Bjørn Økland

Seniorforsker

(+47) 916 28 225
bjorn.okland@nibio.no

Sted
Ås - Bygg H8

Besøksadresse
Høgskoleveien 8, 1433 Ås

Biografi

My main research interests are:
  • Population dynamics of bark beetles
  • Determinants of insect diversity in forests
  • Climate change and insects
  • Invasive species

Les mer

Sammendrag

Nivået av granbarkbiller er forhøyet etter en svært varm og tørr sommer. På Sør- og Østlandet hadde de fleste fylkene en moderat økning i den gjennomsnittlige fangsten av barkbiller per felle. I Nord- Trøndelag og Nordland gikk nivået litt ned på grunn av kjølig og kaldt vær i juni, mens Sør-Trøndelag hadde landets største fangst av granbarkbiller i år. Mange fylker melder om mange tørkestressede trær, men få har erfart noen økning av trær angrepet av barkbiller denne sommeren. Mange overvintrende barkbiller og tørkestressede trær kan bidra til økt risiko for angrep på stående trær i årene som kommer, men det videre forløpet av værfenomener vil trolig være avgjørende for om det blir en utvikling mot epidemi eller ikke. Tidligere studier viser at moderat tørkestress kan øke trærnes motstandskraft mot billeangrep, og under utbruddet på 1970-tallet var både flerårig kraftig tørke og store vindfellinger trolig en forutsetning for at epidemien ble så kraftig. En nær slektning av granbarkbillen som bidrar i utbrudd i Sentral- og Sør Europa har spredd seg raskt mot Skandinavia. Denne arten finnes nå nær grensen til Norge og er en kandidat for overvåking. Barkbilleovervåkingen i Norge har nå pågått i 40 år og er den mest omfattende felleovervåkingen av granbarkbillen i verden.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

The sentinel plants concept responds to the need for new strategies to identify and study potential plant pests (including pathogens) and assess associated risks before their introduction to other continents. However, even if very promising, this tool is not yet implemented on a large scale, partially because it requires adequate planning, long-term funding, strong local links and reliable collaborators. In addition, a wider implementation of sentinel plantations and sentinel nurseries requires knowledge of regulations and procedures regarding the possibilities for their establishment in different countries. In order to achieve this objective, a questionnaire survey was conducted in 2016, to which more than 40 countries around the world responded. The results reveal that many countries have few regulations specifically concerning the import of propagation material, making import of this relatively low-risk material easier than the import of larger living plants that may have been more exposed to pests in the exporting country. The planting of alien woody plants in the environment is possible for scientific purposes in most countries as exemption from general phytosanitary import requirements, but the import and planting of alien plant species may be regulated by different government departments. We will present the outcomes of this study, which will be useful to facilitate the selection of locations for future sentinel plants and may provide guidance on the rules for import of plant propagation material for the establishment of sentinel plants and sentinel nurseries in different countries.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Recently, Deutsch and colleagues(1) projected future increases in yield losses to insect pests of the three globally most important staple crops under different climate change scenarios. Their results are based on model simulations parameterized with thermal sensitivity analyses of population growth and metabolic rates from a geographically and functionally diverse set of insect species taken from an earlier study(2). A subset of the original data compilation was then used to estimate the direct impact of warming on insect fitness across latitudes(3). More precisely, the derived thermal-dependence of fitness for globally distributed terrestrial insect species was integrated with projected geographic distribution of climate change for the next century (3). These models were then deployed in the new study investigating potential yield losses in three specific crops(1). We submit that Deutsch and colleagues rely on inadequate empirical data for their model parameterization to estimate pest-related crop losses. Strikingly, their source data did not include major pest taxa of the focal staple crops and were not restricted to herbivores despite that temperature-dependence of metabolic and performance responses are known to vary substantially among trophic levels and functional groups(4,5). Hence, the inferences drawn by Deutsch and colleagues(1) may be unreliable. Mitigating potential climate change responses of pest organisms jeopardizing future food security can only be successful if they are based on high-quality information relevant to the crop system in question(6). References 1. C. A. Deutsch et al., Science. 361, 916–919 (2018). 2. M. R. Frazier, R. B. Huey, D. Berrigan, Am. Nat. 168, 512–520 (2006). 3. C. A. Deutsch et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 105, 6668–6672 (2008). 4. A. I. Dell, S. Pawar, V. M. Savage, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108, 10591–10596 (2011). 5. A. I. Dell, S. Pawar, V. M. Savage, J. Anim. Ecol. 83, 70–84 (2014). 6. P. Lehmann et al., bioRxiv (2018), doi:10.1101/425488.

Sammendrag

Skogens helsetilstand påvirkes i stor grad av klima og værforhold, enten direkte ved tørke, frost og vind, eller indirekte ved at klimaet påvirker omfanget av soppsykdommer og insektangrep. Klimaendringene og den forventede økningen i klimarelaterte skogskader gir store utfordringer for forvaltningen av framtidas skogressurser. Det samme gjør invaderende skadegjørere, både allerede etablerte arter og nye som kan komme til Norge i nær framtid. Denne rapporten presenterer resultater fra skogskadeovervåkingen i Norge i 2017 og trender over tid for følgende temaer...

Sammendrag

1 The European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus is a damaging pest on spruce in Europe. Beetle interactions with tree species originating outside the natural range of the beetle are largely unknown and may be unpredictable because trees without a co-evolutionary history with the beetle may lack effective defences. 2 The terpenoid composition and breeding suitability for I. typographus of the historic host Norway spruce Picea abies were compared with two evolutionary naïve spruces of North American origin that are extensively planted in North-West Europe: Sitka spruce Picea sitchensis and Lutz spruce Picea glauca x lutzii. 3 The bark of all three species had a similar chemical composition and similar levels of total constitutive terpenoids, although Norway spruce had higher total induced terpenoid levels. 4 Beetles tunnelling in the three spruce species produced similar amounts of aggregation pheromone. Controlled breeding experiments showed that I. typographus could produce offspring in all three species, with a similar offspring length and weight across species. However, total offspring production was much lower in Sitka and Lutz spruce. 5 Overall, the results of the present study suggest that I. typographus will be able to colonize Sitka and Lutz spruce in European plantations and in native spruce forests in North America if introduced there.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

A warmer climate may potentially have a strong effect on the health status of European oak forests by weakening oak trees and facilitating mass reproduction of wood boring insects. We did a laboratory experiment in Slovakia to study the response of major pest beetles of oak and their parasitoids to different temperature regimes as background for predicting climatic effects and improving management tools of European oak forests. With higher temperatures the most important oak pest Scolytus intricatus emerged much earlier, which indicate that completion of a second generation and increased damage further north in European oak forests may be possible. Lower temperatures gave longer larval galleries and more offspring per parents but still lower beetle production due to semivoltine life cycle. For buprestids and longhorn beetles warmer temperatures resulted in more emerging offspring and a shift towards earlier emergence in the same season, but no emergence in the first season indicated that a change to univoltine populations is not likely. Reduced development success of parasitoids at the highest temperatures (25/30 °C) indicates a loss of population regulation for pest beetle populations. A warmer climate may lead to invasion of other population-regulating parasitoids, but also new serious pest may invade. With expected temperature increases it is recommended to use trap trees both in April and in June, and trap trees should be removed within 2 months instead 1 year as described in the current standard.

Sammendrag

Sentinel plantings are a powerful tool to identify harmful organisms before they arrive in a country, but the use of this novel tool is limited by reduced awareness. Another limitation for the establishment of sentinel nurseries are plant health regulations that affect the import of planting material of alien species for use in sentinel plantings. However, import of propagation material is often considered low risk compared to rooted plants and more relaxed regulations may apply. Import regulations may vary among countries and special conditions for import for scientific purposes may apply. We aimed to make an overview of regulations for import and planting of propagation material for use in sentinel plantings in countries around the world. During 2016 a questionnaire survey was conducted in more than 40 countries around the world to identify national legislation on the import of seeds of exotic tree species and their use for scientific purposes in open-field situations. This study will provide an overview on regulations that need to be observed while sentinel nurseries are settled both using seeds for planting and trees grown from these seeds. The results will be a useful tool to facilitate the selection of locations for future sentinel nurseries.

Sammendrag

Large-scale bark beetle outbreaks in northern conifer forests have already demonstrated huge impacts on forest economy, ecosystems and carbon dynamics. In North America, a historically unprecedented outbreak of the mountain pine beetle has expanded north- and eastwards beyond its historical range, and has reached epidemic levels in areas of northern British Columbia previously thought to be unsuitable for beetle survival. In Europe, the vast northern spruce forests have been spared from bark beetle outbreaks in the past, but here we review some recent observations and research results indicating that this may be undergoing change. For example, monitoring data of the most serious tree-killing bark beetle in Europe, Ips typographus, show a several-fold increase of the populations in its northern range during warm years. In the extensive spruce forests of northern Fennoscandia and Russia, a new phenomenon of tree-killing episodes by I. typographus has occurred in the last decade. Northern localities with one beetle generation per year in the past are now having more often two. Also other bark beetle species in the genus Ips have demonstrated a fast northward expansion in Europe, including one species contributing in bark beetle outbreaks of I. typographus in Central and Southern Europe.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Bark beetles are among the most devastating biotic agents affecting forests globally and several species are expected to be favored by climate change. Given the potential interactions of insect outbreaks with other biotic and abiotic disturbances, and the potentially strong impact of changing disturbance regimes on forest resources, investigating climatic drivers of destructive bark beetle outbreaks is of paramount importance. We analyzed 17 time-series of the amount of wood damaged by Ips typographus, the most destructive pest of Norway spruce forests, collected across 8 European countries in the last three decades. We aimed to quantify the relative importance of key climate drivers in explaining timber loss dynamics, also testing for possible synergistic effects. Local outbreaks shared the same drivers, including increasing summer rainfall deficit and warm temperatures. Large availability of storm-felled trees in the previous year was also strongly related to an increase in timber loss, likely by providing an alternative source of breeding material. We did not find any positive synergy among outbreak drivers. On the contrary, the occurrence of large storms reduced the positive effect of warming temperatures and rainfall deficit. The large surplus of breeding material likely boosted I. typographus population size above the density threshold required to colonize and kill healthy trees irrespective of other climate triggers. Importantly, we found strong negative density dependence in I. typographus that may provide a mechanism for population decline after population eruptions. Generality in the effects of complex climatic events across different geographical areas suggests that the large-scale drivers can be used as early warning indicators of increasing local outbreak probability.

Sammendrag

Nord-Trøndelag og Oppland var de eneste fylkene med økning av fangstverdiene fra 2016 til 2017. Trøndelag hadde blant de høyeste fangstverdier i landet i 2017 til tross for sin nordlige beliggenhet, og lokale nye angrep i Trøndelag forklares med mange overvintrende barkbiller og ettervirkninger av billeproduksjon etter tidligere stormfellinger. En svært varm mai-måned i de nordlige og høyereliggende områdene av Oppland ga økning i billefangstene her, mens billefangstene gikk ned i det våte og kjølige været i det øvrige av Østlandet og Sørlandet. Nivået av barkbiller er imidlertid middels høyt og kan raskt endre seg om vi får store vindfellinger og varme og tørre somre i tiden som kommer. Fellefangster fra nye lokaliteter i barkbilleovervåkingen indikerer at granbarkbillen er til stede lenger vest og nord i landet enn tidligere kjent.

