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Forestry in coastal Norway has traditionally been a marginal activity with a low annual harvest rate. However, the region is now faced with large areas of spruce plantations that will reach harvest maturity within the next 25 years. Due to the poor infrastructure in the region, the current challenge is to harvest the maturing spruce plantations at an acceptable cost. Hence, there is considerable interest both from the forest sector and politicians to invest in infrastructure that can provide the basis for profitable forest sector development in coastal Norway. This paper presents a mathematical optimization model for timber transportation from stump to industry. The main decision variables are location of quays, upgrade of public road links, the length of new forest roads, and when the investments should happen. The main objective is to provide decision support for prioritization of infrastructure investments. The optimization model is combined with a dynamical forest resource model, providing details on available volumes and costs. A case study for coastal Norway is presented and solved to optimality. The instance includes 10 counties comprising more than 200 municipalities with forest resources, 53 possible new quays for timber export and 916 public road links that also can be upgraded. Compared with a no investment case, the optimal solution improved the objective by 23%. The study shows that consistent, informative and good analyses can be performed to evaluate trade-offs, prioritization, time and order of investment, and cost saving potentials of infrastructure investments in the forest industry. The solution seems reasonable based on present infrastructure and state of the forest.

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The effectiveness of generating virtual transects on unmanned aerial vehicle-derived orthomosaics was evaluated in estimating the extent of soil disturbance by severity class. Combinations of 4 transect lengths (5–50 m) and five sampling intensities (1–20 transects per ha) were used in assessing traffic intensity and the severity of soil disturbance on six post-harvest, cut-to-length (CTL) clearfell sites. In total, 15% of the 33 ha studied showed some trace of vehicle traffic. Of this, 63% of was categorized as light (no visible surface disturbance). Traffic intensity varied from 787 to 1256 m ha−1, with a weighted mean of 956 m ha−1, approximately twice the geometrical minimum achievable with CTL technology under perfect conditions. An overall weighted mean of 4.7% of the total site area was compromised by severe rutting. A high sampling intensity, increasing with decreasing incidence of soil disturbance, is required if mean estimation error is to be kept below 20%. The paper presents a methodology that can be generally applied in forest management or in similar land-use evaluations.

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Climate impacts of forest bioenergy result from a multitude of warming and cooling effects and vary by location and technology. While past bioenergy studies have analysed a limited number of climatealtering pollutants and activities, no studies have jointly addressed supply chain greenhouse gas emissions, biogenic CO2 fluxes, aerosols and albedo changes at high spatial and process detail. Here, we present a national-level climate impact analysis of stationary bioenergy systems in Norway based on wood-burning stoves and wood biomass-based district heating. We find that cooling aerosols and albedo offset 60–70% of total warming, leaving a net warming of 340 or 69 kg CO2e MWh−1 for stoves or district heating, respectively. Large variations are observed over locations for albedo, and over technology alternatives for aerosols. By demonstrating both notable magnitudes and complexities of different climate warming and cooling effects of forest bioenergy in Norway, our study emphasizes the need to consider multiple forcing agents in climate impact analysis of forest bioenergy.

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Background: Generalized height-diameter curves based on a re-parameterized version of the Korf function for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) in Norway are presented. The Norwegian National Forest Inventory (NFI) is used as data base for estimating the model parameters. The derived models are developed to enable spatially explicit and site sensitive tree height imputation in forest inventories as well as future tree height predictions in growth and yield scenario simulations. Methods: Generalized additive mixed models (gamm) are employed to detect and quantify potentially non-linear effects of predictor variables. In doing so the quadratic mean diameter serves as longitudinal covariate since stand age, as measured in the NFI, shows only a weak correlation with a stands developmental status in Norwegian forests. Additionally the models can be locally calibrated by predicting random effects if measured height-diameter pairs are available. Based on the model selection of non-constraint models, shape constraint additive models (scam) were fit to incorporate expert knowledge and intrinsic relationships by enforcing certain effect patterns like monotonicity. Results: Model comparisons demonstrate that the shape constraints lead to only marginal differences in statistical characteristics but ensure reasonable model predictions. Under constant constraints the developed models predict increasing tree heights with decreasing altitude, increasing soil depth and increasing competition pressure of a tree. A two-dimensional spatially structured effect of UTM-coordinates accounts for the potential effects of large scale spatially correlated covariates, which were not at our disposal. The main result of modelling the spatially structured effect is lower tree height prediction for coastal sites and with increasing latitude. The quadratic mean diameter affects both the level and the slope of the height-diameter curve and both effects are positive. Conclusions: In this investigation it is assumed that model effects in additive modelling of height-diameter curves which are unfeasible and too wiggly from an expert point of view are a result of quantitatively or qualitatively limited data bases. However, this problem can be regarded not to be specific to our investigation but more general since growth and yield data that are balanced over the whole data range with respect to all combinations of predictor variables are exceptional cases. Hence, scam may provide methodological improvements in several applications by combining the flexibility of additive models with expert knowledge.

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Enabling automated 3D mapping in forests is an important component of the future development of forest technology, and has been garnering interest in the scientific community, as can be seen from the many recent publications. Accordingly, the authors of the present paper propose the use of a Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping algorithm, called graph-SLAM, to generate local maps of forests. In their study, the 3D data required for the mapping process were collected using a custom-made, mobile platform equipped with a number of sensors, including Velodyne VLP-16 LiDAR, a stereo camera, an IMU, and a GPS. The 3D map was generated solely from laser scans, first by relying on laser odometry and then by improving it with robust graph optimisation after loop closures, which is the core of the graph-SLAM algorithm. The resulting map, in the form of a 3D point cloud, was then evaluated in terms of its accuracy and precision. Specifically, the accuracy of the fitted diameter at breast height (DBH) and the relative distance between the trees were evaluated. The results show that the DBH estimates using the Pratt circle fit method could enable a mean estimation error of approximately 2 cm (7–12%) and an RMSE of 2.38 cm (9%), whereas for tree positioning accuracy, the mean error was 0.0476 m. The authors conclude that robust SLAM algorithms can support the development of forestry by providing cost-effective and acceptable quality methods for forest mapping. Moreover, such maps open up the possibility for precision localisation for forestry vehicles.

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Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are increasingly used as tools to perform a detailed assessment of post-harvest sites. One of the potential use of UAV photogrammetric data is to obtain tree-stump information that can then be used to support more precise decisions. This study developed and tested a methodology to automatically detect, segment, classify, and measure tree-stumps. Among the potential applications for single stump data, this study assessed the possibility (1) to detect and map root- and butt-rot on the stumps using a machine learning approach, and (2) directly measure or model tree stump diameter from the UAV data. The results revealed that the tree-stumps were detected with an overall accuracy of 68–80%, and once the stump was detected, the presence of root- and butt-rot was detected with an accuracy of 82.1%. Furthermore, the root mean square error of the UAV-derived measurements or model predictions for the stump diameter was 7.5 cm and 6.4 cm, respectively, and with the former systematically under predicting the diameter by 3.3 cm. The results of this study are promising and can lead to the development of more cost-effective and comprehensive UAV post-harvest surveys.

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In many applications, estimates are required for small sub-populations with so few (or no) sample plots that direct estimators that do not utilize auxiliary variables (e.g. remotely sensed data) are not applicable or result in low precision. This problem is overcome in small area estimation (SAE) by linking the variable of interest to auxiliary variables using a model. Two types of models can be distinguished based on the scale on which they operate: i) Unit-level models are applied in the well-known area-based approach (ABA) and are commonly used in forest inventories supported by fine-resolution 3D remote sensing data such as airborne laser scanning (ALS) or digital aerial photogrammetry (AP); ii) Area-level models, where the response is a direct estimate based on a sample within the domain and the explanatory variables are aggregated auxiliary variables, are less frequently applied. Estimators associated with these two model types can make use of sample plots within domains if available and reduce to so-called synthetic estimators in domains where no sample plots are available. We used both model types and their associated model-based estimators in the same study area with AP data as auxiliary variables. Heteroscedasticity, i.e. for continuous dependent variables typically an increasing dispersion of re- siduals with increasing predictions, is often observed in models linking field- and remotely sensed data. This violates the model assumption that the distribution of the residual errors is constant. Complying with model assumptions is required for model-based methods to result in reliable estimates. Addressing heteroscedasticity in models had considerable impacts on standard errors. When complying with model assumptions, the precision of estimates based on unit-level models was, on average, considerably greater (29%–31% smaller standard errors) than those based on area-level models. Area-level models may nonetheless be attractive because they allow the use of sampling designs that do not easily link to remotely sensed data, such as variable radius plots.

