kyrgyz Republic and the Norwegian Forestry Group initiated the TEMP project, later renamed TEMP-CA, in the Kyrgyz Republic in 2004. Activities in the Republic of Tajikistan were included in 2007 and in the Republic of Uzbekistan from 2008. The forestry sectors in the Kyrgyz Republic and neighbouring countries in Central Asia, surrounding the Fergana Valley, are closely linked to the environmental and emergency planning sectors. Overgrazing and overharvesting have contributed to a dramatic decline in forest cover. The TEMP-CA project contributes to a better understanding of environmental problems and sustainable forestry in Central Asia.The TEMP-CA project has promoted institutional co-operation between Norway and the Central Asian countries as well as between different institutions both within and between the countries of Central Asia. Increased expertise for scientists, fieldworkers, laboratory staff and staff in different forest departments as well as institutional development in general are important outputs from the TEMP-CA project.

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Sammendrag

The collapse of the Soviet Union in the Central Asian countries has led to enormous challenges for them in ensuring a sustainable environment. Weak economies and lack of expertise in environmental sciences were important reasons for the Norwegian support to the environmental sector in this region. The State Forest Service of the Kyrgyz Republic and the Norwegian Forestry Group initiated the TEMP project, later renamed TEMP-CA, in the Kyrgyz Republic in 2004. Activities in the Republic of Tajikistan were included in 2007 and in the Republic of Uzbekistan from 2008. The forestry sectors in the Republic of Tajikistan and neighbouring countries in Central Asia, surrounding the Fergana Valley, are closely linked to the environmental and emergency planning sectors. Overgrazing and overharvesting have contributed to a dramatic decline in forest cover. The TEMP-CA project contributes to a better understanding of environmental problems and sustainable forestry in Central Asia. The TEMP-CA project has promoted institutional co-operation between Norway and the Central Asian countries as well as between different institutions both within and between the countries of Central Asia. Increased expertise for scientists, fieldworkers, laboratory staff and staff in different forest departments as well as institutional development in general are important outputs from the TEMP-CA project.

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Sammendrag

The collapse of the Soviet Union in the Central Asian countries has led to enormous challenges for them in ensuring a sustainable environment. Weak economies and lack of expertise in environmental sciences were important reasons for the Norwegian support to the environmental sector in this region. The State Forest Service of the Kyrgyz Republic and the Norwegian Forestry Group initiated the TEMP project, later renamed TEMP-CA, in the Kyrgyz Republic in 2004. Activities in the Republic of Tajikistan were included in 2007 and in the Republic of Uzbekistan from 2008. The forestry sectors in the Kyrgyz Republic and neighbouring countries in Central Asia, surrounding the Fergana Valley, are closely linked to the environmental and emergency planning sectors. Overgrazing and overharvesting have contributed to a dramatic decline in forest cover. The TEMP-CA project contributes to a better understanding of environmental problems and sustainable forestry in Central Asia. The TEMP-CA project has promoted institutional co-operation between Norway and the Central Asian countries as well as between different institutions both within and between the countries of Central Asia. Increased expertise for scientists, fieldworkers, laboratory staff and staff in different forest departments as well as institutional development in general are important outputs from the TEMP-CA project. The Gauyan monitoring site in Batken oblast in the Kyrgyz Republic was the seventh of ten monitoring sites established in forests in Central Asia: 1: ”Kara-Koi” in the Osch oblast, the Kyrgyz Republic. 2: ”Sogot in the Jalal-Abad oblast, the Kyrgyz Republic. 3: “Dugoba” in Batken oblast, the Kyrgyz Republic. 4: “Besh-Tash” Talas oblast, the Kyrgyz Republic. 5: “Sary-Chelek”, in Jalal-Abad oblast, the Kyrgyz Republic. 6: “Navobod” in Sogdi oblast, the Republic of Tajikistan. 7: “Gauyan” in Batken oblast, the Kyrgyz Republic. 8: “Zaamin” in Djizak region, the Republic of Uzbekistan. 9: “Urumbash” in Jalal-Abad oblast, the Kyrgyz Republic. 10: “Umalak Teppa”, Tashkent region, the Republic of Uzbekistan.

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Sammendrag

The collapse of the Soviet Union in the Central Asian countries has led to enormous challenges for them in ensuring a sustainable environment. Weak economies and lack of expertise in environmental sciences were important reasons for the Norwegian support to the environmental sector in this region. The State Forest Service of the Kyrgyz Republic and the Norwegian Forestry Group initiated the TEMP project, later renamed TEMP-CA, in the Kyrgyz Republic in 2004. Activities in the Republic of Tajikistan were included in 2007 and in the Republic of Uzbekistan from 2008. The forestry sectors in the Kyrgyz Republic and neighbouring countries in Central Asia, surrounding the Fergana Valley, are closely linked to the environmental and emergency planning sectors. Overgrazing and overharvesting have contributed to a dramatic decline in forest cover. The TEMP-CA project contributes to a better understanding of environmental problems and sustainable forestry in Central Asia. The TEMP-CA project has promoted institutional co-operation between Norway and the Central Asian countries as well as between different institutions both within and between the countries of Central Asia. Increased expertise for scientists, fieldworkers, laboratory staff and staff in different forest departments as well as institutional development in general are important outputs from the TEMP-CA project. [...]