Sammendrag

Fokus i denne rapporten er på skogbehandlingen, og på maksimering av verdiproduksjon. En forutsetning for dette er høy sagtømmerproduksjon, samtidig som det er viktig å vurdere arealets totale tømmerverdi. Følgende forutsetninger ligger til grunn for rapporten: Bevaring av biologisk mangfold og ivaretakelse av andre flerbrukshensyn Det legges til grunn at all skogbehandling utføres i henhold til dagens lovverk og frivillige sertifiseringsordninger, og at dette ivaretar hensyn til biologisk mangfold og andre flerbrukshensyn. Vi går derfor ikke inn på betydningen ulik skogbehandling vil ha for biologisk mangfold eller andre flerbrukshensyn, eller tilpasninger av skogbehandlingen for dette. Bærekraftig skogbruk i klimasammenheng Miljødirektoratet mfl. (2016) drøfter vern eller bruk av skog som klimatiltak. I rapporten konkluderes det med at det ikke er grunnlag for å vektlegge vern av norsk skog som klimatiltak. En forutsetning er at det drives et bærekraftig skogbruk i klimasammenheng. Dette ble definert som følger: «Bærekraftig skogbruk i klimasammenheng innebærer at skogens produktivitet og evne til å lagre karbon ikke forringes, og at karbonbeholdninger ikke reduseres permanent.» (Miljødirektoratet mfl. 2016). Vi forutsetter gjennom rapporten at skogbehandling drives bærekraftig i tråd med denne definisjonen, uten at vi går nærmere inn på betydningen og eventuelle nødvendige tilpasninger. Skogbehandling for å motvirke klimaendringer Skogbehandling som motvirker klimaendringer, for eksempel ved å øke karbonopptaket, vil i mange tilfeller være i samsvar med skogbehandling for maksimal verdiproduksjon, men ikke alltid. Vi har i denne rapporten kun fokusert på verdiproduksjon, og betydning av skogbehandling på ulike karbonbeholdninger er ikke vurdert. Driftstekniske forhold («hvordan ta ut tømmeret») Driftskostnader vil være av stor betydning for skogeiers økonomiske resultat, og både de endringer vi allerede ser og forventede klimaendringer er forventet å gi større driftstekniske utfordringer. I denne rapporten ser vi imidlertid utelukkende på den betydning skogbehandlingen vil ha for antatt verdiproduksjon.

Sammendrag

Den årlige skogovervåkingen viser at granas kronetilstand har bedret seg betraktelig på Vestlandet og i Midt-Norge etter de omfattende frosttørkeskadene der i 2013 og 2014. Furu hadde generelt lite skader. Det var mer skader på bjørk i 2016 enn i 2015, og både måler- og bjørkerustangrep økte i frekvens, men også abiotiske faktorer hadde stor betydning for bjørkas helsetilstand. Skadeomfanget var størst i Nord-Norge, der særlig gjentatte målerangrep over mange år utgjør et problem for bjørkeskogen. Askeskuddsjuke har i løpet av drøyt 10 år spredt seg gradvis gjennom mesteparten av askas utbredelsesområde i Norge. Overvåkingen viser at skadeutviklingen skjer fort, og særlig de yngste trærne har høy mortalitet. I Nord-Trøndelag og Oppland ble det registrert en økning i fangstverdiene av granbarkbiller i 2017, mens de øvrige fylkene opplevde en liten til moderat nedgang, mye på grunn av en kjølig og nedbørrik sommer.

Sammendrag

Skogens helsetilstand påvirkes i stor grad av klima og værforhold, enten direkte ved tørke, frost og vind, eller indirekte ved at klimaet påvirker omfanget av soppsykdommer og insektangrep. Klimaendringene og den forventede økningen i klimarelaterte skogskader gir store utfordringer for forvaltningen av framtidas skogressurser. Det samme gjør invaderende skadegjørere, både allerede etablerte arter og nye som kan komme til Norge som følge av økt handel og import. Eksempler på begge er omtalt i denne rapporten som presenterer resultater fra skogskadeovervåkingen i Norge i 2016........

Sammendrag

The Eurasian spruce bark beetle Ips typographus is a major forest pest in Europe, capable of mass-attacking and killing mature Norway spruces over extensive areas during outbreaks. Recurring outbreaks over the last few centuries have affected Central and Northern Europe. Outbreaks tend to be periodic and are in many cases triggered by large wind-felling events. For example in Scandinavia several large outbreaks have been triggered by storm disturbances in the last 50 years. In Europe I. typographus is widespread where spruce hosts are found except for in the British Isles. Here we review the identification and biology of this insect and present information about its invasiveness and the potential of success in early detection and control of outbreaks. There are indications that a warmer climate will increase the risk for outbreaks in the northern range of spruce in Europe, where outbreaks so far have been rare. More outbreaks are also expected at the southern margin of the spruce distribution in Europe, where lower than average precipitation seems to generally favor infestations. Establishments outside Eurasia have not been found despite frequent interceptions at ports of entry. Our experiments showed that North American spruce species may be suitable hosts and we conclude that it cannot be ruled out that future establishment can result from repeated imports. The most efficient control option of storm-triggered outbreaks is removal of wind-felled trees before the new generation beetles emerge.

Sammendrag

Den generelle økning i barkbillefangstene som vi har sett de siste årene fortsetter også i 2016. Økningen var mest markert i Midt-Norge og Nord-Norge, mens mye nedbør trolig har begrenset flukt og formering for billene på Østlandet. I Trøndelag har det vært flere påfølgende år med gode betingelser for barkbillene, og Sør-Trøndelag har i 2016 den høyeste verdien som har vært målt for dette fylket i barkbilleovervåkingen. Flere kommuner i Nord-Trøndelag rapporterer om spredte forekomster av skader på grunn av granbarkbiller. Økt skade av granbarkbillen i nordlige områder med lite barkbilleproblemer tidligere er også en trend i andre deler av Nord- Europa. Fellefangstene dokumenterer at granbarkbillen forekommer i vestlige og kystnære områder i Vest-Agder (Lyngdal og Mandal) hvor gran har blitt plantet i nyere tid. Flere vestlige fylker som Rogaland, Hordaland, Sogn og Fjordane og Møre og Romsdal får stadig mer gran i attraktiv alder for granbarkbillen, men det mangler overvåkingsdata for granbarkbillen fra disse fylkene. Den generelle økning i barkbillefangstene som vi har sett de siste årene fortsetter også i 2016. Økningen var mest markert i Midt-Norge og Nord-Norge, mens mye nedbør trolig har begrenset flukt og formering for billene på Østlandet. I Trøndelag har det vært flere påfølgende år med gode betingelser for barkbillene, og Sør-Trøndelag har i 2016 den høyeste verdien som har vært målt for dette fylket i barkbilleovervåkingen. Flere kommuner i Nord-Trøndelag rapporterer om spredte forekomster av skader på grunn av granbarkbiller. Økt skade av granbarkbillen i nordlige områder med lite barkbilleproblemer tidligere er også en trend i andre deler av Nord- Europa. Fellefangstene dokumenterer at granbarkbillen forekommer i vestlige og kystnære områder i Vest-Agder (Lyngdal og Mandal) hvor gran har blitt plantet i nyere tid. Flere vestlige fylker som Rogaland, Hordaland, Sogn og Fjordane og Møre og Romsdal får stadig mer gran i attraktiv alder for granbarkbillen, men det mangler overvåkingsdata for granbarkbillen fra disse fylkene.

Sammendrag

Skogens helsetilstand påvirkes i stor grad av klima og værforhold, enten direkte ved tørke, frost og vind, eller indirekte ved at klimaet påvirker omfanget av soppsykdommer og insektangrep. Klimaendringene og den forventede økningen i klimarelaterte skogskader gir store utfordringer for forvaltningen av framtidas skogressurser. Det samme gjør invaderende skadegjørere, både allerede etablerte arter og nye som kan komme til Norge i framtida. Eksempler på begge er omtalt i foreliggende rapport. I denne rapporten presenteres resultater fra skogskadeovervåkingen i Norge i 2015: (i) Overvåking av skogens helsetilstand på de landsrepresentative flatene. (ii) Skogøkologiske analyser og målinger av luftkjemi på de intensive overvåkingsflatene. (iii) Barkbilleovervåking og analyse av klimaeffekter. (iv) Import skadegjørere og analyse av invasjonspotensialet til fremmede billearter. (v) Overvåking av askeskuddsyke. (vi) Andre skaderegistreringer fra Skogskader.no og befaringer i 2015. Skogovervåkingen på de landsrepresentative flater viser at gran- og furuskogens generelle helsetilstand var god i 2015, selv om det ble registrert uvanlig mange skader på gran og kronetettheten hos furu hadde sunket i forhold til året før. Siden 2007 har kronetettheten likevel økt hos begge treslagene mens trenden har vært motsatt i ICP Forests’ nettverk. Det var lite misfarging på gran og furu og få skader på furu i 2015, mens bjørk, som tidligere, hadde flest skader av alle undersøkte treslag. Det ble ellers registrert få spesielle skader på skog i 2015. Konsentrasjon og atmosfærisk avsetning av både svovel og nitrogen var generelt veldig lave i 2015. Konsentrasjonen av uorganiske nitrogenforbindelser i jordvann og nivået av bakkenært ozon var også lave i Norge i 2015. Ozonnivåene er i stor grad styrt av værforholdene og vil derfor kunne oppvise store årlige variasjoner. Kjemiske analyser på de intensive skogovervåkings-flatene i Norge har dokumentert en betydelig reduksjon over tid i nivåer av svovelkomponenter både i luft, nedbør og jordvann som følge av store utslippsreduksjoner i Europa. Overvåkingsflata på Sørlandet, som er mest utsatt for langtransporterte forurensinger, hadde som i tidligere år de høyeste nitrogen- og svovelverdier i barnålene i 2015. Verdiene hadde økt i forhold til 2013 og var på det høyeste nivået siden hhv. 1995 og 1999, til tross for at både tilførselen og deposisjonen av disse elementene har avtatt sterkt siden 1990. På de to andre flatene var nitrogenverdiene vesentlig lavere, og i Osen var det dessuten for lite nitrogen i forhold til de andre næringsstoffene. Nitrogenmangel er imidlertid normalt i boreale barskoger. Vegetasjonsanalyser på den intensive skogovervåkingsflata i Hurdal viser at dekningen av etasjehusmose og to vmoser har økt siden 1999, mens flere andr mosearter har gått tilbake. Økt vekst av store bladmoser som etasjehusmose er også dokumentert av andre norske studier og har blitt forklart som et resultat av at mange milde og nedbørrike høster har gjort vekstsesongen lengre. Resultatene fra granbarkbilleovervåkingen i 2015 viste en moderat økning av populasjonene for landet sett under ett. Analyser av tidsserier for klimaeffekter og utviklingen i granbarkbillebestanden indikerer en trend mot økende barkbillemengder i Trøndelag og Nordland, som har mye hogstmoden gran. Denne økningen er mest markert i tørre og varme år. Tidligere modellberegninger har predikert at den forventete temperaturøkningen kan føre til at granbarkbillen får to generasjoner per sommer i stedet for én så langt nord som Trøndelag, noe som kan gi en markert økning i antall angrep på stående trær...