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I henhold til det Norske klimagassregnskap leder avskoging til en betydelig del av de nasjonale klimagassutslipp. Målet med denne rapporten er en kartlegging av størrelse og årsaker til avskoging som kan forbedre forståelsen av avskogingsprosesser, og på sikt kan være et første steg for å redusere utslippene fra avskogingen. I Kyotoprotokollen er avskoging betegnet som menneskeskapte endringer fra skog til en annen arealkategori siden 1990. I Norge har avskoging siden 1990 vært på om lag 58 km2 per år. På grunn av påskoging (på aktivt forvaltede arealer) og skogutvidelse (naturlig etablering på ikke forvaltede arealer) har skogarealet ikke forandret seg nevneverdig. Men den teoretiske produksjonsevnen, altså skogens evne til å produsere biomasse og dermed også til å ta opp karbon fra atmosfæren i et gitt tidsrom, av det samlede arealet av påskoging og skogutvidelse er mindre enn produksjonsevnen av avskogingsarealet. Hovedgrunnen til avskoging var utbygging (68 % av avskogingsarealet), men også omlegging til beite (18 %) eller nydyrking (13 %) bidro. I denne rapporten er alle areal og utslippsestimater basert på Landsskogtakseringen som er en landsdekkende utvalgsundersøkelse. Grunnet det lille totale areal av avskoging i Norge er arealestimatene assosiert med relativ stor usikkerhet relatert til antall prøvefelter i utvalgskartleggingen. Blant utbyggingskategoriene var vei og bebyggelse de viktigste grunnene til avskoging. Traktor- og skogsbilveier var de største enkeltkategoriene blant veikategoriene og til sammen står de for om lag 13 % av avskogingsarealet. Bolig og fritidsbolig var de største enkeltkategoriene blant bebyggelseskategoriene og til sammen står de for om lag 13 % av avskogingsarealet...

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This paper provides an overview of recent developments in remote and proximal sensing technologies and their basic applicability to various aspects of forest operations. It categorises these applications according to the technologies used and considers their deployment platform in terms of their being space-, airborne or terrestrial. For each combination of technology and application, a brief review of the state-of-the-art has been described from the literature, ranging from the measurement of forests and single trees, the derivation of landscape scale terrain models down to micro-topographic soil disturbance modelling, through infrastructure planning, construction and maintenance, to forest accessibility with ground and cable based harvesting systems. The review then goes on to discuss how these technologies and applications contribute to reducing impacts on forest soils, cultural heritage sites and other areas of special value or interest, after which sensors and methods necessary in autonomous navigation and the use of computer vision on forest machines are discussed. The review concludes that despite the many promising or demonstrated applications of remotely or proximately sensed data in forest operations, almost all are still experimental and have a range of issues that need to be addressed or improved upon before widespread operationalization can take place.

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The use of digital aerial photogrammetry (DAP) for forest inventory purposes has been widely studied and can produce comparable accuracy compared with airborne laser scanning (ALS) in small, homogeneous areas. However, the accuracy of DAP for large scale applications with heterogeneous terrain and forest vegetation has not yet been reported. In this study we examined the accuracy of timber volume, biomass and basal area prediction models based on DAP and national forest inventory (NFI) data on a large area in central Norway. Two separate point clouds were derived from aerial image acquisitions of 2010 and 2013. Vegetation heights were extracted by subtracting terrain elevation derived from ALS. A large number of NFI sample plots (483) measured between 2010 and 2014 were used as reference data to fit linear models for timber volume, biomass and basal area with height metrics derived from the DAP data as explanatory variables. Variables describing the heterogeneous environmental and image acquisition conditions were calculated and their influence on the model accuracy was tested. The results showed that forest parameter prediction using DAP works well when applied to a large area. The model fits of the timber volume, biomass and basal area models were good with R2 of 0.80, 0.81, 0.81 and RMSEs of 41.43 m3 ha−1 (55% of the mean observed value), 32.49 t ha−1 (47%), 5.19 m2 ha−1 (41%), respectively. Only a small proportion of the variation could be attributed to the heterogeneous conditions. The inclusion of the relative sun inclination led to an improvement of the model RMSEs by 2% of the mean observed values. The relatively low cost and stability across large areas make DAP an attractive source of auxiliary information for large scale forest inventories.

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This study presents an approach for predicting stand-level forest attributes utilizing mobile laser scanning data collected as a nonprobability sample. Firstly, recordings of stem density were made at point locations every 10th metre along a subjectively chosen mobile laser scanning track in a forest stand. Secondly, kriging was applied to predict stem density values for the centre point of all grid cells ina5m×5m lattice across the stand. Thirdly, due to nondetectability issues, a correction term was computed based on distance sampling theory. Lastly, the mean stem density at stand level was predicted as the mean of the point-level predictions multiplied with the correction factor, and the corresponding variance was estimated. Many factors contribute to the uncertainty of the stand-level prediction; in the variance estimator, we accounted for the uncertainties due to kriging prediction and due to estimating a detectability model from the laser scanning data. The results from our new approach were found to correspond fairly well to estimates obtained using field measurements from an independent set of 54 circular sample plots. The predicted number of stems in the stand based on the proposed methodology was 1366 with a 12.9% relative standard error. The corresponding estimate based on the field plots was 1677 with a 7.5% relative standard error.

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Post-stratified model-assisted (MA) and hybrid (HY) estimators are used with repeated airborne laser scanning (ALS) strip sampling and national forest inventory field data for stratum-wise and overall estimation of aboveground biomass (AGB) stock and change. The study area covered the southern portion of the Hedmark County in Norway. Both MA and HY estimation substantially reduced the uncertainty in AGB change when compared with estimation using the field survey only. Relative efficiencies (relative variance) of 4.15 (MA) and 3.36 (HY) for overall estimates were found. The results suggest the MA estimator for single-time estimation and the HY as more appropriate for change estimation by cover class. With the HY estimator, a nested post-stratification scheme is demonstrated, combining cover classes with change classes, which enables detailed reporting for change according to cause within each cover class, and has the potential to improve the estimation precision. Finally, parametric bootstrapping is demonstrated as an empirical alternative to estimate the model-error component in the HY estimator. The model error estimated with parametric bootstrapping converged to the analytically determined value of the HY estimator within 1000 bootstrap samples.

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REDD+, a climate change mitigation mechanism that values carbon in tropical forests, is expected to provide Africa with a range of environmental and socio-economic benefits. Drawing on a vast array of literature and personal experiences, this review analyzed particular features and challenges that REDD+ implementation has faced on the continent. The distinct contexts and major challenges regarding governance, finance and technical capacities are discussed, and mechanisms to fill these gaps are suggested. Radical land tenure reform and a perfect safeguard mechanism that transfers forest land and carbon to the communities are unlikely. REDD+ should rather look for systems that respect local institutional arrangements, and allow forest-based communities to participate in decision-making and benefit sharing, particularly benefits from emerging REDD+. Finances for REDD+ infrastructure and the results-based payment are in short supply. While negotiating for potential external sources in the short term, Africa should generate domestic financial resources and look for additional payments for ecosystem services. Africa should also negotiate for forest monitoring capacity building, while strengthening local community forest monitoring. This review contributes to an improved understanding of the contexts and challenges to consider in the capacity and policy development for REDD+ implementation.

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Fokus i denne rapporten er på skogbehandlingen, og på maksimering av verdiproduksjon. En forutsetning for dette er høy sagtømmerproduksjon, samtidig som det er viktig å vurdere arealets totale tømmerverdi. Følgende forutsetninger ligger til grunn for rapporten: Bevaring av biologisk mangfold og ivaretakelse av andre flerbrukshensyn Det legges til grunn at all skogbehandling utføres i henhold til dagens lovverk og frivillige sertifiseringsordninger, og at dette ivaretar hensyn til biologisk mangfold og andre flerbrukshensyn. Vi går derfor ikke inn på betydningen ulik skogbehandling vil ha for biologisk mangfold eller andre flerbrukshensyn, eller tilpasninger av skogbehandlingen for dette. Bærekraftig skogbruk i klimasammenheng Miljødirektoratet mfl. (2016) drøfter vern eller bruk av skog som klimatiltak. I rapporten konkluderes det med at det ikke er grunnlag for å vektlegge vern av norsk skog som klimatiltak. En forutsetning er at det drives et bærekraftig skogbruk i klimasammenheng. Dette ble definert som følger: «Bærekraftig skogbruk i klimasammenheng innebærer at skogens produktivitet og evne til å lagre karbon ikke forringes, og at karbonbeholdninger ikke reduseres permanent.» (Miljødirektoratet mfl. 2016). Vi forutsetter gjennom rapporten at skogbehandling drives bærekraftig i tråd med denne definisjonen, uten at vi går nærmere inn på betydningen og eventuelle nødvendige tilpasninger. Skogbehandling for å motvirke klimaendringer Skogbehandling som motvirker klimaendringer, for eksempel ved å øke karbonopptaket, vil i mange tilfeller være i samsvar med skogbehandling for maksimal verdiproduksjon, men ikke alltid. Vi har i denne rapporten kun fokusert på verdiproduksjon, og betydning av skogbehandling på ulike karbonbeholdninger er ikke vurdert. Driftstekniske forhold («hvordan ta ut tømmeret») Driftskostnader vil være av stor betydning for skogeiers økonomiske resultat, og både de endringer vi allerede ser og forventede klimaendringer er forventet å gi større driftstekniske utfordringer. I denne rapporten ser vi imidlertid utelukkende på den betydning skogbehandlingen vil ha for antatt verdiproduksjon.