Sammendrag

Vegetasjonsovervåkingen i granskog ble etablert ved Norsk institutt for jord- og skogkartlegging (fra 2006: Norsk institutt for skog og landskap) i 1988 (T. Økland 1990, 1996). Samme år ble det også etablert tilsvarende overvåking i Solhomfjell-området (Gjerstad, Aust-Agder i regi av Universitetet i Oslo/Miljøverndepartementet (R. Økland & Eilertsen 1993). I regi av Norsk institutt for jord- og skogkartlegging ble det etablert og analysert to områder pr år fra 1988 til 1992, til sammen 10 områder. Flatene i Paulen ble første gang analysert i 1990. Etter 2004 har Direktoratet for naturforvaltning finansiert vegetasjonsovervåkingen i granskog gjennom TOV-programmet, men i noe redusert omfang (ett område pr år). Metodene for overvåkingen av markvegetasjon ble i 1988 utviklet for å overvåke effekter av langtransportert luftforurensing, men har også vist seg godt egnet til å fange opp effekter av klimaendringer på markvegetasjonen (se for eksempel T. Økland et al. 2001, 2004a,b, 2007, 2008, 2009b, Nordbakken et al. 2010). De permanente vegetasjonsflatene i Paulen har tidligere vært analysert i 1990, 1995, 2000, og 2005. Reanalyseringen i 2010 var således 5. gangs analyse av disse flatene.

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Sammendrag

Semi-natural grasslands and their species and populations are declining rapidly throughout Europe, bringing about a need for successful vegetation recreation methods. To maintain biodiversity and ecological services of semi-natural grasslands, we need more knowledge on the relative performance of different recreation methods. In a replicated experiment in western Norway, we evaluated two hay transfer methods (hard or light raking of local hay), sowing of local seeds and natural regeneration for recreating semi-natural grassland in a road verge. We compared treated trial plots with their respective donor plots (where hay and seeds were harvested) for three successive years by evaluating vegetation cover, species richness and species transfer rates, and vegetation dynamics analysed by Bray-Curtis compositional dissimilarity (BC) and GNMDS (Global Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling) ordination. Vegetation cover at the trial site exceeded that of donor sites in three years. Transfer rates of common species were high for seed sowing and both hay transfer procedures. Species composition in trial plots for all three treatments became significantly more similar to donor plots, but was still relatively dissimilar after three years. Natural regeneration showed a different temporal pattern and also had a higher successional rate. The species composition of the other treatments followed the same trajectory toward the donor sites as revealed by GNMDS. We found relatively small differences between the two hay transfer methods and seed sowing. Transfer of local hay therefore appears to be a successful method of establishing local species when recreating semi-natural grasslands, and is generally cheaper than using commercial local seed mixtures.

Sammendrag

Seminatural grasslands and their species and populations are declining rapidly throughout Europe, bringing about a need for successful vegetation recreation methods. To maintain biodiversity and ecological services of seminatural grasslands, we need more nowledge on the relative performance of different recreation methods. In a replicated experiment in western Norway, we evaluated two hay transfer methods (hard or light raking of local hay), sowing of local seeds and natural regeneration for recreating seminatural grassland in a road verge. We compared treated trial plots with their respective donor plots (where hay and seeds were harvested) for three successive years by evaluating vegetation cover, species richness and species transfer rates, and vegetation dynamics analysed by Bray–Curtis compositional dissimilarity (BC) and GNMDS (Global NonMetric Multidimensional Scaling) ordination. Vegetation cover at the trial site exceeded that of donor sites in three years. Transfer rates of common species were high for seed sowing and both hay transfer procedures. Species composition in trial plots for all three treatments became significantly more similar to donor plots, but was still relatively dissimilar after three years. Natural regeneration showed a different temporal pattern and also had a higher successional rate. The species composition of the other treatments followed the same trajectory toward the donor sites as revealed by GNMDS. We found relatively small differences between the two hay transfer methods and seed sowing. Transfer of local hay therefore appears to be a successful method of establishing local species when recreating seminatural grasslands, and is generally cheaper than using commercial local seed mixtures.

Sammendrag

Several places in Sogn og Fjordane county, W Norway, old pollarded trees of elm Ulmus glabra stand out as characteristic elements in the cultural landscape. These pollarded trees, which serve as habitats for many groups of organisms and are important key species in the cultural landscape, are threatened due to changes in farming management during the last century. In order to obtain more knowledge about the bryophyte flora on older elm pollards in Sogn og Fjordane county we examined two trees from each of four locations along an east-west gradient, from a strong oceanic climate in coastal areas towards slightly continental conditions further inland. Epiphytic bryophytes were recorded in three different height zones (basal, middle, and top) on the north, east, south and west sides of the trees. We looked for differences in species number (i) between the four locations, (ii) between three height zones (basal, middle and top) of the stems, and (iii) between different expositions (N, S, E and W) of the stems. We found 31 bryophyte species on the eight examined trees. No relation between geographic position and species number was found. There were significantly more species in the basal zones than in the middle zones, while there were no significant differences between the middle zones and top zones, or between the basal zones and top zones. The species number on the northern side exposition was significantly higher than on the eastern and southern sides of the stem.