Til dokument

Sammendrag

The purpose of this study is to increase the basic understanding of outbreak dynamics in order to improve the management of bark beetle outbreaks. The spruce bark beetle Ips typographus is a major disturbance agent of European forests and is the continent’s most economically and environmentally damaging bark beetle. Outbreaks of the spruce bark beetle are often triggered by large windfall episodes, and we have utilized a unique opportunity to study a Slovakian outbreak where little salvage logging was performed in some areas after a 2.5 million m3 storm-felling in 2004. Our analyses focused on the first five years after the windfall, and we used a combination of empirical data and simulation models to understand the spatial patterns of beetle-killed forest patches developing during the outbreak. The univoltine beetle population used an increasing proportion of the windfelled trees during the two first seasons after the storm, but from the third season onwards our comparisons of inter-patch distance distributions indicated a transition from beetle production largely in windfall areas to a self-sustaining outbreak with infestation patches developing independently of the windthrows. The size of new infestation patches formed after this transition was modeled as a function of beetle pressure, estimated by the proportion of a circle area surrounding new patches that was covered by infestation patches the previous year. Our model results of patch size distribution did not correspond well with the empirical data if patch formation was modeled as a pure dispersal–diffusion process. However, beetle aggregation on individual trees appears to be important for patch development, since good correspondence with empirical data was found when beetle aggregation was incorporated in the modeled dispersal process. The strength of correspondence between the beetle aggregation model and the empirical data varied with the density of aggregation trees in the modeled landscape, and reached a maximum of 83% for a density of three aggregation trees per infestation patch. Our results suggest that efficient removal of windfelled trees up until the start of the second summer after a major windfall is important to avoid a transition into a patch-driven bark beetle outbreak that is very difficult to manage. Our results also indicate that the outcome of a patch-driven outbreak is difficult to predict, since the development of new infestation patches is not a simple function of beetle pressure but is also affected by beetle behavior and local forest conditions.

Sammendrag

Fjellbjørkmåler, den viktigste skadegjøreren på bjørk i Nord-Norge og i fjellet, er på vei nordover. Studier over de siste 15-20 år viser at utbrudd nå også forekommer i de kaldeste og mest kontinentale områdene lengst nord i Norge. Årsaken er trolig at et midlere klima har åpnet opp disse ugjestmilde områdene for fjellbjørkmåleren.

Sammendrag

Etter flere år med en nedadgående trend ser vi en generell økning i barkbillefangstene i 2014. Denne økningen settes i sammenheng med at denne sommeren har vært tørr og varm, fordi høy temperatur og lite nedbør på forsommeren som regel har en positiv effekt på granbarkbillenes flukt og formering. En varm og tørr sommer kan også føre til mer billeangrep på stående trær. Da det likevel har vært lite angrep i denne sesongen skyldes dette trolig at populasjonene av biller har vært lave i utgangspunktet, fordi de fuktige og kjølige somrene i de foregående årene har bidratt til en nedgang i billepopulasjonene. Denne situasjonen kan endre seg raskt dersom vi får nye vindfellinger fulgt av varme og tørre somre, slik at billepopulasjonene blir store nok til å gjøre masseangrep som overvinner forsvaret hos levende grantrær. Det anbefales derfor å være særlig på vakt i områder hvor det oppstår nye store vindfellinger og lokaliteter med store billefangster i de siste årene.

Sammendrag

Increasing inter-continental trade with wood chips represents a challenge for phytosanitary authorities, as such trade may lead to pest introductions and invasions with huge impacts on forest ecosystems and economy. Predicting species invasions and their impacts in advance may be difficult, but improved information about potential invasive species ahead of any interceptions is an important precautionary step to reduce the probability of invasions. Here we identify bark- and wood-boring insects that have a potential to become invasive in northern Europe, and that may be introduced by import of deciduous wood chips from North America. The potentially most damaging species belong to the beetle genus Agrilus (Buprestidae), which includes the highly damaging emerald ash borer A. planipennis. We give a brief presentation of this and seven other Agrilus species or subspecies, and review factors of importance for the risk of establishment and potential economic and ecological impacts of these species. We also discuss one Scolytinae, Hylurgopinus rufipes. There are strong indications in the literature that some north European trees are highly susceptible to attack from the selected beetle species. We therefore conclude that because north European trees have not coevolved with these herbivores and thus may lack adequate defenses, most of the identified beetle species are likely to spread in “defense- and enemy-free space” if they are introduced to northern Europe, with considerable economic and ecological consequences.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Six trap models were compared with respect to their ability to capture European spruce bark beetles and technical details in handling and use. All trap models proved to be efficient and gave high captures of beetles during operation for one summer season (2013). Ranking the trap models in descending order of total capture of beetles gave this list: Lindgren trap, Theysohn, prototype-P, Ecotrap, BEKA, and prototype-K. However, there was much variation in trapping results between localities for all trap models, and the estimated means did in most cases not differ significantly between models. The estimated mean capture of the Lindgren trap was significantly higher than for prototype-K and BEKA, but their confidence intervals were wide and they were close to being insignificantly different. The retail price of the traps vary from about 10 € (Ecotrap) to 50-55 € (Lindgren), while prices are not available for the two prototypes, which are not in regular production. Advantages and disadvantages concerning weight, size, robustness, draining of rain water, ease of handling and mounting are commented on in the discussion, and technical details of the traps are presented in a separate appendix (6).

Sammendrag

Sesongen 2013 viser en nedgang i billefangstene sammenlignet med forrige år. Nedgangen for de fleste områdene skyldes trolig at en våt og kjølig sommer har gitt ugunstige betingelser for billenes flukt og formering, men også at en ugunstig fjorårssesong har gitt færre overvintrende biller. Desuten kan langvarig frost med dype tele ha økt billedødeligheten i løpet av vinteren 2012/2013. Lokale forekomster av vindfellinger høsten 2013 tilsier at det er grunn til å være på vakt i 2014. Situasjonen kan raskt endre seg dersom billene får anledning til å formere seg i vindfall i løpet av en tørr og varm sommer. Det anbefales derfor å være særlig på vakt i områder med uryddet vindfall, store billefangster og forekomst av barkbilledrepte trær de siste årene.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Det er ikke registrert sammendrag

Sammendrag

Stormen Dagmar som rammet Sør-Norge i romjula blåste ned mye skog. Dersom de vindfelte trærne blir liggende i skogen gjennom sommeren er det stor fare for at barkbillene vil oppformere seg i vindfallet. I granskog kan dette føre til omfattende angrep på den skogen som i dag er frisk.

Sammendrag

Introductions of the pine wood nematode (PWN), which causes Pine Wilt Disease (PWD), have devastating effects on pine forests in regions with susceptible host trees under suitable climate conditions. Norwegian authorities have proposed a contingency plan if PWN is detected in Norway. We compare the costs of implementing this plan with the costs of further spread and damage of PWN under two climate change scenarios: present and the most likely future climate. With the present climate, PWD will not occur in Norway. Under climatic change, the cost of PWD damage is approximately 0.078–0.157 million NOK (0.01–0.02 million Euros) estimated as net present value with 2 and 4% p.a. discount rate. In contrast, the corresponding costs of implementing the suggested contingency plan will be 1.7–2.2 billion NOK (0.2–0.25 billion Euros). These costs are caused by reduced income from industrial timber production and the costs of the eradication measures. Costs related to reduced recreation or biodiversity are expected to be very high, but are not included in the above estimates. Many of the factors in the analysis are burdened with high uncertainty, but sensitivity analyses indicate that the results are rather robust even for drastic changes in assumptions. The results suggest that there is a need to revise the current PWN contingency plan in Norway.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Increasing inter-continental trade of wood chips for biofuel represents a significant risk of introducing invasive pest species that can cause biome-scale impacts on forest ecosystems. Some potentially invasive species have the capacity to cause high tree mortality on the Eurasian continent and could cause significant impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functions. Because eradication of established species is difficult, there is a need for scientific studies that can evaluate the reliability of current import control practices to ensure lowest possible risk of establishment of potentially harmful species. We used a stochastic simulation model and sensitivity analyses to evaluate the chance of detecting harmful pests in imported wood chips by sampling according to the current use of internationally accepted standards. As an example, we focused on the North American beetle Agrilus anxius (bronze birch borer) that can cause 100% mortality of European and Asian birch species in North America. We simulated the process from logging in North America to sampling the wood chips upon arrival in Europe. The probability of pest detection for current sampling protocols used by port inspectors was very low (<0.00005), while a 90% chance of detection may require sampling 27 million litres of wood chips per shipload.

Sammendrag

Arter av sopp og insekter som introduseres til nye områder kan forårsake omfattende tredød og store endringer i skogøkosystemer. Introduksjoner i andre deler av verden viser tydelig hvilket skadepotensial slike arter har. Skog og landskap søker å være i forkant med forskning som kan møte utfordringen fra nye arter i norske skoger.

Sammendrag

De fleste fylkene i Norge har hatt synkende barkbillenivå i de siste årene og viser også en nedgang i 2012. Nedgangen skyldes trolig at en våt og kjølig sommer har virket negativt på billenes flukt og formering, men også at populasjonen av overvintrende biller har vært lavere etter ugunstige betingelser i foregående sesong. Sør-Trøndelag viser imidlertid en gjennomgående økning i billefangstene i de siste 2 årene. Nivået er middels høyt i flere fylker, og situasjonen kan raskt endre seg i retning av mer skogskader dersom vi skulle få store vindfellinger og tørkeperioder i tiden som kommer.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Import av tømmer og andre treprodukter kan bringe fremmede arter av insekter, sopp og planter som kan gi store skadeeffekter om de etableres i Norge. I verden kan det vises til flere eksempler på at import av nye arter med slike varer har ført til betydelig effekter på skogøkosystem og biomangfold og store kostnader for skogbruk og forvaltning. Det finnes knapt noe eksempel på at forsøk på å utrydde innførte insekter og sopp etter etablering har vært vellykket, selv når ressursinnsatsen har vært svært stor. Mange arter er vanskelig å oppdage før de allerede er godt etablert og under god spredning, og for noen arter med alvorlige effekter på skogøkosystemer har det ikke lykkes å finne gode metoder for rask påvisning til tross for omfattende innsats både i forskning og overvåking. Overvåking av tømmer og andre tre-produkter ved importsteder synes ikke å være et tilstrekkelig effektivt virkemiddel for å stoppe og utrydde fremmede arter. Dette skyldes at prøvene oftest blir for små i forhold til importvolumene og at eventuell påvisning skjer for sent til å kunne hindre etablering og videre spredning. Denne rapporten analyserer importstatistikk for siste 20 år fra ulike regioner og drøfter hvilke trender som gjør seg gjeldende for volumer av tømmer og treprodukter som potensielt kan føre med aktuelle arter av insekter, sopp og planter som en vil unngå å importere til Norge. [...]

Sammendrag

Import of logs and other wood products can bring alien species of insects, fungi, and plants that could have major harmful effects if they became established in Norway. Globally, there are several examples of wood product imports which have led to the establishment of new species with significant impacts on forest ecosystems and biodiversity, and have created high costs for forestry and management. There is hardly any example of successful eradication of introduced and established insects and fungi, even when great resources and efforts have been used. Many species are difficult to detect until they are already well established and actively dispersing. Further, for some species with serious effects on forest ecosystems, efficient rapid detection and monitoring methods have not been found. Monitoring of logs and other wood products at the import sites do not seem to be a sufficiently effective tool to stop and eradicate alien species because samples are usually too small compared to the import volumes and any detection is usually too late to prevent establishment and further spread....