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Land surface albedo is a key parameter of the Earth’s climate system. It has high variability in space, time, and land cover and it is among the most important variables in climate models. Extensive large-scale estimates can help model calibration and improvement to reduce uncertainties in quantifying the influence of surface albedo changes on the planetary radiation balance. Here, we use satellite retrievals of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface albedo (MCD43A3), high-resolution land-cover maps, and meteorological records to characterize climatological albedo variations in Norway across latitude, seasons, land-cover type (deciduous forests, coniferous forests, and cropland), and topography. We also investigate the net changes in surface albedo and surface air temperature through site pair analysis to mimic the effects of land-use transitions between forests and cropland and among different tree species. We find that surface albedo increases at increasing latitude in the snow season, and cropland and deciduous forests generally have higher albedo values than coniferous forests, but for few days in spring. Topography has a large influence on MODIS albedo retrievals, with values that can change up to 100% for the same land-cover class (e.g. spruce in winter) under varying slopes and aspect of the terrain. Cropland sites have surface air temperature higher than adjacent forested sites, and deciduous forests are slightly colder than adjacent coniferous forests. By integrating satellite measurements and high-resolution vegetation maps, our results provide a large semi-empirical basis that can assist future studies to better predict changes in a fundamental climate-regulating service such as surface albedo.

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The present study aims to develop biologically sound and parsimonious site index models for Norway to predict changes in site index (SI) under different climatic conditions. The models are constructed using data from the Norwegian National Forest Inventory and climate data from the Norwegian meteorological institute. Site index was modeled using the potential modifier functional form, with a potential component (POT) depending on site quality classes and two modifier components (MOD): temperature and moisture. Each of these modifiers was based on a portfolio of candidate variables. The best model for spruce-dominated stands included temperature as modifier (R2 = 0.56). In the case of pine- and deciduous-dominated stands, the best models included both modifiers (R2 = 0.40 and 0.54 for temperature and moisture, respectively). We illustrate the use of the models by analyzing the possible shift in SI for year 2100 under one (RCP4.5) of the benchmark scenarios adopted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change for its fifth assessment report. The models presented can be valuable for evaluating the effect of climate change scenarios in Norwegian forests.

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National and international carbon reporting systems require information on carbon stocks of forests. For this purpose, terrestrial assessment systems such as forest inventory data in combination with carbon estimation methods are often used. In this study we analyze and compare terrestrial carbon estimation methods from 12 European countries. The country-specific methods are applied to five European tree species (Fagus sylvatica L., Quercus robur L., Betula pendula Roth, Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Pinus sylvestris L.), using a standardized theoretically-generated tree dataset. We avoid any bias due to data collection and/or sample design by using this approach. We are then able to demonstrate the conceptual differences in the resulting carbon estimates with regard to the applied country-specific method. In our study we analyze (i) allometric biomass functions, (ii) biomass expansion factors in combination with volume functions and (iii) a combination of both. The results of the analysis show discrepancies in the resulting estimates for total tree carbon and for single tree compartments across the countries analyzed of up to 140 t carbon/ha. After grouping the country-specific approaches by European Forest regions, the deviation within the results in each region is smaller but still remains. This indicates that part of the observed differences can be attributed to varying growing conditions and tree properties throughout Europe. However, the large remaining error is caused by differences in the conceptual approach, different tree allometry, the sample material used for developing the biomass estimation models and the definition of the tree compartments. These issues are currently not addressed and require consideration for reliable and consistent carbon estimates throughout Europe.

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Individual tree mortality models based on logistic regression exist for different tree species and countries around the world. We examine two mortality models developed in Norway and two models from Austria for Norway spruce (Picea abies), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and birch (Betula pubescens and Betula pendula) trees. We apply all models with their original coefficients on the Norwegian National Forest Inventory (NNFI) data. The dataset comprises 36,217 spruce, 17,483 pine and 24,418 birch trees. We show the differences in predictions that arise from newly paramete-rized predictor variables and the effect of the original calibration data from different geographic regions. Next we recalibrate the mortality functions with the NNFI data to show the improvements in the predictions and illustrate the impact of the different predictor variables. We apply statistical methods to assess which of the original and recalibrated models best mimic the observed mortality rates of the three species. Finally we provide the new coefficient set for the model functions for spruce, pine and birch in Norway.

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Net primary production (NPP) is an important ecological metric for studying forest ecosystems and their carbon sequestration, for assessing the potential supply of food or timber and quantifying the impacts of climate change on ecosystems. The global MODIS NPP dataset using the MOD17 algorithm provides valuable information for monitoring NPP at 1-km resolution. Since coarse-resolution global climate data are used, the global dataset may contain uncertainties for Europe. We used a 1-km daily gridded European climate data set with the MOD17 algorithm to create the regional NPP dataset MODIS EURO. For evaluation of this new dataset, we compare MODIS EURO with terrestrial driven NPP from analyzing and harmonizing forest inventory data (NFI) from 196,434 plots in 12 European countries as well as the global MODIS NPP dataset for the years 2000 to 2012. Comparing these three NPP datasets, we found that the global MODIS NPP dataset differs from NFI NPP by 26%, while MODIS EURO only differs by 7%. MODIS EURO also agrees with NFI NPP across scales (from continental, regional to country) and gradients (elevation, location, tree age, dominant species, etc.). The agreement is particularly good for elevation, dominant species or tree height. This suggests that using improved climate data allows the MOD17 algorithm to provide realistic NPP estimates for Europe. Local discrepancies between MODIS EURO and NFI NPP can be related to differences in stand density due to forest management and the national carbon estimation methods. With this study, we provide a consistent, temporally continuous and spatially explicit productivity dataset for the years 2000 to 2012 on a 1-km resolution, which can be used to assess climate change impacts on ecosystems or the potential biomass supply of the European forests for an increasing bio-based economy. MODIS EURO data are made freely available at ftp://palantir.boku.ac.at/Public/MODIS_EURO.

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We demonstrate the efficacy of using close-range photogrammetry from a consumer grade camera as a tool in generating high-resolution, three-dimensional coloured point clouds for detailed analysis or monitoring of wheel ruts. Ground-based timber harvesting results in vehicle traffic on 12–70 per cent of the site, depending on the system used, with a variable probability of causing detrimental soil disturbance depending on climatic, hydrological and soil conditions at the time of harvest. Applying the technique described in this article can reduce the workload associated with the conventional manual measurement of wheel ruts, while providing a greatly enhanced source of information that can be used in analysing both physical and biological impact, or stored in a repository for later operation management or monitoring. Approaches for deriving and quantifying properties such as rut depths and soil displacement volumes are also presented. In evaluating the potential for widespread adoption of the method among forest or environmental managers, the study also presents the workflow and provides a comparison of the ease of use and quality of the results obtained from one commercial and two open source image processing software packages. Results from a case study showed no significant difference between packages on point cloud quality in terms of model distortion. Comparison of photogrammetric profiles against profiles measured manually resulted in root mean square errors of between 2.07 and 3.84 cm for five selected road profiles. Maximal wheel rut depth for three different models were 1.15, 0.99 and 1.01 m, and estimated rut volumes were 9.84, 9.10 and 9.09 m3, respectively, for 22.5 m long sections.

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Boreal forests contain 30% of the global forest carbon with the majority residing in soils. While challenging to quantify, soil carbon changes comprise a significant, and potentially increasing, part of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Thus, their estimation is important when designing forest-based climate change mitigation strategies and soil carbon change estimates are required for the reporting of greenhouse gas emissions. Organic matter decomposition varies with climate in complex nonlinear ways, rendering data aggregation nontrivial. Here, we explored the effects of temporal and spatial aggregation of climatic and litter input data on regional estimates of soil organic carbon stocks and changes for upland forests. We used the soil carbon and decomposition model Yasso07 with input from the Norwegian National Forest Inventory (11275 plots, 1960–2012). Estimates were produced at three spatial and three temporal scales. Results showed that a national level average soil carbon stock estimate varied by 10% depending on the applied spatial and temporal scale of aggregation. Higher stocks were found when applying plot-level input compared to country-level input and when long-term climate was used as compared to annual or 5-year mean values. A national level estimate for soil carbon change was similar across spatial scales, but was considerably (60–70%) lower when applying annual or 5-year mean climate compared to long-term mean climate reflecting the recent climatic changes in Norway. This was particularly evident for the forest-dominated districts in the southeastern and central parts of Norway and in the far north. We concluded that the sensitivity of model estimates to spatial aggregation will depend on the region of interest. Further, that using long-term climate averages during periods with strong climatic trends results in large differences in soil carbon estimates. The largest differences in this study were observed in central and northern regions with strongly increasing temperatures.

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Sustainable forest management in an era of global changes has always been a central thematic area for the International Boreal Forest Research Association (IBFRA). At the 17th IBFRA conference held on 24–29 May 2015 in Rovaniemi, Finland, the theme of global change was accompanied by a new theme related to the use and value of big data in boreal forest management and research. Keynote presentations had a clear message that sustainably managed boreal forests and peatlands play a significant role in climate change mitigation. However, the choice of the most efficient mitigation options will vary with regional differences in ecology, institutional strength, and management intensity. In addition to changes in greenhouse gas fluxes linked to ecosystem dynamics, the design of climate change mitigation strategies should also account for the fate of harvested wood products and for the substitution of more energy-intensive materials such as concrete and steel. For climate change mitigation, it is therefore not only forest management that matters, but also ensuring the best possible end use for the produced biomass. Key note presentations on use and value of big data in the forest sector demonstrated the role of time series of remote sensing data in forest monitoring and research. In addition, new technologies and methods including terrestrial laser scanning are starting to provide detailed three-dimensional information from forest stands from which management tools and scientific understanding will be developed. Finally, citizen science was shown to offer a vast potential for the generation of forest-based data. Thus, new means are being developed by which forest scientists and managers will be able to obtain new, more frequent, and more detailed information on the forest. The ensuing development of knowledge will benefit the forest sector, create new opportunities for furthering boreal forest science, and finally benefit the society as a whole...