Sammendrag

This study focused on a suite of vascular plant species (six herbs and two grasses) common to traditionally managed, species-rich grasslands in Western Norway. We assessed the suitability of two species transfer methods (seed sowing and soil seed bank) for restoration of species-rich grassland on a newly established road verge. We compared the species\" frequencies one and three years after they were sown on a naked, newly created road verge with their frequencies in aboveground vegetation and soil seed banks of comparable, local grasslands. Species frequencies in the aboveground vegetation differed significantly from those in the seed banks. Moreover, the frequencies in the seed banks differed from those recorded one year after sowing, and the frequencies in the aboveground vegetation differed from those recorded three years after sowing. Avenula pubescens and Knautia arvensis, found in more than 25% of the aboveground grassland plots, did not germinate from any of the seed bank samples. Festuca rubra, Galium verum, Pimpinella saxifraga and Silene vulgaris were more frequent in the aboveground plots than in the seed bank samples. Pimpinella saxifraga, Galium verum and Lychnis viscaria emerged quite well both from sown seeds and from the seed bank. Avenula pubescens was frequent in the aboveground vegetation, but did not germinate from sown seeds. Six species established well from seeds, and most increased in frequency in the sown plots from the first to the third year. No species was found in the sown plots only, but three years after sowing, three species were more frequent in the sown plots than in the aboveground vegetation of donor grassland plots. Our fine-scale, point-to-point study demonstrates that different restoration methods produce widely differing species composition even when the donor material is identical. We propose that different substrates and a combination of establishment methods (sowing and hay transfer) are needed as supplements to seed banks to re-establish species-rich grassland.

Sammendrag

Vegetasjonsovervåkingen i granskog ble etablert ved Norsk institutt for jord- og skogkartlegging (fra 2006: Norsk institutt for skog og landskap) i 1988. Samme år ble det også etablert tilsvarende overvåking i Solhomfjell-området (Gjerstad, Aust-Agder) i regi av Universitetet i Oslo/Miljøverndepartementet. I regi av Norsk institutt for jord- og skogkartlegging ble det etablert og analysert to områder pr år fra 1988 til 1992, til sammen 10 områder. Prøveflatene i Gutulia ble første gang analysert i 1989. Etter 2004 har Direktoratet for naturforvaltning finansiert vegetasjonsovervåkingen i granskog gjennom TOV-programmet, men i noe redusert omfang. Metodene for overvåkingen av markvegetasjon ble i 1988 utviklet for å overvåke effekter av langtransportert luftforurensing, men har også vist seg godt egnet til å fange opp effekter av klimaendringer på markvegetasjonen. De permanente vegetasjonsflatene i Gutulia har tidligere vært analysert i 1989, 1994, 1999, og 2004 (femårig omløpstid). Reanalyseringen i 2009 var således 5. gangs analyse av disse prøveflatene....

Sammendrag

Helgeland er i foreliggende rapport definert som kommunene Hattfjelldal, Grane, Vefsn, Bindal, Brønnøy, Hemnes og Rana. Det er 38 utredningsområder som skal vurderes for vern, hvilket tilsvarer 119 090 ha eller 7 % av Helgelands totale areal. De 38 utredningsområder utgjør et brutto produktivt skogareal på 8 916 ha, hvorav omkring 46 % (4 130 ha) er fradrag. Det er fradrag for nøkkelbiotoper, samt buffer mot vann og myr, som utgjør forskjellen mellom brutto og netto produktivt skogareal. De 8 916 ha produktiv skog som berøres av utredningsområdene utgjør 4 % av den produktive skogen på Helgeland, og 1 % av den produktive skogen i Nordland. Det totale brutto virkesvolumet på statens grunn på Helgeland er 2 978 094 m3, hvorav 17 % er berørt av de 38 utredningsområdene. Dette tilsvarer et berørt volum som utgjør omkring 3,5 % av Helgelands totale volum, og 1,5 % av Nordlands totale volum. Innenfor de 38 utredningsområdene er 46 % av det produktive skogareal dekket av nøkkelbiotoper, samt buffer mot vann og myr. Dette illustrerer at utredningsområdene har en stor naturverdi (andel viktige habitater) i forhold til det generelle landskapet på Helgeland og i hele Nordland. 19 av områdene er vurdert å ha regionalt unike naturkvaliteter, mens 16 områder tillegges nasjonalt unike kvaliteter. Et meget stort innhold av signal- og rødlistearter er knyttet til 9 av utredningsområdene, men rødlistearter er funnet i (minst) 29 av områdene. Kunnskaper om de observerte rødlisteartenes populasjonsstørrelse og utvikling i de ulike utredningsområdene er svært begrenset, og forekomst av moser, insekter og fugl er generelt lite undersøkt i de fleste av utredningsområdene. Dette innebærer at det ikke er mulig å foreta en kvantifisering av effekter på rødlisteartene ved å ikke verne. […]