Til dokument

Sammendrag

In recent decades we have seen rapid and co-occurring changes in landscape structure, species distributions and even climate as consequences of human activity. Such changes affect the dynamics of the interaction between major forest pest species, such as bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), and their host trees. Normally breeding mostly in broken or severely stressed spruce; at high population densities some bark beetle species can colonise and kill healthy trees on scales ranging from single trees in a stand to multi-annual landscape-wide outbreaks. In Eurasia, the largest outbreaks are caused by the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (Linnaeus), which is common and shares a wide distribution with its main host, Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.). A large literature is now available, from which this review aims to synthesize research relevant for the population dynamics of I. typographus and co-occurring species under changing conditions. We find that spruce bark beetle population dynamics tend to be metastable, but that mixed-species and age-heterogeneous forests with good site-matching tend to be less susceptible to large-scale outbreaks. While large accumulations of logs should be removed and/or debarked before the next swarming period, intensive removal of all coarse dead wood may be counterproductive, as it reduces the diversity of predators that in some areas may play a role in keeping I. typographus populations below the outbreak threshold, and sanitary logging frequently causes edge effects and root damage, reducing the resistance of remaining trees. It is very hard to predict the outcome of interspecific interactions due to invading beetle species or I. typographus establishing outside its current range, as they can be of varying sign and strength and may fluctuate depending on environmental factors and population phase. Most research indicates that beetle outbreaks will increase in frequency and magnitude as temperature, wind speed and precipitation variability increases, and that mitigating forestry practices should be adopted as soon as possible considering the time lags involved.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Abstract Introductions of the pine wood nematode (PWN), which causes Pine Wilt Disease (PWD), have devastating effects on pine forests in regions with susceptible host trees under suitable climate conditions. Norwegian authorities have proposed a contingency plan if PWN is detected in Norway. We compare the costs of implementing this plan with the costs of further spread and damage of PWN under two climate change scenarios: present and the most likely future climate. With the present climate, PWD will not occur in Norway. Under climatic change, the cost of PWD damage is approximately 0.078- 0.157 million NOK (0.01-0.02 million Euros) estimated as net present value with 2 and 4% p.a. discount rate. In contrast, the corresponding costs of implementing the suggested contingency plan will be 1.7-2.2 billion NOK (0.2-0.25 billion Euros). These costs are caused by reduced income from industrial timber production and the costs of the eradication measures. Costs related to reduced recreation or biodiversity are expected to be very high, but are not included in the above estimates. Many of the factors in the analysis are burdened with high uncertainty, but sensitivity analyses indicate that the results are rather robust even for drastic changes in assumptions. The results suggest that there is a need to revise the current PWN contingency plan in Norway. Keywords: Bioeconomics, boreal forest damage, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, climate change, impact assessment, stochastic modelling.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Frequent bark beetle outbreaks cause biome-scale impacts in boreal and temperate forests worldwide. Despite frequent interceptions at ports of entry, the most aggressive bark beetle species of Ips and Dendroctonus in North America and Eurasia have failed to establish outside their original home continents. Our experiments showed that Ips typographus can breed in six North American spruce species: Engelmann spruce, white spruce¸ Sitka spruce, Lutz spruce, black spruce and red spruce. This suggests that differences between the Eurasian historical host and North American spruce species are not an insurmountable barrier to establishment of this tree-killing species in North America. However, slightly diminished quality of offspring beetles emerged from the North American spruces could reduce the chance of establishment through an Allee effect. The probabilistic nature of invasion dynamics suggests that successful establishments can occur when the import practice allows frequent arrivals of non-indigenous bark beetles (increased propagule load). Model simulations of hypothetical interactions of Dendroctonus rufipennis and I. typographus indicated that inter-species facilitations could result in more frequent and severe outbreaks than those caused by I. typographus alone. The potential effects of such new dynamics on coniferous ecosystems may be dramatic and extensive, including major shifts in forest structure and species composition, increased carbon emissions and stream flow, direct and indirect impacts on wildlife and invertebrate communities, and loss of biodiversity.

Sammendrag

En analyse av barkbilledata for kommunene i Sør-Trøndelag viser at det er vanskelig å påvise signifikante trender, bortsett fra at fangstene fra Selbu var noe høyere enn i de øvrige kommunene. Den store variasjonen tyder på at mange andre faktorer enn den reelle billepopulasjonen gjør seg gjeldende på lokalt nivå. Således blir det vanskelig å skille mellom reelt høye billepopulasjoner og effekter av f.eks. felleplassering og lokale forhold som påvirker fangbarheten. En bør derfor være forsiktig med å tillegge enkelte lokale fangster for stor vekt i tolkningen. Denne variasjonen jevner seg imidlertid ut og gir et bedre utgangspunkt for tolkning når vi benytter en større geografisk skala (fylke eller landsdel).

Til dokument

Sammendrag

The Eurasian spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, is one of the major forest insect pests in Europe, capable of mass-attacking and killing mature Norway spruce trees. The initiation and development of a new generation are strongly controlled by temperature and a warmer climate may affect the number of generations that is produced per year and hence the outbreak dynamics. Experimental knowledge regarding reproductive diapause adaptations is, however, too sparse for largescale assessments of future trends. We developed a model description of diapause induction, and used gridded observational temperature data to evaluate multiple combinations of day length and temperature thresholds to find the model parameterisation most coherent with I. typographus monitoring data from Scandinavia. The selected model parameterisation is supported by European literature data, though further experimental studies are required to analyse population specific adaptations and capacity for adjustments to changing climate conditions. Implementing the model description of reproductive diapause in a temperature driven model of bark beetle phenology (swarming activity and development from egg to mature bark beetle), enabled us to assess the length of the late summer swarming period that is a critical determinant of the risk of forest damage. By using regional climate model data we show that higher temperatures can result in increased frequency and length of late summer swarming events, producing a second generation in southern Scandinavia and a third generation in lowland parts of central Europe. Reproductive diapause will not prevent the occurrence of an additional generation per year, but the day length cues may restrict the length of the late summer swarming period.

Sammendrag

Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) feed and breed in dead or severely weakened host trees. When their population densities are high, some species aggregate on healthy host trees so that their defences may be exhausted and the inner bark successfully colonized, killing the tree in the process. Here we investigate under what conditions participating with unrelated conspecifics in risky mass attacks on living trees is an adaptive strategy, and what this can tell us about bark beetle outbreak dynamics. We find that the outcome of individual host selection may deviate from the ideal free distribution in a way that facilitates the emergence of tree-killing (aggressive) behavior, and that any heritability on traits governing aggressiveness seems likely to exist in a state of flux or cycles consistent with variability observed in natural populations. This may have implications for how economically and ecologically important species respond to environmental changes in climate and landscape (forest) structure. The population dynamics emerging from individual behavior are complex, capable of switching between `endemic` and `epidemic`’ regimes spontaneously or following changes in host availability or resistance. Model predictions are compared to empirical observations, and we identify some factors determining the occurrence and self-limitation of epidemics.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) feed and breed in dead or severely weakened host trees. When their population densities are high, some species aggregate on healthy host trees so that their defences may be exhausted and the inner bark successfully colonized, killing the tree in the process. Here we investigate under what conditions participating with unrelated conspecifics in risky mass attacks on living trees is an adaptive strategy, and what this can tell us about bark beetle outbreak dynamics. We find that the outcome of individual host selection may deviate from the ideal free distribution in a way that facilitates the emergence of tree-killing (aggressive) behavior, and that any heritability on traits governing aggressiveness seems likely to exist in a state of flux or cycles consistent with variability observed in natural populations. This may have implications for how economically and ecologically important species respond to environmental changes in climate and landscape (forest) structure. The population dynamics emerging from individual behavior are complex, capable of switching between “endemic” and “epidemic” regimes spontaneously or following changes in host availability or resistance. Model predictions are compared to empirical observations, and we identify some factors determining the occurrence and self-limitation of epidemics.

Sammendrag

Today the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus is always univoltine in Northern Europe including Norway and completes development from egg to adult between May and August. Further south in Europe, development is bivoltine with the completion of two generations in most years. A temperature-driven developmental model suggests that by 2070-2100 the voltinism of I. typographus will change dramatically in Norway. If summers become only 2.5°C warmer than today bivoltinism can be expected every single year in the major spruce growing areas in S-Norway. This is likely to have dramatic effects on forestry since two generations per year will give two, instead of one, attack periods each summer. In addition to increasing the number of attacked trees the effect of the attacks may also be more severe, as Norway spruce is more susceptible to beetle attacks later in the summer. However, climate change will probably also change the phenology of Norway spruce and thus its susceptibility to attack by I. typographus and its phytopathogenic fungal associates. We are currently modelling how tree resistance varies with temperature and tree phenology in order to provide more well-founded advice to forest managers on the interaction between bark beetles and tree in a future climate.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Etter en økning av barkbillenivået over flere år viser fellefangstene for 2010 en gjennomgående nedgang for hele landet. Dette kan trolig forklares med en våtere og kjøligere sesong sammenlignet med de foregående årene. Den viktigste perioden for flukt og formering av billene har hatt lavere temperatur og høyere nedbør enn normalen i store deler av områdene som dekkes av barkbilleovervåkingen. I Hedmark ser vi likevel noe økning av abarkbillenivået og flyregistreringer viser forekomst av drepte trær i noen kommuner både i 2009 og 2010. I nordlige lokaliteter med en del drepte trær i 2009 (Tydal) ser vi nå en markert nedgang i barkbillenivået.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

The pinewood nematode (PWN) is one of the worst tree-killing exotic pests in East-Asian countries. The first European record of establishment in Portugal in 1999 triggered extensive surveys and contingency plans for eradication in European countries, including immediate removal of large areas of conifer host trees. Using Norway as an example, we applied a simulation model to evaluate the chance of successful eradication of a hypothetical introduction by the current contingency plan in a northern area where wilting symptoms are not expected to occur. Despite a highly variable spread of nematode infestations in space and time, the probability of successful eradication in 20 years was consistently low (mean 0.035, SE 0.02). The low success did not change significantly by varying the biological parameters in sensitivity analyses (SA), probably due to the late detection of infestations by the survey (mean 14.3 years). SA revealed a strong influence of management parameters. However, a high probability of eradication required unrealistic measures: achieving an eradication probability of 0.99 in 20 years required 10,000 survey samples per year and a host tree removal radius of 8,000 m around each detection point.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Insektene er blant de organismene som reagerer raskest på klimaendringer. De har kort generasjonstid, er svært mobile og utviklingshastigheten deres er direkte påvirket av temperaturen. Dette betyr at utviklingen fra egg til voksent insekt går raskere når temperaturen øker, noe som kan få store praktiske konsekvenser for skogbruket.

Sammendrag

VKM"s Panel 9 gives the following main conclusions of part 2 of the risk assessment: 1) Under the present climatic conditions, and if no control measures are taken, an introduction of PWN to the PRA area will not cause increased pine tree mortality. The level of uncertainty of this assessment is low. 2) Assuming the IS92a climate change scenario for the period 2000-2049 (RegClim), which involves a ~2 ºC temperature increase by the end of the period, an introduction of PWN to the PRA area will, if no control measures are taken, cause a minor increase in pine tree mortality (300 trees per year on average). The mortality can become larger if the temperature increases more than 2 ºC, and will gradually increase with time after 2049 due to spread of PWN. The level of uncertainty of these assessments is medium to high. 3) Any effects of PWN presence in the PRA area on export of wood and wood products will be of little importance. The level uncertainty of this assessment is low. 4) It will be almost impossible to eradicate PWN once it has been introduced to the PRA area. The level of uncertainty of this assessment is low. 5) The cost of a single eradication event as described in the preliminary contingency plan for the PRA area is approximately 700 mill. NOK. Due to expected spread, the total cost of eradication attempts following one introduction event will be approximately 2000 mill. NOK for the first 50 years. The level of uncertainty of these assessments is medium. 6) The negative effects of the control measures on the environment will be major. The level of uncertainty of this assessment is low. 