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Soil organic carbon (C), accumulated over millennia, comprise more than half of the C stored in boreal and temperate forest landscapes. We used the Norwegian national forest inventory and soil survey network (n = 719, no deep organic soils) to explore the validity of a deterministic model representation of this pool (Yasso07). We statistically compared simulated and measured soil C stocks and related differences (measured – simulated) to site factors (drainage, topography, climate, vegetation, C-to-N ratio, and soil classification). Median C stocks were 5.0 kg C·m−2 (model) and 14.5 kg C·m−2 (measurements). Soil C differences related to site factors (r2 of 0.16 to 0.37). For Brunisols, Gleysols, and wet Organic soils, differences related primarily to topographic wetness. For Regosols, Podzols, and Dystric Eluviated Brunisols, they related to climate, profile depth, and, in some cases, drainage class and site index. We argue that soil moisture regimes in our study area overrule tree productivity effects in the determination of soil C stocks and present conditions for soil formation that the model cannot (and does not explicitly) account for. These are processes such as humification and podsolization that involve eluviation and illuviation of dissolved organic C (DOC) with sesquioxides to form spodic B horizons and carbon enrichment due to hampered decomposition in frequently anoxic conditions.

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This paper reviews emerging technology-based engineering solutions that may reduce the impact of forest operations on the environment while increasing the efficiency of operations resulting in an overall higher level of forest ecosystem service provision. Advances in forest machine control and automation systems, and the availability of remotely-sensed high resolution data now provide considerable potential to improve the management and precision of forest operations.

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Framskrivninger av opptak og utslipp av CO2 og andre klimagasser fra skog og andre landarealer (LULUCF-sektoren) fram til 2120, utført i tråd med metodikken brukt i klimagassregnskapet for Norge i 2014 (Miljødirektoratet mfl. 2014), presenteres i denne rapporten. Framskrivingene er basert på tre ulike scenarier for fremtidig klima: • Dagens klima. • 2-gradersmålet, det vil si en global temperaturøkning som flater ut på to grader i 2100 (”oppfyller” 2-gradersmålet). Her er RCP 2.6 lagt til grunn. • Business-as-usual, det vil si forventet klimaendring dersom nye tiltak ikke gjennomføres. Her er RCP 8.5 lagt til grunn. iii En videreføring av dagens politikk og virkemiddelbruk er lagt til grunn for framskrivningene. Videre legges til grunn en sannsynlig utvikling for avvirkning ut fra hogstmodenhet og tilgjengelighet av tømmer i norske skoger (Antón Fernández og Astrup 2012). Skog er den viktigste arealkategorien for opptak av klimagasser, med et netto opptak på 30 741 Gg CO2-ekvivalenter i 2012 (Miljødirektoratet mfl. 2014). Framskrivningene viser at skog også i fremtiden vil være den viktigste arealkategorien for opptak av klimagasser, men opptaket vil reduseres betydelig over de nærmeste 100 år. Dette vil skje uavhengig av klimascenario, og skyldes en kombinasjon av økende avvirkning og endring av skogens alderssammensetning. Den skogen som ble plantet i tiårene etter 2. verdenskrig begynner nå å bli hogstmoden, og det vil være et betydelig volum i skog som vil bli hogstmoden de kommende 30 år (Granhus mfl. 2014). Det gir større arealer med hogstmoden skog nær vei, og denne skogen har også større volum per arealenhet enn eldre hogstmoden skog. Dette vil gi økt avvirkning, og dermed høyere utslipp (ettersom all avvirkning regnes som utslipp ved avvirkningstidspunktet i klimagassregnskapet). Skogen i Norge har i dag en ujevn alderssammensetning, med en stor andel av arealet i de mest produktive faser (høy tilvekst, som gir høyt opptak). Med fortsatt forvaltning som i dag vil alderssammensetningen langsomt bli mer jevn, og vi vil få en større andel av gammel skog. Dette resulterer i redusert tilvekst. Lageret av karbon i levende biomasse i skog har økt gjennom hele rapporteringsperioden (1990 – 2012), og fortsetter å øke i framskrivningene. Økningen i rapporteringsperioden skyldes blant annet en aktiv skogforvaltning de siste 60 – 70 årene. Den fremtidige økningen forutsetter at skogen som avvirkes re-etableres med samme treslag og produktivitet som skogen har i dag. Utslippsendringer for de øvrige arealkategoriene vil i større grad være betinget av arealendringer, hvor den totale størrelsen på opptak og utslipp påvirkes av størrelsen på arealet. Gitt en fortsettelse av trenden for perioden 2006 – 2010, vil den største endringen være i arealkategorien bebyggelse, som øker mest både i areal og prosent. Arealet med vann og myr og annen utmark vil være noenlunde stabilt, arealet skog og dyrket mark reduseres, mens arealet beite øker noe. Arealkategorien vann og myr bidrar til netto opptak. Dette skyldes karbonopptak i trær på tresatt myr (myrarealer med trær, men som ikke når skogdefinisjonen). Arealkategoriene dyrket mark, beite, bebyggelse og annen utmark har alle netto utslipp. Dyrket mark vil ha en reduksjon i netto utslipp gjennom de nærmeste 100 år, grunnet reduksjon i areal, mens utslippene fra beite kun vil ha små endringer.

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National Forest Inventories (NFIs) provide estimates of forest parameters for national and regional scales. Many key variables of interest, such as biomass and timber volume, cannot be measured directly in the field. Instead, models are used to predict those variables from measurements of other field variables. Therefore, the uncertainty or variability of NFI estimates results not only from selecting a sample of the population but also from uncertainties in the models used to predict the variables of interest. The aim of this study was to quantify the model-related variability of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) biomass stock and change estimates for the Norwegian NFI. The model-related variability of the estimates stems from uncertainty in parameter estimates of biomass models as well as residual variability and was quantified using a Monte Carlo simulation technique. Uncertainties in model parameter estimates, which are often not available for published biomass models, had considerable influence on the model-related variability of biomass stock and change estimates. The assumption that the residual variability is larger than documented for the models and the correlation of within-plot model residuals influenced the model-related variability of biomass stock change estimates much more than estimates of the biomass stock. The larger influence on the stock change resulted from the large influence of harvests on the stock change, although harvests were observed rarely on the NFI sample plots in the 5-year period that was considered. In addition, the temporal correlation between model residuals due to changes in the allometry had considerable influence on the model-related variability of the biomass stock change estimate. The allometry may, however, be assumed to be rather stable over a 5-year period. Because the effects of model-related variability of the biomass stock and change estimates were much smaller than those of the sampling-related variability, efforts to increase the precision of estimates should focus on reducing the sampling variability. If the model-related variability is to be decreased, the focus should be on the tree fractions of living branches as well as stump and roots.

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Formålet med denne rapporten er å gi en oversikt over skogressursene som grunnlag for vurdering av avvirkningsmulighetene, med hensyntaken til miljø og driftskostnader, i de neste 30 år. I rapporten gis en oversikt over dagens stående volum i hogstmoden skog (hogstklasse V), samt volum i skog som vil bli hogstmoden de kommende 30 år. Resultatene vises i form av tabeller og figurer der det er gjort ulike fratrekk for å ta høyde for reduksjoner grunnet miljøhensyn, driftskostnader og svinn. Brutto volum i dagens hogstklasse V utgjør vel 400 millioner kubikkmeter med bark. Vi har med bakgrunn i tilgjengelige data og et sett med forutsetninger estimert at miljøhensyn inkludert vern utgjør en reduksjon av tilgjengelig volum på 14 prosent. Kvantumet som vokser inn i hogstklasse V vil øke gjennom hele 30-årsperioden 2014-2043, fra litt under ni millioner kubikkmeter per år i første tiårsperiode til 13,7 millioner kubikkmeter per år i den tredje perioden (etter fradrag for miljøhensyn). Det er her tatt utgangspunkt i en framskriving av volumet til hogstmodenhetsalder. Dette volumet inkluderer imidlertid topp, bult, småtrær som ikke er nyttbare, og trær som ikke holder tømmerkvalitet (ofte kalt topp og avfall). Vi har med bakgrunn i data fra de permanente flatene i Landsskogtakseringen estimert reduksjonen ved omregning fra stående volum («skogskubikk») til volum som kan omsettes («tømmerkubikk») til 15 prosent. En vesentlig del av skogressursene er lokalisert i områder langt fra vei og/eller i bratt terreng, og gir ikke grunnlag for lønnsom skogsdrift gitt dagens driftskostnader, virkepriser og infrastruktur (skogsveier). Dette gjelder i størst grad den skogen som allerede er hogstmoden, mens den arealmessige fordelingen i forhold til driftsveilengde og terrengbratthet er gunstigere for skog som vokser inn i hogstklasse V de kommende tiår. Gitt at det relative forholdet mellom driftskostnader og virkepriser ikke endres vesentlig, vil vi få en en økt andel areal med positiv driftsnetto, noe som sannsynliggjør økt virketilgang i årene framover. Det er betydelige strukturelle forskjeller mellom den eksisterende hogstmodne skogen og skogen som blir hogstmoden de neste 30 år. En vesentlig forskjell er treslagsfordelingen, der gran utgjør 56 prosent av tilgangen av ny hogstmoden skog de neste 30 år, mens granandelen er kun 41 prosent i dagens hogstmodne skog. En økning av granandelen kan forventes i alle landets regioner og er en logisk følge av de historiske endringer i skogskjøtsel med økt planting av gran. En annen viktig observasjon er at over halvparten av tilgangen av hogstmoden skog de neste 30 år vil komme på det sentrale Østlandet, noe som vil styrke denne regionens rolle som det viktigste området for skogproduksjon. Etter fradrag for miljøhensyn og svinn, og ved kun å inkludere arealer med en estimert driftskostnad på maksimalt 250 kroner per kubikkmeter, synes det fullt forsvarlig ut fra ressursgrunnlaget å øke årlig hogstkvantum til om lag 15 millioner kubikkmeter («tømmerkubikk»). Dette under forutsetning av at tynningsuttaket framover holder seg minst på samme nivå som i dag. For å komme fram til et anslag på hva som er tilgjengelig for industriell bruk må det gjøres et ytterligere fradrag for virke som ikke kommer for salg (hjemmeforbruk, ved).

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The accurate characterization of three-dimensional (3D) root architecture, volume, and biomass is important for a wide variety of applications in forest ecology and to better understand tree and soil stability. Technological advancements have led to increasingly more digitized and automated procedures, which have been used to more accurately and quickly describe the 3D structure of root systems. Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) have successfully been used to describe aboveground structures of individual trees and stand structure, but have only recently been applied to the 3D characterization of whole root systems. In this study, 13 recently harvested Norway spruce root systems were mechanically pulled from the soil, cleaned, and their volumes were measured by displacement. The root systems were suspended, scanned with TLS from three different angles, and the root surfaces from the co-registered point clouds were modeled with the 3D Quantitative Structure Model to determine root architecture and volume. The modeling procedure facilitated the rapid derivation of root volume, diameters, break point diameters, linear root length, cumulative percentages, and root fraction counts. The modeled root systems underestimated root system volume by 4.4%. The modeling procedure is widely applicable and easily adapted to derive other important topological and volumetric root variables.

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Nondetection of trees is a serious problem for the use of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in forest inventory applications. The use of multiple coregistered scans can reduce nondetection but may not eliminate it, and it carries substantial field and post-processing costs. We examined and extended previously developed theoretical approaches to modeling nondetection. The results suggested that tree size as well as multiple stand structural characteristics may be factors, but the theoretical models do not lend themselves to empirical estimation. We then used distance sampling techniques to identify detection probabilities and develop adjusted estimates for trees per hectare and basal area in nine forest stands in southern Norway. The results compared favorably with field estimates based on fixed-area plots. The estimated detection probabilities indicate that correction for nondetection is needed unless the search for trees is limited to very small distances from the scanner. Distance sampling appears promising when TLS is used in the context of temporary-plot forest inventories.

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Sallow (Salix caprea L.) and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) constitute small proportions of the deciduous tree volume in Scandinavia, but are highly preferred winter forage for moose and red deer, which occur at historically high densities. Thus, a possible decline of these tree species has been indicated. Against this background, we have reviewed the life histories of relevance for browsing, as well as the basic biology and genetics of sallow and rowan. The species show similarities with respect to short lifespan, small size and sympodial growth pattern, which are risk factors in a browsing context. They also have high juvenile growth rate, important for growing quickly out of reach of browsers. Sallow depends strongly on disturbance for establishment and is more demanding with respect to soil and light conditions than rowan, possibly important for the substantially lower abundance of sallow on the Norwegian Forest Inventory plots. Similarly, the relative recruitment of small size classes of sallow is less than for rowan. Although recruitment is reported to be hampered in wintering areas with high moose or red deer densities, the inventory data, however, dating only back to 1994, do not suggest a general decrease in any of the species. Sallow and rowan saplings show low mortality in moose and deer dominated areas and the species can be characterised as rather resilient to browsing. Of more concern is that browsing can constrain the development of mature rowan and sallow trees locally, with possible consequences for associated epiphytic biodiversity.

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Terrestrial lidar (TLS) is an emerging technology for deriving forest attributes, including conventional inventory and canopy characterizations. However, little is known about the influence of scanner specifications on derived forest parameters. We compared two TLS systems at two sites in British Columbia. Common scanning benchmarks and identical algorithms were used to obtain estimates of tree diameter, position, and canopy characteristics. Visualization of range images and point clouds showed clear differences, even though both scanners were relatively high-resolution instruments. These translated into quantifiable differences in impulse penetration, characterization of stems and crowns far from the scan location, and gap fraction. Differences between scanners in estimates of effective plant area index were greater than differences between sites. Both scanners provided a detailed digital model of forest structure, and gross structural characterizations (including crown dimensions and position) were relatively robust; but comparison of canopy density metrics may require consideration of scanner attributes.

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1. Whether plant competition grows stronger or weaker across a soil fertility gradient is an area of great debate in plant ecology. We examined the effects of competition and soil fertility and their interaction on growth rates of the four dominant tree species in the sub-boreal spruce forest of British Columbia. 2. We tested separate soil nutrient and moisture indices and found much stronger support for models that included the nutrient index as a measure of soil fertility. 3. Competition, soil fertility and their interaction affected radial growth rates for all species. 4. Each species supported a different alternate hypothesis for how competitive interactions changed with soil fertility and whether competition intensity was stronger or weaker overall as soil fertility increased depended on the context, specifically, species, neighbourhood composition and type of competition (shading vs. crowding). 5. The four species varied slightly in their growth response to soil fertility. 6. Individual species had some large variations in the shapes of their negative relationships between shading, crowding and tree growth, with one species experiencing no net negative effects of crowding at low soil fertility. 7. Goodness-of-fit was not substantially increased by models including competition–soil fertility interactions for any species. Tree size, soil fertility, shading and crowding predicted most of the variation in tree growth rates in the sub-boreal spruce forest. 8. Synthesis. The intensity of competition among trees across a fertility gradient was species- and context-specific and more complicated than that predicted by any one of the dominant existing theories in plant ecology.

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The aim of this study was to determine whether forest clear-cuts during 2000–2011 could be detected as a decrease in surface height by combining Digital Surface Models (DSMs) from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and Tandem-X, and to evaluate the performance of this method using SRTM X- and C-band data as references representing the heights before logging. The study area was located in a Norway spruce-dominated forest estate in southeastern Norway. We interpolated 11-year DSM changes into a 10 m × 10 m raster, and averaged these changes per forest stand. Based on threshold values for DSM decreases we classified the pixels and stands into the categories “clear-cut” and “not clear-cut”, and compared this to a complete record of logged stands during 2000–2011. The classification accuracy was moderate or fairly good. A correct detection was achieved for 59%–67% of the clear-cut stands. Omission errors were most common, occurring in 33%–42% of the stands. Commission errors were found in 13%–21% of the clear-cut stands. The results obtained for X-band SRTM were only marginally better than for C-band. In conclusion, the combination of SRTM and Tandem-X has the potential of providing near global data sets for the recent 12 years’ logging, which should be particularly valuable for deforestation mapping.

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An 11-year remotely sensed surface albedo dataset coupled with historical meteorological and stand-level forest management data for a variety of stands in Norway’s most productive logging region is used to develop regression models describing temporal changes in forest albedo following clear-cut harvest disturbance events. Datasets are grouped by dominant tree species, and two alternate multiple regression models are developed and tested following a potential-modifier approach. This result in models with statistically significant parameters (p < 0.05) that explain a large proportion of the observed variation, requiring a single canopy modifier predictor coupled with either monthly or annual mean air temperature as a predictor of a stand’s potential albedo. Models based on annual mean temperature predict annual albedo with errors (RMSE) in the range of 0.025–0.027, while models based on monthly mean temperature predict monthly albedo with errors ranging between of 0.057–0.065 depending on the dominant tree species. While both models have the potential to be transferable to other boreal regions with similar forest management regimes, further validation efforts are required. As active management of boreal forests is increasingly seen as a means to mitigate climate change, the presented models can be used with routine forest inventory and meteorological data to predict albedo evolution in managed forests throughout the region, which, together with carbon cycle modeling, can lead to more holistic climate impact assessments of alternative forest harvest scenarios and forest product systems.

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Many remote sensing-based methods estimating forest biomass rely on allometric biomass models for field reference data. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) has emerged as a tool for detailed data collection in forestry applications, and the methods have been proposed to derive, e.g. tree position, diameter-at-breast-height, and stem volume from TLS data. In this study, TLS-derived features were related to destructively sampled branch biomass of Norway spruce at the single-tree level, and the results were compared to conventional allometric models with field measured diameter and height. TLS features were derived following two approaches: one voxel-based approach with a detailed analysis of the interaction between individual voxels and each laser beam. The features were derived using voxels of size 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 m, and the effect of the voxel size was assessed. The voxel-derived features were compared to features derived from crown dimension measurements in the unified TLS point cloud data. TLS-derived variables were used in regression models, and prediction accuracies were assessed through a Monte Carlo cross-validation procedure. The model based on 0.4 m voxel data yielded the best prediction accuracy, with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 32%. The accuracy was found to decrease with an increase in voxel size, i.e. the model based on the 0.1 m voxel yielded the lowest accuracy. The model based on crown measurements had an RMSE of 34%. The accuracies of the predictions from the TLS-based models were found to be higher than from conventional allometric models, but the improvement was relatively small.