Sammendrag

Alvorlige skadegjørere kan bli innført med handel og etablere seg i norsk skog. Ved Norsk institutt for skog og landskap benyttes spredningsmodeller for å prøve ut foreslåtte beskyttelsestiltak. Beredskapsplanen mot furuvednematoden foreskrev flatehogster på 28 kvadratkilometer dersom denne arten skulle bli påvist i Norge. Simuleringene viste at selv slike drastiske tiltak har liten sannsynlighet for å lykkes.

Sammendrag

Skog har en viktig klimaregulerende effekt ved å binde CO2 og redusere konsentrasjonen av klimagasser i atmosfæren. Det nordlige barskogsbeltet er særlig viktig fordi høyere temperaturer gir økt tilvekst og dermed mulig økt CO2-binding. Men det kan være grunner til å revurdere dette bildet av skogen som en slags karbon-bank i klimaets tjeneste. Som i den virkelige bankverden finnes det nemlig røvere i barskogen også - i form av tredrepende barkbiller og deres medfølgende blåvedsopper.

Sammendrag

Forskning ut til folket, skriver Anne Hafstad på kommentarplass tirsdag. Hun mener at for mange forskere foretrekker å sitte på eget kontor, publisere i vitenskapelige tidsskrifter og diskutere med likemenn. Men det er nok bare en myte. Egentlig finnes det mange forskere som gjerne vil formidle forskning, og som snakker både tydelig og i store linjer. Det er ikke et spørsmål om å komme ut av sneglehusene, som Hafstad skriver, men snarere at avisene tilbyr fast plass og bedre betingelser for slik formidling. Men den plassen er kanskje allerede opptatt av journalister som skal breie seg med helsides kommentarer og synsing hver eneste dag?

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Barkbillenivået i Trøndelag og Nordland har vært økende siden 2002 og er nå høyere eller like høyt som flere fylker i Sør-Norge. En kombinasjon av store vindfellinger og enda høyere temperaturer i fremtiden kan tenkes å åpne muligheten for utbrudd i en region med store skogressurser. I Sør-Norge er nivået rundt det samme som i fjor. Sen fluktsesong med mye biller i en varmeperiode rundt midtsommer kan ha bidratt til lokalt høye fangster. En konsentrert flukt på denne tiden har trolig gjort at billene drepte både enkelttrær og mindre tregrupper, men det foreligger ikke rapporter om angrep på levende skog. Flere steder er billebestanden likevel så høy at masseangrep på stående skog kan ventes dersom vi får omfattende stormfellinger og langvarig tørke. Det anbefales å overvåke skogen lokalt på forsommeren 2010 for å oppdage nye angrep. På et overordnet nivå bør det lages en plan for rask opprydding dersom noen områder skulle rammes av store vindfellinger.

Sammendrag

Insektene er blant de organismene som reagerer raskest på klimaendringer.Utviklingshastigheten deres er direkte påvirket av temperaturen, men klimaet påvirker insektene på ulike måter.

Sammendrag

Insektene som forsyner seg av granas kongler og frø har tradisjonelt ikke vært regnet som noe stort problem i norske skoger. Men nå som stadig flere av granplantene som skal danne framtidas skog stammer fra frøplantasjer er dette bildet i ferd med å endre seg. Trusselbildet kan også være i endring, siden klimaet ser ut til å påvirke forekomsten av to viktige kongleinsekter, granfrøgallmygg og kongleglansvikler.

Sammendrag

Det er granbarkbillen (Ips typographus) som står for de største barkbilleutbruddene i Europa. For tiden har den omfattende utbrudd i Slovakia, og de siste utbruddene i Sør-Norge på 1970-tallet påførte næringen et tap i millardklassen. En ny undersøkelse tar for seg effektene dersom en nordamerikansk tredrepende barkbille skulle introduseres i matfatet til granbarkbillen.

Sammendrag

The main Avena species that are important weeds of cereal and arable crops include A. fatua L., A. sterilis and A. barbata Pott. All three species have an abscission scar on the grains. A risk assessment of A. fatua L. as an indirect pest in Norway is given in a separate document. For both A. sterilis ssp. macrocarpa and ssp. maxima, and for A. barbata Pott, the potential for entry and establishment in Norway is considered as very low. A. sterilis ssp. ludoviciana (winter wild oats) has a moderate potential for establishment in Norway. The suitability of the environment for A. sterilis ssp. ludoviciana was therefore investigated: Our assessment of the probability of establishment indicates that the climate is not favourable for establishment of A. sterilis ssp. ludoviciana in Norway. A. sterilis ssp. ludoviciana is a problem in southern Europe and central southern England and is mainly a weed in winter cereals. While it is highly likely that the probability of establishment of A. sterilis ssp. ludoviciana has increased in Norway in recent years due to climate change and consequent changes in cultural practices, its probability of establishment in Norway is still low and it is therefore not likely that it will become a weed in Norway under current conditions. However, if the future climate of the PRA area changes, so that winter conditions become similar to conditions in southern England, while the acreage of winter cereal continues to grow, A. sterilis ssp. ludoviciana could become a weed in Norway. A. sterilis ssp. ludoviciana is not present in Denmark where winter cereals are much more widely cultivated, and the climate is more favourable than in Norway. One would therefore expect the weed to establish in Denmark before it will become a problem in Norway

Sammendrag

Bestanden av granbarkbiller i Norge overvåkes av Norsk institutt for skog og landskap og skogbruksetaten i 12 fylker. Hvert årr fanges det biller i mer enn 400 feller i nesten 100 kommuner. Takket være stor innsats fra de mange som har utført fangstarbeidet, har vi nå årlige data helt siden 1979.

Sammendrag

In recent years several forest insects have been recorded as newcomers or as more abundant than before towards northern latitudes and higher elevations in Norway. Such observations are from different groups of forest insect, including herbivorous geometrids, phloeophagous bark beetles and insects in cone seed .......

Til dokument

Sammendrag

The current report is a background for a Pest Risk Assessment (PRA) of the bark beetle species Ips amitinus in the PRA area of Norway, following the International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures ISPM 11 (FAO 2004). The report is based on updated information about distribution, pathogenicity and ecological information, which add to a previous PRA for this species. It is concluded that the risk of establishment is high with the current import and management practices. I. amitinus may potentially cause significant tree damage alone or in interaction with Ips typographus; however, the outcome is very much dependent on scenarios of climate development and population dynamics.

Sammendrag

Økningen i barkbillebestandene siden 2002 fortsetter. Alle fylker unntatt ett viser oppgang i 2008; og noen fylker på Østlandet har nær en fordobling fra fjoråret. Økningen settes i sammenheng med de varme somrene, hvor spesielt fluktsesongen i 2008 har hatt gitt gode betingelser for barkbillebestandene. På Østlandet var fellefangstene flere steder så høye at masseangrep på stående skog kunne ha funnet sted om det samtidig hadde vært langvarig tørke og omfattende vindfellinger. I Trøndelag og Nordland, som aldri har hatt barkbilleutbrudd, har det vært en betydelig økning siden 2002. Bestandene er fortsatt for lave for masseutbrudd i denne landsdelen, men mulighetene for utbrudd øker om klimaendringer gir vesentlig høyere temperatur i fremtiden. Det anbefales å overvåke skogen for nye angrep og å vurdere om driftsapparatet er tilstrekkelig til å raskt få ut angrepne trær ved en eventuell masseformering av granbarkbillene i fremtiden.

Sammendrag

Commercial products sold as "Jumping beans" are seed capsules of the scrubs Sebastiana paovniana, S. palmeri or  S. bolcularis containing larvae of Cydia deshaisiana. The larva makes the capsule move when heated. The risk assessment concluded that the larvae depend on a host not present in Norway to complete its life cycle. As the host plants only grow under extreme hot, desert conditions the expected climatic changes in the foreseable future will not lead to establishment and spread of the pest.

Sammendrag

In 2007, after many years of absence, Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus (CGMMV) reoccurred in Norwegian cucumber production. The Norwegian Food Safety Authority is considering to regulate CGMMV as a quarantine pest and commissioned a Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) of the virus. The Panel of Plant Health gives the following conclusions: Both recent and previous presence of CGMMV indicate that the pest is able to establish in the PRA area. The most probable pathway for long distance spread into the PRA area is seed transmission. Infected seedlings, people, water and soil are probable pathways for short distance spread. The probability of further spread is from location to location is high. Dry heat treatment has probably been the most effective measure to prevent the spread of CGMMV. There is a moderate level of uncertainty regarding the pathway for entry of CGMMV into the PRA area. There is a low degree of uncertainty regarding the pathogen survival and possibilty for transmission, establishment and spread in Norwegian greenhouse cucumber production.

Sammendrag

Bursaphelenchus xyliphilus, the Pine Wood Nematode (PWN) is not known to occur in Norway. With the present trade pattern the probability of entry of PWN into Norway is high. The most probable pathway is wood packing material. The probability that PWN will establish and spread in Norway is high. The beetle Monochamus sutor is regarded as a potential vector, but this has not been established in nature. The currently low density may retard PWN, but it will probably not stop establishement in a longer perspective.

Sammendrag

Pine Wood Nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) is the causal organism of Pine Wilt Disease (PWD), the worst forest pest of Japan. In Europe PWN is known to exist in Portugal. The Norwegian Food Safety Authority (Mattilsynet) is concerned about the plant health risks and the consequences to the society if PWN should establish in Norway. Mattilsynet needs a scientific assessment of the proposed measures in a contingency plan for PWN. Mattilsynet also needs the risks connected with recent spread of PWN in Portugal to be evaluated before possible changes can be made in the current phytosanitary policy of Norway. On this background Mattilsynet requested a pest risk assessment of PWN from the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety (Vitenskapskomiteen for mattrygghet, VKM). To answer the request, VKM commissioned a draft pest risk assessment report from the Norwegian Institute for Agricultural Sciences and Environmental Research (Bioforsk). A working group appointed by VKM’s Panel on Plant Health (Panel 9) has been involved during Bioforsk’s work on the report. VKM’s Panel 9 has used the report as a basis for VKM’s opinion. The current document answers Part 1 of Mattilsynet’s request, and was adopted by Panel 9 on a meeting 3rd September 2008. VKM’s Panel 9 gives the following main conclusions of the risk assessment: The PRA area of this assessment is Norway. PWN is not known to occur in Norway. With present trade pattern the probability of entry of PWN into Norway is expected to be high. The most probable pathway for entry of PWN into Norway would be wood packaging material (WPM). The probability that PWN will establish and spread in Norway is considered as high. With regard to the so-called Pest Free Areas (PFAs) of Portugal, the criteria given in ISPM No. 4 (FAO 1995) for establishing and maintaining PFAs have not been met, and the data available is not sufficient to confirm the existence of PFAs. Acceptance of untreated conifer wood from all parts of Portugal will result in a very high probability of entry and a high probability of establishment and spread of PWN and its vector to Norway. Uncertainty factors: To the best of our knowledge PWN is absent from the PRA area. The beetle M. sutor is regarded as a potential vector or PWN, but this has so far not been demonstrated in nature. The currently low vector densities may retard establishment of the PWN and PWD, but it will probably not stop establishment in a longer perspective. Lack of information on the dynamics of PWN populations in cool climates complicates estimates of the spread of the nematode and PWD. Custom routines may fail in their detection of PWN. Import of a seemingly harmless material might therefore pose an unknown risk. WPM follows consignments of all kinds and is a good example of a hazardous material, which often escapes plant health inspections. Detailed assessments of economic consequences of a possible establishment and spread of PWN in Norway, the effects of global warming and other climate changes on the probability for PWD outbreaks, and the effect of possible phytosanitary measures, will be given in Part 2.

Sammendrag

Wild oats (A. fatua) is present in 155 out of 431 Norwegian municipalities. It is widely distributed in all municipalities in the main agricultural areas in south-east and central-east Norway, and in the municipalities close to the Trondheim fjord. Otherwise wild oats is present in only a few scattered municipalities not geographically connected to these main areas. Endangered area, not yet infested by A. fatua, is estimated to 228858 ha. This area is spread over the cereal growing part of Norway. The counties of North- and South -Trøndelag have a higher portion of endangered area not yet infested than south and central part of East Norway. The probability of entry of A. fatua from outside the PRA area (Norway) is very low. The probability of spread within Norway is high. In areas with low infestation, like in Trøndelag, the probability of spread is lower than in heavily infested areas. However, in areas with high level of infestation there are few new farms left to be infested. The official wild oats register is a valuable tool in regulations aiming to limit spread. The register also provides a tool to follow up infested farms. The register would be even more useful if inspection for infestation on new farms had been more systematic. Wild oats is no longer devastating even in cereal monocropping, due to cost efficient herbicides. However, in Norway an increasing area is infested with wild oats. The infestation may vary from only a few plants to total coverage of the field. In cereal monocropping chemical treatment with and without hand roguing is the only feasible control methods. Hand roguing alone is expensive and ineffective even on modest infestation. The structural changes in cereal farming result in more farms being managed by entrepreneurs. Field managed by entrepreneurs promotes use of herbicide even on small infestations since this is a cost effective measure to control the weed. Less official control of cereal fields can also be expected.  The economical consequences are thus expected to be high. The economical consequences can be even higher in organic farming if the most profitable rotation has to be changed to a less profitable one because of wild oats infestation.

Sammendrag

Extensive timber imports represent potential introduction pathways for exotic bark beetles (Col: Scolytidae) that may pose ecological hazards and economical risks to native forests. One such species, Ips amitinus Eichh., has been intercepted several times at Norwegian ports of entry in the years since 2002, the year of the first Scandinavian record. Detection of overwintering individuals of I. amitinus at the timber storage site of import timber and preliminary results of a stepwise import model may suggest a high risk of establishment and spread in Norway spruce forests in Scandinavia.Using various modeling approaches, our goal is to reduce the risk of introduction, establishment, and spread of introduced bark beetles. Our objectives are to:model the processes of dispersal and establishment of arriving bark beetlesexplore to what extent an introduced species interacting with native Ips typographus L., the most dominant species in Norway spruce, will lead to stronger and more frequent outbreaks of I. typographusassess potential patterns of spread of newly established bark beetle species and the spatiotemporal outbreak dynamics resulting from interactions between native and introduced species; andadvise on the implications for forest industry and management.Here we present current efforts to model dispersal (objective 1). Dispersal patterns, and hence rates of establishment and spread, may vary considerably depending on dispersal behaviors of insects, such as directionality of movement and aggregation propensity. To assess underlying assumptions of dispersal models, we are using an individual-based model where traits governing dispersal are inherited with random mutations. Individual reproductive success is determined by resource availability and density-dependence in a simulated landscape governed by external forces (e.g., windfellings) and beetle activity (consumption of resources). Evolvable traits include straight line vs. random-walk flight paths and aggregation propensity.Model simulations show that the chance of successful reproduction is greatest for intermediate to high levels of directionality, and that directionality increases over time up to a certain point determined by the landscape features as well as other traits of the species. Assuming limited (local) information in a stochastic landscape, intermediate to high degree of flight directionality is selected for.

Sammendrag

Dersom vi får et varmere klima er noen effekter tilnærmet sikre, slik som at mange insekter vil øke sin utbredelse mot nord, og at utviklingen fra egg til voksent insekt vil gå raskere. På et generelt plan er slike direkte klimaeffekter lette å forutsi, men for å kunne si noe presist om hvordan det vil slå ut for den enkelte art trenger vi mer detaljert kunnskap om blant annet temperaturkrav. Skadeinsektene lever i et samspill med sine vertstrær, naturlige fiender og konkurrenter, og klimaendringer vil også påvirke dette samspillet. Slike indirekte klimaeffekter kan få store konsekvenser, men er vanskeligere å forutsi enn de direkte effektene.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Barkbillebestandene i Trøndelag og Nordland har vist en økende trend fram til i år og vil trolig øke ytterligere etter den varme sommeren i 2007. Nivået i disse fylkene er for tiden blant de høyeste i landet, og i Nord-Trøndelag må vi tilbake til slutten av 70- tallet for å finne høyere verdier. En regnfull sommer østafjells ga nedgang i barkbillefangstene sammenlignet med fjorårets varme sommer, men sammenlignet med 2005 er det en svak økning. Trøndelag og Nordland har store skogressurser med en høy andel av eldre skog som ikke har vært utsatt for omfattende barkbilleutbrudd i kjent tid. Det er behov for bedre modeller for å kunne forutsi hvordan bestandene av granbarkbiller vil utvikle seg i nordlige skogområder, og for å undersøke hvilke egenskaper ved skoglandskapet som er viktigst for utformingen av et klimatilpasset skogbruk i fremtiden.

Sammendrag

Et 4-årig forskningsprosjekt ved Norsk institutt for skog og landskap har fokusert på hvilke effekter et endret klima kan få på granbarkbillen. Dette er den andre av to artikler som gjengir noen av resultatene og hva de kan bety for norsk skog. I forrige artikkel tok vi for oss hvordan utbruddene kan bli både hyppigere og kortere i fremtiden, og at svingningene i bestandsnivået skjer i takt over store områder. Her ser vi på hvordan varmere somre i fremtiden kan øke granbarkbillens utviklingshastighet fra egg til voksent insekt. Resultatet kan bli at vi får to barkbillegenerasjoner per sommer i stedet for én, og dermed to perioder der billene angriper skog.

Sammendrag

Norsk institutt for skog og landskap har fokusert på hvilke effekter et endret klima kan få på granbarkbillen. Dette er den første av to artikler som gjengir noen av resultatene og hva de kan bety for norsk skog. Hyppigere stormer og tørkeperioder vil gi hyppigere utbrudd, men utbruddene kan komme til å bli mer kortvarige. Bestandsnivået til granbarkbillen svinger ofte i takt i landsdeler som rammes av de samme stormene. En viktig praktisk konsekvens av denne samvariasjonen over store områder er at skogskjøtseltiltak må skje på stor skala for å ha ønsket effekt.

Sammendrag

Svampmyggor är små, ofarliga myggor som förekommer i de flesta i skogar, särskilt om det finns gott om död ved, håligheter och svampar. Vi vet nu att det finns mer än 700 arter i landet. Tidigare studier i Norge har visat att dessa insekter är känsliga för uttorkning och kalavverkning. Våra studier av svampmyggor visar också att de gynnas av landskap med relativt hög nederbörd och förekomster av nyckelbiotoper av blandskog (se Nyhetsbrev 3). I vårt försiktiga gallringsförsök finner vi att deras artrikedom påverkas i relativt liten utsträckning, vilket kan bero på att många träd fortfarande finns kvar efter gallringen.

Sammendrag

Det mangler per i dag overvåkingssystemer for en rekke viktige insekter som er eller kan bli viktige skadegjørere i norsk skog i fremtiden. Dette behovet har ytterligere blitt aktualisert fordi fremmede arter introduseres, og fordi klimaendringer kan endre artenes utbredelse og tendens til å gi utbrudd. Det anbefales derfor at overvåkingen av granbarkbillen opprettholdes og suppleres med registreringer av skadde trær. I tillegg bør det være en egen overvåking ved importhavnene hvor fremmede arter har størst sannsynlighet for å bli introdusert.Det bør også være en målrettet overvåking og vurdering av behovet for overvåking av andre potensielle skadegjørere.

Sammendrag

This Pest Risk Assessment (PRA) of the fire blight bacterium Erwinia amylovora was initiated by a review or revision of a policy by the Norwegian Food Safety Authority. Fire blight was detected in Norway for the first time in 1986. The focus of infection was in and around the city of Stavanger in Rogaland county on the south west coast of the country. Mainly Cotoneaster bullatus and C. salicifolius were attacked.  The disease was contained and finally eradicated from the area in 1992. However, in 2000 fire blight re-emerged, in the same county, on the island Karmøy, separated from the first outbreak by 25 km open sea. A new containment and eradication programme was started. Nevertheless the disease continued to spread to the north, mainly due to the movement of beehives contaminated with E. amylovora, from areas with diseased plants to areas free from fire blight with warm and humid weather conditions, favorable for the development of the disease. Fire blight has been detected in private gardens, around public buildings, in recreation grounds, along roads, and in rural areas in the coastal areas of the counties of Rogaland, Hordaland and Sogn og Fjordane. It has not been detected in nurseries, in fruit-growing areas, or in other parts of the country. The main hosts are still C. bullatus and C. salicifolius and some other Cotoneaster spp. Occasionally diseased Sorbus aria, Pyrachanta and apple and pear have been detected. Recently a very limited outbreak on C. bullatus and C. salicifolius was detected in the city of Kristiansand in Vest-Agder county. The endangered area, where presence of fire blight will result in economically important loss is the commercial fruit growing areas of Norway. If E. amylovora is introduced into the main fruit growing districts, it is expected that the damage and losses to commercial fruit production and nurseries will be minor, under the current phytosanitary regime in Norway. Relaxation of the regulations in force for fighting fire blight in Norway will increase the expected damage and losses to commercial fruit production and nurseries to a moderate level. Importation of fruit trees and fruit tree propagation material from countries where fire blight is established is not expected to increase the risk of fire blight in Norway significantly, given that appropriate phytosanitary requirements and quarantine are followed.