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Use of harvest residues for bioenergy is minimal in Norway, and the proposed increase of 14 TWh in annual bioenergy use by year 2020 may thus to a large part be based on residues from conventional timber harvesting. To judge the potential of harvest residues for bioenergy both in the short and long run, we present cost-supply curves for residue harvesting at national and regional levels. We produce different harvesting scenarios using the detailed forest model Gaya/J and a representative description of the Norwegian forest area from Norwegian national forest inventory (NFI) sample plots including environmental restrictions. Forest information is sufficiently detailed to estimate necessary biomass fractions and calculate costs of harvest residue extraction at plot level. We estimate a maximum annual energy production of 5.3 TWh from harvest residues with the present harvest level, which is far from the official target. In principle, there are two solutions for achieving this target; increase harvests and thus the corresponding residue supply, or increase the use of roundwood for energy purposes on the expense of pulpwood. Scenarios with long-run increase in timber production shows an annual energy potential from harvest residues in the range 6–9 TWh. Thus, to reach the political target roundwood must be used for energy production.

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There is a need for monitoring methods for forest volume, biomass and carbon based on satellite remote sensing. In the present study we tested interferometric X-band SAR (InSAR) from the Tandem-X mission. The aim of the study was to describe how accurate volume and biomass could be estimated from InSAR height and test whether the relationships were curvilinear or not. The study area was a spruce dominated forest in southeast Norway. We selected 28 stands in which we established 192 circular sample plots of 250 m2, accurately positioned by a Differential Global Positioning System (dGPS). Plot level data on stem volume and aboveground biomass were derived from field inventory. Stem volume ranged fromzero to 596 m3/ha, and aboveground biomass up to 338 t/ha.We generated 2 Digital Surface Models (DSMs) fromInSAR processing of two co-registered, HH-polarized TanDEM-X image pairs – one ascending and one descending pair.We used a Digital TerrainModel (DTM) from airborne laser scanning (ALS) as a reference and derived a 10 m × 10 m Canopy Height Model (CHM), or InSAR height model. We assigned each plot to the nearest 10 m × 10 m InSAR height pixel. We applied a nonlinear, mixed model for the volume and biomass modeling, and from a full model we removed effects with a backward stepwise approach. InSAR heightwas proportional to volume and aboveground biomass, where a 1 m increase in InSAR height corresponded to a volume increase of 23 m3/ha and a biomass increase of 14 t/ha. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) values were 43–44% at the plot level and 19–20% at the stand level.

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A mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic is currently ravaging large areas of interior British Columbia (BC) with significant implications for ecosystem services including future timber supply and community economic stability. Information is needed on future stand dynamics in areas of impacted forests that are unlikely to be salvaged logged. Of greatest concern are stands dominated by lodgepole pine (>50% timber volume). Predicting how surviving trees in these areas respond and grow and the timing and species composition of natural regeneration ingress is of critical importance for multiple forest values. We undertook a retrospective study in the Flathead Valley of southeastern British Columbia where an intense MPB epidemic peaked in 1979–1980. Our objective was to gain insight into stand recovery and stand self-organization as influenced by species-specific growth responses of different sized secondary structure trees (individual seedling, sapling, sub-canopy and canopy trees surviving the epidemic) and post-beetle regeneration dynamics. MPB mortality rates, the percent of basal area killed by beetles, varied from 42% to 100% with most stands between 60% and 80%. In general, all surviving secondary structure released but the extent of growth release exhibited species variability. Release of surviving canopy lodgepole pine trees was often dramatic and greatest in stands with high total stand MPB mortality rates. Ingress of natural regeneration was slow in the first few years after MPB attack but there was a strong pulse of recruitment 10–20 years post disturbance which then slowed considerably. Nearly 30 years after the MPB attack, the stocking and composition of the understories have changed dramatically. Overall, the occurrence of the MPB epidemic resulted in more structurally and compositionally diverse stands leading to multiple successional pathways different from those of even-age pine dominated stands. The recovery and self-organization of unsalvaged natural stands in the Flathead Valley was a complicated process. It has provided insights for future forest management in areas impacted by the current massive MPB epidemic ongoing for the past decade in western North America.

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Antallet hjortevilt i Norge når stadig nye høyder, og stadig flere spør seg om konsekvensene for andre arter i skogøkosystemet. Blant de mer synlige effektene er det høye beitetrykket på rogn, osp og selje, eller hva vi kaller ROS-artene. Disse forekommer ved relativt lav tetthet i alle skogområder, men har en uforholdsmessig stor betydning som mat og leveområde for andre organismer. Dersom de skulle synke i frekvens og utbredelse vil det derfor ha økologiske konsekvenser som går langt utover deres verdi som beiteplanter for elg og hjort.

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Bruken av bioenergi vil øke betraktelig i årene som kommer. Politisk ligger det målsettinger om en dobling av årlig bruk fra 14 TWh i 2008 til 28 TWh i 2020. For å nå målet om en økning med 14 TWh innen 2020 vil skogen være en helt avgjørende ressurs. Det er derfor et stort behov for å få frem tall for hvilke ressurser som finnes i norske skoger delvis for å kunne vurdere om myndighetenes mål er realistiske, men også for å kunne planlegge nye bioenergianlegg og ny bruk av bioenergi ut fra hvor mye og hvor ressursene finnes. Formålet med den foreliggende rapporten har vært å produsere en ”tabellsamling” som kan brukes direkte, eller som et utgangspunkt, i utredninger, vurderinger og analyser knyttet til spørsmål omkring bruk av biomasse fra skog til energiformål. Rapporten viser tall for biomasseressurser både på lands- og regionnivå, den viser tall for hvor ressursene finnes basert på driftsveglengder og terrengklasser, samt størrelsen på typiske energisortimenter som GROT (greiner og topper) og stubber og røtter. Det er også regnet noe på det energipotensialet som ligger i biomassetallene. Disse beregningene viser at ressursene i utgangspunktet er mer enn store nok til å nå de politiske målsettingene. Mulighetene for å nå disse målene er imidlertid avhengig av kostnadene ved å ta ut biomassen, konkurransedyktige priser for biomassen,samt myndighetenes rammevilkår. Dette er ikke diskutert i rapporten.

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I en bærekraftig skogforvaltning er det mange hensyn som må balanseres. Mange av disse hensynene er formelt ivaretatt i lovverk og forskrifter og gjennom miljøsertifisering. Skogbruksloven med tilhørende forskrifter er styrende for mye av skogbehandlingen, men også lover som naturmangfoldloven, vannressursloven og friluftsloven gir føringer for skogbehandling og forvaltning. De fleste skogeiendommer er miljøsertifisert gjennom Skogbrukets miljøstandard, basert på Levende Skog standard av 2006 (med presiseringer gjeldende f.o.m. juli 2009 og juli 2010). I tillegg til formelle krav som påvirker skogforvaltningen direkte er det flere andre miljø- og samfunnsmessige hensyn som berører skogforvaltningen. Vi har sett på hvordan ulike hensyn, hver for seg og samlet, påvirker tilgjengelighet av produktivt skogareal. Analysen er i hovedsak basert på data fra Landsskogtakseringen og supplert med andre kildedata (MiS-databasen, litteraturstudie, spørreundersøkelse) ....

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Harvest activity directly impacts timber supply, forest conditions, and carbon stock. Forecasts of the harvest activity have traditionally relied on the assumption that harvest is carried out according to forest management guidelines or to maximize forest value. However, these rules are, in practice, seldom applied systematically, which may result in large discrepancies between predicted and actual harvest in short-term forecasts. We present empirical harvest models that predict final felling and thinning based on forest attributes such as site index, stand age, volume, slope, and distance to road. The logistic regression models were developed and fit to Norwegian national forest inventory data and predict harvest with high discriminating power. The models were consistent with expected landowners behavior, that is, areas with high timber value and low harvest cost were more likely to be harvested. We illustrate how the harvest models can be used, in combination with a growth model, to develop a national business-as-usual scenario for forest carbon. The business-as-usual scenario shows a slight increase in national harvest levels and a decrease in carbon sequestration in living trees over the next decade.