Sammendrag

The detection in 1999 of the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in Portugal triggered survey activities in many European countries. With the assumption that PWN would reach frequency 10 times lower than the native B. mucronatus and the requirement of a 95 % confidence limit suggested 2 995 samples to be required for a safe statement on the absence of PWN from the territory surveyed. Samples were taken from 10 circular areas with 50 km diameter erected from a point of import of risk materials. In the period 2000-2006 3 165 wood samples, 2 880 from Pinus sylvestris, 279 from Picea abies and 6 from unknown wood, were collected from 446 logging sites, in 84 municipalities and 13 counties. Of the total material 85 % of the samples came from cutting wastes, timber or lying trees. Wood showing signs of insect activity (incl. Monochamus) formed 73 % of the total material. Nematodes were recorded in 85 % of the samples. The order Rhabditida was most frequent, followed by the orders Aphelenchida, Tylenchida and Dorylaimida. Rhabditid nematodes were equally frequent in pine and spruce, while Aphelenchida (Aphelenchus, Aphelenchoides, Cryptaphelenchus, Seinura and Bursaphelenchus) and Tylenchida (Filenchus, Lelenchus, Ditylenchus, Deladenus and Nothotylenchus) tended to be more common in pinewood. Aphelenchoides was the most common genus. The genus Bursaphelenchus occurred in 1 % of the samples. B. mucronatus was detected in 0,3 % of the samples and most often in cutting waste of pine. The pine wood nematode (PWN), B. xylophilus, was not detected in this survey. The unexpected low natural occurrence of B. mucronatus indicates that the number of potential niches for PWN also is lower than expected, and hence it will be necessary to continue this surveillance program to reach 10 000 samples. The present zone sites in central and south-eastern Norway will be supplemented with 1-2 zone sites in southwestern region of the country. In the future these zone sites will function as permanent observation areas. Care will also be taken to collect all samples from detached wood with signs of Monochamus activity.

Sammendrag

Model simulations show that an increased frequency in storms and drought periods may result in more frequent and shorter outbreaks of bark beetles. Warmer summers can result in two bark beetle generations per summer instead of one, giving bark beetles the opportunity to attack forests twice in a single year.

Sammendrag

Studies of defense mechanisms in Norway spruce Picea abies against the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus show that inducible defenses are triggered by unsuccessful beetle attacks. Moreover, spruce trees can be vaccinated against bark beetle attacks through stem bark inoculation with Ceratocystis polonica, an aggressive fungal associate of Ips typographus. Artificial inoculation with certain other fungi has a similar effect, making treated trees a tougher mach for attacking beetles. A similar enhancement of resistance can be achieved by stem surface treatment with methyl jasmonate. Enhanced resistance is associated with the formation of traumatic resin ducts, and mobilization of phenolic substances in living parenchyma cells. The phenolics appear to mix with the traumatic resin. Similar mechanisms are operating in other conifers. We hypothesize that unsuccessful beetle attacks produce a vaccination effect in the trees, enhancing their resistance to later attack. Adding the effect of induced resistance as a model factor shows an immediate effect on the population dynamics of Ips typographus.

Sammendrag

Detailed analyses of thresholded ecological interactions can improve our understanding of the transition from aperiodic to periodic dynamics. We develop a threshold model of the population dynamics of outbreaking bark beetle populations that alternate between non-epidemic and epidemic behavior. The model involves accumulation of resources during low-density periods and depletion during outbreaks. The transition between the two regimes is caused by disturbance events in the form of major tree felling by wind. The model is analyzed with particular reference to the population dynamics of the spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus) in Scandinavia for which a comprehensive literature allows full parameterization. The fairly constant outbreak lengths and the highly variable waiting time between outbreaks that are seen in the historical records of this species agree well with the predictions of the model. The thresholded resource-depletion dynamics result in substantial variation in the degree of periodicity between stochastic realizations. The completely aperiodic tree colonizations are partly predictable when the timing of the irregular windfall events are known. However, the predictability of inter-outbreak periods is low due to the large variation of cases falling most frequently in the middle between the extremes of purely nonperiodic (erratic) and periodic (cyclic) fluctuations.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Bestanden av granbarkbillen viser en økende trend på Østlandet og i Trøndelag etter en periode med relativt lave nivåer i foregående år. Økningen kan ha sammenheng med en uvanlig god vekstsesong. I noen områder kan tidligere vindfellinger ha bidratt til å forsterke bestandsøkningen. Den ekstra store økningen i Østfold og Akershus kan muligens settes i sammenheng med at disse fylkene ligger nærmest til det svenske området hvor storstormen ”Gudrun” forårsaket voldsomme vindfellinger. Muligheten for effekter på tvers av landegrensene understreker behovet for samordning av barkbilleovervåkingene i Norge og Sverige, og dessuten behovet for beredskapsplaner om tilsvarende stormer skulle ramme vår del av Skandinavia.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

En ny barkbilleart Ips amitinus har vært påvist i importtømmer i 2002. Vi har studert muligheten for at denne arten kan bidra til hyppigere eller forsterkete barkbilleutbrudd i samspill med granbarkbillen. Undersøkelsen har benyttet modellsimuleringer, siden eksperimenter som kan øke risikoen for nyetableering ikke er akseptabelt. Simuleringene viser at denne nye arten under visse betingelser kan bidra til økt forekomst og intensitet av barkbilleutbrudd. Et føre var prinsipp tilsier at en bør søke å unngå at I. amitinus etableres i norske skoger. Funn av overvintrende individer av den nye arten på lagerplasser for importtømmer, samt innledende resultater fra en trinnvis importmodell, indikerer en stor risiko for at Ips amitinus kan spre seg og etablere seg i norsk skog. De innledende modellresultatene viser imidlertid også at det finnes mulige virkemidler for å dempe risikoen.

Sammendrag

Pulpwood has been imported to Norway since the beginning of the 20th century. However, exotic plant species hitchhiking with pulpwood were not observed before c.1985. Prior to this the imported timber was debarked, and the chances that diaspores would have attached to a debarked log (compared to a log with bark) are very small.A greenhouse germination experiment based on 385 dm2 of sifted bark from the holds of nine Estonian pulpwood ships yielded 3187 seeds of 201 species of vascular plants, few of which were typical of coniferous forests. Approximately 39% of the hitchhiking seeds did not germinate until after a period of cold treatment.Most of the species germinated in low densities, and those occurring in greater numbers are common and widespread in Norway. Six species were new to Norway: Agrostis clavata, Androsace filiformis, Bidens radiata, Carex montana, Melica picta, and Ranunculus cassubicus.During the last 20 years, pulpwood has been imported to Norway from many countries around the world, e.g. Russia, Scotland, Canada, and Zaire. While the present data do not indicate any immediate threat from aggressively invasive exotics, in order to avoid the introduction of non-native species and reduce the potential for biological invasion, timber should ideally be debarked prior to importation.

Sammendrag

Ips typographus is considered the most destructive of the bark beetles in the coniferous forests of the Palaearctic region. At low population densities this species breeds in fresh windfalls or dying trees of Norway spruce. At high densities, in contrast, the beetles may show tree-killing outbreaks at regional scales. Spatio-temporal analyses based on pheromone trap data indicated that large windfall events may be a major instigator and synchronizer of beetle outbreaks in areas subjected to regionalized weather systems. The general dominance of lag 1 density dependence of the time series indicated that the beetle populations are constrained by intraspecific competition for breeding substrates. The time series sequence before the large windfelling of 1987 was however declining without significant density dependence. We suggest this to be a transition period, reflecting a drop in carrying capacity due to depletion of susceptible trees during the preceding outbreak period (1970s) and a drop in beetle number to below the density required to kill trees. A variety of organisms exhibit episodes of explosive population growth, triggered by disturbance events. A new general model is constructed to capture the coupling of disturbance events with resource accumulation / depletion. The model is refined and parameterized using the dynamics of the Ips typographus in Scandinavia as a model system. The waiting times between outbreaks of simulated time series were generally longer and more variable than the outbreak lengths, which agree well with the historical records in the last 250 years. Spectral analysis and logspline density plots of waiting times suggest that the transition from aperiodic to periodic population dynamics should be regarded as a continuum.

Sammendrag

Bland skalbaggarna finner vi en stor grupp (ca 1300 arter) som är beroende av dödved och bland dessa många rödlistade arter (418 arter). Många av arterna trivs i ekskog. Vilka faktorer bestämmer förekomst och artrikedom av dessa arter? Man kan tänka sig att det lokala skogsbeståndets eller nyckelbiotopens utseende är avgörande,men våra resultat pekar på att landskapet i större skala är viktigare för dessa djur, vilket har betydelse för naturvårdsstrategier.

Sammendrag

The spruce bark beetle is the most serious pest of mature spruce trees in Eurasia. At low population densities it breeds in weakened or newly dead trees, but at high densities it becomes a tree killer. The exact factors triggering outbreaks are not fully understood, but climatic variables are important candidates. Populations in SE Norway have been monitored since 1979. Various time series methods are used to explore the role of climate in outbreaks of the spruce bark beetle in space and time, and to estimate the distribution of bivoltism under different scenarios of climate change. Large windfall events appear to be a major synchronizer of beetle outbreaks in areas subjected to regionalized weather systems, and the northern border of bivoltism may be moved towards north as a function of increasing temperature. Preliminary models of the population dynamics emphasize the frequency of large windfall events and phenological changes due to temperature increase. Final aims are to estimate the regional risks of forest damage under different scenarios of climate change, and to describe practices that may reduce the impact for forest managers.

Sammendrag

At least three mechanisms are known to cause synchrony among spatially separated insect populations: 1) dispersal among populations, 2) synchronous stochastic effects, often referred to as the Moran effect, and 3) trophic interactions with other species that are either themselves synchronized or mobile.The present study brings in the role of insect taxa for spatial synchrony. The spatial synchrony observed in several North American and Eurasian epidemic bark beetles was compared with patterns of synchrony in outbreaks of defoliating forest Lepidoptera, revealing a marked difference between these two major insect taxa.The bark beetles exhibited a generally lower degree of spatial synchrony than the Lepidoptera, possibly because bark beetles are synchronized by different weather variables that are acting on a smaller scale than those affecting the Lepidoptera, or because inherent differences in their dynamics leads to more cyclic oscillations and hence more synchronous spatial dynamics in the Lepidoptera. Among the epidemic bark beetles tested, spatial synchrony of outbreaks in the Eurasian spruce bark beetle Ips typographus was significantly higher than for the other species.

Sammendrag

Det store volumet av tømmer som importeres fra Russland og Baltikum kan medføre en betydelig risiko for å få inn fremmede arter i norske skogøkosystemer. Det har i utgangspunktet vært lite kunnskap om hva som følger med denne tømmerhandelen. Denne rapporten gjengir resultater fra tredje år med prøvetaking fra importtømmer til Oslofjordområdet, hovedsaklig fra Baltikum og de vestre delene av europeisk Russland. Prøvene omfatter insekter, sopp og karplanter. For insektene har det vært prioritert å ta prøver fra cellulosegran, men det har også vært tatt prøver fra importert sagtømmer. Ips amitinus, en nær slektning av granbarkbillen (Ips typographus), er funnet i tømmerprøvene fra både 2002 og 2003. Det mangler viten om risikoen for at denne arten vil kunne etablere seg i norske skoger, og om hvordan den vil påvirke utbruddsdynamikken hos granbarkbillen. Prøvene viser generelt at svært mange arter følger med. De fleste artene finnes allerede i norsk fauna, men det følger også nye arter med. Artsakkumuleringskurver basert på 3 år indikerer at det fortsatt er et potensiale for å finne flere arter ved ytterligere prøvetaking, men at frekvensen av nye arter nå vil være lavere enn i det første året. Det kan imidlertid forventes en høyere frekvens av nye arter om det blir tatt prøver fra tømmer som importeres fra områder lenger øst i Russland, hvor det også finnes alvorlige skadegjørere som ikke forekommer i Baltikum og østre del av europeisk Russland. Det gjenstår også å gjennomføre prøvetaking fra importtømmer av andre treslag og fra lagerplasser med importtømmer. [...]