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In this paper two sampling and estimation strategies for regional forestinventory were investigated in detail and results were presented for various geographical scales. Airbornelaser scanner (ALS) data were acquired to augment data from a systematic sample of NationalForestInventory (NFI) ground plots in HedmarkCounty, Norway (27,390 km2). Approximately 50% of the NFI fieldplots were covered by the systematic ALS sample of 53 parallel flight lines spaced 6 km apart. The area was stratified into eight cover classes and independent log-transformed regression models were developed for each class to predict total above-ground dry biomass (AGB). The two laser-ground estimation strategies tested were a model-dependent (MD), two-phase approach that rests on the assumption that the predictive models are correctly specified, and a model-assisted (MA) approach with a two-stage probability sampling design which utilizes design-unbiased estimators. ALS AGB estimates were reported by land cover class and compared to the NFI ground estimates. The ALS-based MA and MD mean estimates differed from the NFI AGB estimates by about 2% and 8%, respectively, for the entire County. At the county level the smallest estimated standard error (SE) for the estimates was obtained using the field data alone. However, the SEs calculated from field and ALS data were based on unequal numbers of ground plots. When considering only the NFI plots in the ALS strips, the smallest SEs were obtained using the MD framework. However, we also illustrated the sensitivity of the estimates of applying different plausible models. All the applied estimators assumed simple random sampling while the selection of flight lines as well as ground plots followed a systematic design. Thus, the estimates of SE were most likely conservative. Simulated sampling undertaken in a parallel research effort suggests that the overestimation of the SEs was probably much larger for the ALS-based estimates compared to the NFI estimates. ALS-based estimates were also derived for sub-county political units and thereby demonstrated how limited sample sizes affect the standard error of the biomass estimates.

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Mulighetene for å kartlegge skogressurser med satellittbaserte RADAR-instrumenter er undersøkt. Det er bildedannende RADAR som er brukt, såkalt syntetisk aperture RADAR (SAR). Vi har testet ut C-bånd polarimetri (PolSAR) fra Radarsat-2 og X-bånd interferometri (InSAR) fra Tandem-X. PolSAR som metode bygger på at ulike typer arealklasser gir ulike typer ekko, mens InSAR bygger på at RADAR-ekkoets høyde over bakken er korrelert med volum og biomasse. Resultatene viser at polarimetrisk C-bånd SAR alene ser ut til å være verdiløst for skogkartlegging. Årsaken er at de korte C-bånd bølgelengdene ikke penetrerer noe særlig ned i vegetasjonen, og store trær vi derfor gi tilnærmet samme ekko som bunnvegetasjon. For InSAR, derimot, har vi oppnådd gode resultater, og dette er i tråd med tidligere utprøvinger basert på liknende data fra romferge-misjonen SRTM i år 2000. InSAR er en lovende metode for kartlegging av volum og biomasse i skog, med en nøyaktighet på bestandnivå på 23%.

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I en 5-årsperiode har Landsskogtakseringen registrert beitetrykk og beitetilbud på 11 000 prøveflater innenfor store deler av elgens utbredelsesområde i Norge. Resultatene viser at elgen i nord kan velge fra øverste hylle, både sommer og vinter, mens elgen i sør må dele på godene. I Troms er det fire ganger flere beitetrær tilgjengelig pr elg enn hva som er tilfelle i Agder, og en langt større andel består av de mest selekterte artene. I tillegg er arealet av attraktive feltsjiktplanter 50 ganger større pr elg i nord enn i sør.

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Overvåkingsprogrammet for hjortevilt blir gjennomført på oppdrag fra Direktoratet for naturforvaltning (DN), og NINA har hatt ansvaret for gjennomføringen av programmet siden oppstarten i 1991 og fram til i dag. Datamaterialet som er samlet inn i løpet av disse 21 åra representerer en unik mulighet til å følge sentrale utviklingstrender i bestandsstørrelse, kondisjons- og reproduksjonsmål hos elg, hjort og villrein innen utvalgte overvåkingsregioner. Overvåkingen gjennomføres i detalj innenfor 17 forskjellige overvåkingsområder (7 for elg, 3 for hjort, 7 for villrein) fra Svalbard i nord til Vest-Agder i sør, der kjever, slaktevekter og andre data samles fra skutte individer, og kalveproduksjon og bestandsstruktur estimeres i villreinbestandene. I tillegg gjennomføres det en mer ekstensiv overvåking av bestandstetthet, avskytning og kalverekruttering basert på jegerrapporter. Denne rapporten er en oppsummering av utviklingstrendene i overvåkingsperioden 1991-2011, med spesiell fokus på utviklingen i den siste kontraktsperioden, 2007-2011. I løpet av perioden 1991-2011 har det i Norge vært en generell økning i avskytningen av hjort og nedgang i avskytningen av villrein, mens avskytning av elg har holdt seg relativt stabil (variert rundt gjennomsnittet). Den samme utvikling kan spores i antallet individer drept i trafikken for elg og hjort. På regionalt nivå har tettheten og avskytningen av elg stort sett økt i bestandene fra Sør- Trøndelag til Finnmark, mens den har sunket fra Buskerud til Vest-Agder. I Oppland og i fylkene lenger øst, har trenden vært mer stabil. I samme periode har det vært en generell nedgang i kalverekrutteringsratene estimert fra sett elg i de fleste fylkene. Nedgangen har vært spesielt tydelig fra Buskerud til Vest-Agder. Til tross for vesentlig nedgang i bestandstetthet, er rekrutteringsratene fortsatt lave i disse fylkene. Motsatt finner vi fortsatt høye rater i Østfold og i fylkene fra Sør-Trøndelag til Finnmark. Den samlede bestandsstørrelsen og avskytningen av villrein er dominert av bestanden på Hardangervidda. I inneværende overvåkningsperiode har bestandsstørrelsen på Hardangervidda vært lav men i vekst. Tilsvarende utviklingstrender finner vi i Setesdal Ryfylke og i Forolhogna og jaktuttaket fra overvåkingsområdene er følgelig økende ved utgangen av siste overvåkingsperiode. I de 17 villreinområdene på fastlandet som ikke inngår i overvåkingsprogrammet for villrein, har det vært en nedgang i jaktuttaket på omkring 25 % i perioden 1991-2011. Avskytningen av hjort har økt systematisk i alle fylker med hjortejakt i perioden 1991-2011 og har i hele perioden vært dominert av fylkene fra Rogaland til Sør-Trøndelag. De siste åra har imidlertid veksten vært størst i de nye hjorteområdene på Sørlandet og Østlandet. I 2011 var det for første gang på lenge en nedgang i avskytningen i alle de dominerende hjortefylkene, utenom i Hordaland. Den samme utviklingen finner vi i antallet hjort påkjørt og drept i trafikken siden 2008, noe som antyder at den samlede bestanden av hjort nå er på vei ned. Innenfor overvåkingsområdene har bestandsutviklingen for de aktuelle hjorteviltartene vært i samsvar med den mer generelle utviklingen på regionalt nivå. Overvåkingsbestandene for elg i Troms, Nordland, Nord-Trøndelag og Hedmark har vært økende eller relativ stabile i perioden 1991-2011, mens bestandene i Oppland, Vestfold/Telemark og Vest-Agder har vært synkende. I den samme perioden har det vært en generell nedgang i slaktevekter og/eller rekrutteringsrater i alle områdene, utenom i Oppland og delvis i Troms. Fruktbarhetsratene fra eggstokkanalysene viser til dels det samme mønsteret, men i tillegg finner vi en positiv utvikling i flere områder. Det sprikende resultatet tilskrives i en viss grad jaktseleksjon og analysetekniske problemer.

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Landsskogtakseringen gir i dag estimater av skoglige parametre på nasjonalt og regionalt nivå ved hjelp av et systematisk nettverk av prøveflater. Den genererte informasjonen blir brukt til en rekke formål, herunder utforming av nasjonal og regional skogpolitikk, rapportering til internasjonale organer og avtaler slik som Kyoto-protokollen, strategisk planlegging for skognæringen, samt overvåking av viktige biologiske indikatorer.

Sammendrag

Med politiske målsettinger om økt avvirkning og økt trebruk er det viktig at en har kjennskap til hvor stor del av ressursene som reelt danner grunnlaget for virkestilgangen. Nye beregninger viser at om lag 30 prosent av det produktive skogarealet i Norge er underlagt moderate eller sterke restriksjoner grunnet miljøhensyn. Per i dag representerer dette en båndlegging av om lag 15 % av stående volum.

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The combined effects of light, soil fertility, and ontogenetic changes on plant growth rates are poorly understood, yet these three factors play fundamental roles in structuring plant communities. We sought to determine how lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia), interior spruce (Picea glauca engelmanii (Moench) Voss), and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) sapling growth responds to the combination of light, soil fertility, and ontogeny and how these three dominant conifer species in sub-boreal forests of British Columbia differ in their responses.Using maximum likelihood methods, we found that 0.204 m tall sapling growth rates changed during ontogeny and were limited by both light and soil resources. The strongest differences among species growth rates were due to tree size, with smaller differences due to soil fertility, and there were no differences among species in the shape of their growth responses to light. Rank order in growth rates for small saplings (pine spruce fir) inversely corresponded to classic shade-tolerance ratings, thus supporting the carbon balance theory. Interior spruce height growth rates increased relative to lodgepole pine with increasing soil fertility, clearly matching the landscape-scale increase in canopy dominance of interior spruce over lodgepole pine with increasing soil fertility.