Sammendrag

Spatio-temporal analyses of non-epidemic bark beetle populations may provide insight in dynamics predisposing for outbreaks. The present article presents a spatio-temporal analysis of the population dynamics of Ips typographus based on pheromone trap data from southeast and mid-Norway in the post-epidemic period 19792002. The analyses include regression analyses, hierarchical cluster analysis, and analysis of spatial synchrony of beetle time series and climatic data by means of nonparametric spatial covariance functions. The mean abundance of beetles declined linearly with latitude. In addition, the time series means were higher in areas with high forest productivity and rocky soils predisposed to drought. The time series patterns differed significantly between northern and southern study areas. The regional synchrony of the time series was fairly high (0.38), indicating that some large-scale climatic factor may influence the dynamics. Windfelling was the external variable showing the most parallel pattern of correlation to the beetle dynamics. We thus posit that large windfall events may be a major instigator and synchronizer of beetle outbreaks in areas subjected to regionalized weather systems.

Sammendrag

Several studies conclude that sun-exposed habitats with sufficient supply of dead wood are essential for many saproxylic and mycetophagous beetle species in forests. This has induced Scandinavian foresters to leave artificial tall stumps on clear-cuts in spruce forests.In the present study of Norway spruce forest, habitat preferences during flight were studied for saproxylic and mycetophagous beetles recorded as sporocarp-visitors of Fomitopsis pinicola and Fomes fomentarius, using 690 randomly placed window traps in 69 sites covering three forest types: clear-cuts, young and oldgrowth stands.Many of the sporocarp-visitors showed a strong preference for oldgrowth forest, avoiding clear-cuts and young replantations. By stepwise linear multiple regression, presence of canopy cover appeared as a major factor while variables associated with sporocarps and dead wood were most often secondary in importance. The results indicate that sufficient canopy cover is important for many sporocarp-visiting beetles in Norway spruce forests

Sammendrag

I samarbeid med skogbruksetaten i Sørøst- og Midt-Norge overvåker Norsk institutt for skogforskning bestanden av granbarkbiller. I nesten alle fylkene har fangstene gått nedover de siste årene, og tilbakegangen fortsatte i 2002. For fylkene i Sør-Norge sett under ett ligger fangsten per felle under 4000 biller. Dette er omtrent samme nivå som i 1988, da fangstene sist var på et lavmål. Tross den relativt gunstige situasjonen er det fortsatt viktig å legge vekt på god skoghygiene. Fangstdataene er et viktig grunnlag for studier av granbarkbillens populasjonsdynamikk, og data fra år med små fangster er like verdifulle som data i toppårene for bestanden.

Sammendrag

Siden 1980 har Norsk institutt for skogforskning overvåket bestanden av granbarkbiller ved hjelp av feller med feromoner. Registreringen skjer i samarbeid med skogbruksetaten i 10 fylker i Sør-Norge og Trøndelag. Det er en tydelig tilbakegang i fangstene i alle fylkene, med unntak av Østfold og Akershus, hvor billebestanden har omtrent samme nivå som i fjor. I Sør-Norge sett under ett har billebestanden vist en nedadgående trend siden 1997. I Vestfold, Akershus, Østfold, Buskerud og Telemark er fangsttallene fortsatt høye; i enkelte kommuner meget høye. Kjølig vår og forsommer de senere årene har trolig virket negativt på billebestanden. Det har heller ikke forekommet større vindfellinger som har gitt billene mye ynglemateriale. Tross den relativt gunstige situasjonen er det grunn til å legge vekt på god skoghygiene.

Sammendrag

Siden 1980 har Norsk institutt for skogforskning overvåket bestanden av granbarkbiller ved hjelp av feller med feromoner. Registreringen skjer i samarbeid med skogbruksetaten i 10 fylker og kommuner i Sør-Norge og Trøndelag. Resultatene for 2000 i Sør-Norge viser at det stort sett er nedgang i fangstene, og i alle fylkene er trenden enten nedadgående eller stabil. Fangsttallene er likevel høye i enkelte kommuner. I Trøndelag er fangstene relativt små. Det er grunn til å tro at uvanlig kjølige forsomre de senere årene har virket negativt på billebestanden, etter som temperaturen bare leilighetsvis har overskredet det nivået som er nødvendig for billenes flukt (ca. 20°C). Tross denne relativt gunstige situasjonen er det grunn til å legge vekt på god skoghygiene, også der hvor fangstene er små i år.

Sammendrag

Insect species in 20 families of Diptera were collected by an equal number of interception traps in spruce forests of different management practice:young regrowth 5-10 years after logging and replantingmanaged old-growth forestgap opening of old-growth forest with plenty of even-aged dead wooda shady remnant biotope of uncultivated old-growth forest with plenty of dead wood in various levels of decay. Forest cultivation seems to favour saprophagous generalists on behalf of the specialised fungal fauna. The species in mycorrhizal fungi were clearly reduced in young regrowth, while species in wood-inhabiting fungi were most diverse in the remnant biotope with a heterogeneous composition of dead wood.The abundance of saprophagous generalists was significantly increased in the managed forest variants (young regrowth and managed old-growth forest). More studies are necessary to evaluate how the shift in decomposer fauna influence nutrient cycling and other ecosystem processes in forests.

Sammendrag

Information about larval ecology is fundamental in entomological research; however, in many insect species the larval habitat is still unknown. In the present project, Diptera insects were reared from various microhabitats and substrates of coniferous and deciduous forests of southern Norway. The material included 54 species that have not been reared earlier and 213 new species-microhabitat relationships. Many new records were found in dead wood of common tree species, such as Picea abies, Populus tremula and Fraxinus excelsior. Microhabitats associated with the root zone of windfelled trees showed the highest number of new species-microhabitat relationships.

Sammendrag

A short survey shows a lack of continuity in research on the dipteran family Milichiidae in Norway. One common species has several records from the last century, while little else is found before recent time and the new material presented in this article. The number of Norwegian species in Milichiidae is hereby raised to five, and in addition one possible new species. Comparisons with species numbers in neighbouring countries give an indication that still new species for Norway may be found. Rearing habitats for Neophyllomyza acyglossa (Villeneuve, 1920) and the possible new species Leptometopa sp. are presented for the first time.

Sammendrag

Økt satsing på skogkultur og bio-energi fremmes av skognæringen som gode tiltak for å bremse CO2-utslipp og forbruk av fossilt brensel. Varmekraftproduksjon basert på skogsbrensel er allerede konkurransekraftig og på sterk fremgang i Sverige og Finland. Dette er imidlertid tiltak som kan gi tap av biologisk mangfold både ved fragmentering og strukturelle endringer i skogøkosystemene, ved tap av verdifulle habitater i andre arealer som plantes til eller modifiseres, og ved habitatendringer som følge av uttak av hogstavfall. Å beholde gamle skogbestand utover vanlig avvirkningsalder er blant de mest effektive skogskjøtseltiltak for å bremse CO2-utslipp, og kan samtidig være gunstig for det biologiske mangfoldet dersom det utføres på rett måte. Økonomiske beregninger viser at CO2-avgiften på fossilt brensel kan medføre at verdien av å beholde gammelskog som CO2-binder kan være mangedobbel av skogens verdi som råstoff i industrien.

Sammendrag

The genus Bryomyia comprises altogether eight species in the Palearctic region, including one new species Bryomyia amurensis Mamaev et Økland described in the present article. A revised key to the species of Bryomyia in the Holarctic region is presented.

Sammendrag

Mer skogkultur og bio-energi omtales av mange som gode tiltak for å bremse CO2-utslipp og forbruk av fossilt brensel. En gjennomgang av faglitteratur viser imidlertid at slike tiltak kan gi tap av biologisk mangfold på flere måter: Fragmentering og strukturelle endringer i skogøkosystemene Tap av verdifulle habitater i andre arealer som plantes til eller modifiseres Habitatendringer som følge av uttak av hogstavfall. Å beholde gamle skogbestand utover vanlig avvirkningsalder er blant de mest effektive skogskjøtseltiltak for å bremse CO2-utslipp, og kan samtidig være gunstig for det biologiske mangfoldet dersom det utføres på rett måte. Økonomiske beregninger viser at CO2-avgiften på fossilt brensel kan medføre at verdien av å beholde gammelskog som CO2-binder kan være mangedobbel av skogens verdi som råstoff i industrien.

Sammendrag

The subfamily ground midges (Lestremiinae) has been poorly studied in Fennoscandia. Until quite recently (1986) only eight species of this group was known from this area. However, the number of species recorded has increased considerably the few last years. This article surveys new and old records of ground midge from Fennoscandia. The survey is based on a new material collected in 49 localities in various parts of Fennoscandia, and on records in previous publications. A list of altogether 73 species of ground midge is presented, including 25 species which are new to Finland, Norway or Sweden.

Sammendrag

A high trapping efficiency was found both for window traps and trunk-window traps, while the efficiency of extraction cylinders was low. Trunk-window traps are suitable for comparison of different substrates within the same forest environment, while comparative studies of different forest environments are more difficult, due to baiting effects. Window trap captures are more suitable for comparing different forest environments, but are related to ecological conditions over wide areas, and are almost unaffected by substrate conditions in the near surroundings of the traps

Sammendrag

There is a growing awareness to preserve the biodiversity in the forest ecosystems. A first step in biodiversity research is to find out what species really are found in the forest, using the scientific tool named taxonomy. Still there are species-rich groups of forest insects which have been poorly researched, and which include several unclearities concerning the species identities. One such group is the free-developing gall midges connected with litter, dead wood and fungi in the ground layer of the forest. This papers intends to improve the taxonomy of one genus in this group - Anaretella (Enderlein 1911), including the description of two new species and a key to the current species within the Holarctic region

Sammendrag

The relationship between the mycetophilid fauna and a set of environmental variables was studied in spruce forests of southeastern Norway. At the stand level, the continuous presence of wood in all decay stages combined with a tree cover appeared to be a major factor for increasing the species richness of mycetophilids. However, the spatial representation of suitable stands in the landscape seems to be particularly important, since the % area of oldgrowth in the surrounding 100 km showed the strongest influence on both species richness and abundance within individual species. The present findings indicate that conservation of a species-rich mycetophilid fauna requires networks of stands within dispersal distances. A reserve network in southern Norway should give special priority to little disturbed forests in the more remote sub-montane areas, since they appear to be very species-rich, and since their strong populations may provide a long-term viability of many mycetophilid species.

Sammendrag

The diversity in different groups of obligate saproxylic beetles was related to ecological variables at three levels of spatial scale in mature spruce-dominated forest. The variables were connected to: decaying woodwood-inhabiting fungilevel of disturbancelandscape ecologyvegetational structure. Several strong relationships were found at medium (1 km2) and large scales (4 km2), while only weak relationships were found at a small scale (0.16 ha; 1ha=104m2). This may be explained by the local variations in habitat parameters and the high mobilities of many beetle species. Factors connected to decaying wood and wood-inhabiting fungi were clearly the most important factors at all scale levels. In particular, the variables diversity of dead tree parts, number of dead trees of large diameter and number of polypore fungi species increased the species richness of many groups and increased the abundance of many species. Eight species were not recorded below a certain density of decaying wood per 1 or 4 km2. Former extensive cutting was a negative factor at large scale, probably because of decreasing recolonization with increasing distance to source habitats. Thinning reduced the diversity of species associated with birch. The development of guidelines favouring the diversity of saproxylic beetles are discussed below