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Rogn, osp og selje (ROS) er viktige og høyt prefererte beiteplanter for hjortevilt. Som følge av høye og økende bestandstettheter av elg, hjort og rådyr, er beitetrykket på disse treslagene høyt, og kan forventes å forbli høyt i overskuelig framtid. Potensielt kan dette få konsekvenser for deres bestandsdynamikk og geografiske fordeling, og uheldige konsekvenser for deres genetiske sammensetning og utbredelsen av assosiert biologisk mangfold. I den anledning har vi gjennomført en litteraturstudie av disse treslagenes biologi, livshistorie og genetikk med særlig vekt på effekten av beiting. I tillegg har vi gjort noen enkle analyser av artenes utbredelse og siste tiårs bestandsdynamikk i Norge. Rapporten er i det alt vesentlige et utdrag av to artikler om samme emne (Myking mfl. 2011; Myking mfl. in prep). Rogn, osp og selje finnes i alle deler av landet, men med varierende tettheter. Ospa er mest vanlig i kystnære områder i sørøst-Norge, mens rogn og selje er mere jevnt fordelt over hele landet. Artene er særmerket av kort levealder, og for rogn og selje en lav høyde og sympodialt vekstmønster (forgreining ved akselskudd). Dette er faktorer som gjør dem utsatt for beiting. Samtidig har de høy juvenil vekstrate, noe som gjør at de raskt kan vokse utenfor beiterekkevidde for elg, rådyr og hjort. Selje og osp er delvis avhengig av lysåpne områder for å kunne etablere seg, for eksempel etter hogst, stormfelling eller erosjon, mens rogna er mer skyggetolerang. Selja har også mer spesifikke krav til jordforhold enn hva som er tilfelle for rogn og osp. Dette kan kanskje forklare den lavere frekvensen av selje på Landsskogtakseringens prøveflater. Genetisk er artene særmerket av høy genetisk variasjon innen bestander. Den genetiske variasjonen mellom bestandene er lavere som følge av effektiv frøspredning, enten via vind (osp og selje) eller via frø som fordøyes og spres av fugl og pattedyr (rogn). Ospa kan i utstrakt grad også formere seg vegetativt, og mange trær innen bestander kan tilhøre samme klon. Nyere studier viser imidlertid at den genetiske variasjonen innen bestander er høy, noe som innebærer at en større andel trær er utviklet fra frø enn tidligere antatt. Alle tre artene beites intensivt av elg, rådyr og hjort, noe som kan føre til at artene synker i frekvens når beitetrykket blir for høyt. I så fall kan det også påvirke epifyttisk lav og andre organismer som lever på disse artene, og for rognas del — dyr som lever av bærene. Alle de tre artene har imidlertid utviklet seg i nærvær av større planteetere og kan således antas å være relativt tolerante til beiting. Rogn, osp og selje har lav dødelighet som følge av beiting og høy juvenil vekstrate. De kan derfor raskt vokse seg utenfor beiterekkevidde for hjortedyr og andre større planteetere (husdyr) i perioder med lavt beitetrykk. På sikt kan det være at intensiv beiting vil medføre økt dødelighet, forsinket kjønnsmodning og redusert rekruttering hos alle de tre artene, med påfølgende reduserte bestandsstørrelser. Landsskogtakseringens data antyder en viss nedgang i de minste størrelsesklassene av osp i løpet av de siste 25 årene, men det er uklart hvorvidt dette skyldes beiting. For rogn og selje var det ingen tilsvarende utvikling. For alle tre artene er det imidlertid viktig å merke seg at trærne først registreres etter at de har nådd en brysthøydediameter på 50 millimeter, noe som introduserer en tidsforsinkelse i forhold til når trærne er mest utsatt for beiting. Det er derfor fortsatt for tidlig å trekke bastante slutninger med hensyn betydningen av de siste årenes høye beitetrykk på rekrutteringen av rogn, osp og selje i Norge. Flere studier antyder at skogbruket er av større betydning for utviklingen til ROS-artene enn hva som er tilfelle for hjorteviltbeiting. Ungskogspleie – i form av tynning og rydding – og kjemisk ugraskontroll var tidligere vanlig, men er i mindre grad praktisert de siste 20 årene. I økende grad fokuseres det også på de positive sidene av ROS-artene og andre lauvtrearter. Basert på nye standarder (Levende Skog) er det ønskelig å opprettholde en større andel lauvtrær og eldre individer i skogen, noe som på sikt kan virke positivt på gjenveksten av rogn, osp og selje i norske skoger.

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Sammendrag

Rogn, osp og selje finnes i alle deler av landet, men med varierende tettheter. Ospa er mest vanlig i kystnære områder i sørøst-Norge, mens rogn og selje er mere jevnt fordelt over hele landet. Artene er særmerket av kort levealder, og for rogn og selje en lav høyde og sympodialt vekstmønster (forgreining ved akselskudd). Dette er faktorer som gjør dem utsatt for beiting. Samtidig har de høy juvenil vekstrate, noe som gjør at de raskt kan vokse utenfor beiterekkevidde for elg, rådyr og hjort. Selje og osp er delvis avhengig av lysåpne områder for å kunne etablere seg, for eksempel etter hogst, stormfelling eller erosjon, mens rogna er mer skyggetolerang. Selja har også mer spesifikke krav til jordforhold enn hva som er tilfelle for rogn og osp. Dette kan kanskje forklare den lavere frekvensen av selje på Landsskogtakseringens prøveflater. Genetisk er artene særmerket av høy genetisk variasjon innen bestander. Den genetiske variasjonen mellom bestandene er lavere som følge av effektiv frøspredning, enten via vind (osp og selje) eller via frø som fordøyes og spres av fugl og pattedyr (rogn). Ospa kan i utstrakt grad også formere seg vegetativt, og mange trær innen bestander kan tilhøre samme klon. Nyere studier viser imidlertid at den genetiske variasjonen innen bestander er høy, noe som innebærer at en større andel trær er utviklet fra frø enn tidligere antatt. Alle tre artene beites intensivt av elg, rådyr og hjort, noe som kan føre til at artene synker i frekvens når beitetrykket blir for høyt. I så fall kan det også påvirke epifyttisk lav og andre organismer som lever på disse artene, og for rognas del — dyr som lever av bærene. Alle de tre artene har imidlertid utviklet seg i nærvær av større planteetere og kan således antas å være relativt tolerante til beiting. Rogn, osp og selje har lav dødelighet som følge av beiting og høy juvenil vekstrate. De kan derfor raskt vokse seg utenfor beiterekkevidde for hjortedyr og andre større planteetere (husdyr) i perioder med lavt beitetrykk. På sikt kan det være at intensiv beiting vil medføre økt dødelighet, forsinket kjønnsmodning og redusert rekruttering hos alle de tre artene, med påfølgende reduserte bestandsstørrelser. Landsskogtakseringens data antyder en viss nedgang i de minste størrelsesklassene av osp i løpet av de siste 25 årene, men det er uklart hvorvidt dette skyldes beiting. For rogn og selje var det ingen tilsvarende utvikling. For alle tre artene er det imidlertid viktig å merke seg at trærne først registreres etter at de har nådd en brysthøydediameter på 50 millimeter, noe som introduserer en tidsforsinkelse i forhold til når trærne er mest utsatt for beiting. Det er derfor fortsatt for tidlig å trekke bastante slutninger med hensyn betydningen av de siste årenes høye beitetrykk på rekrutteringen av rogn, osp og selje i Norge. Flere studier antyder at skogbruket er av større betydning for utviklingen til ROS-artene enn hva som er tilfelle for hjorteviltbeiting. Ungskogspleie – i form av tynning og rydding – og kjemisk ugraskontroll var tidligere vanlig, men er i mindre grad praktisert de siste 20 årene. I økende grad fokuseres det også på de positive sidene av ROS-artene og andre lauvtrearter. Basert på nye standarder (Levende Skog) er det ønskelig å opprettholde en større andel lauv trær og eldre individer i skogen, noe som på sikt kan virke positivt på gjenveksten av rogn, osp og selje i norske skoger.

Sammendrag

I en kronikk i Nationen 20. mars kommer Rune Aanderaa i Sabima med kritikk av en nylig publisert rapport om miljøhensyn i norsk skog. Aanderaa behandler i sin kronikk vår rapport som et politisk innspill i den pågående debatten om skogvern og beskyttelse av biologisk mangfold. Dette er feil. Rapporten tar ikke standpunkt til spørsmål relatert til økt eller redusert behov for miljørestriksjoner og vern i norsk skogbruk, og er ikke et politisk innspill. Rapporten presenterer et tallgrunnlag som bør ligge til grunn for en nødvendig debatt om fremtidig forvaltning av norske skogressurser.

Sammendrag

The Norwegian National Forest Inventory (NNFI) provides estimates of forest parameters on national and regional scales by means of a systematic network of permanent sample plots. One of the biggest challenges for the NNFI is the interest in forest attribute information for small sub-populations such as municipalities or protected areas. Frequently, too few sampled observations are available for such small areas to allow estimates with acceptable precision. However, if an auxiliary variable exists that is correlated with the variable of interest, small area estimation (SAE) techniques may provide means to improve the precision of estimates. The study aimed at estimating the mean above-ground forest biomass for small areas with high precision and accuracy, using SAE techniques. For this purpose, the simple random sampling (SRS) estimator, the generalized regression (GREG) estimator, and the unit-level empirical best linear unbiased prediction (EBLUP) estimator were compared. Mean canopy height obtained from a photogrammetric canopy height model (CHM) was the auxiliary variable available for every population element. The small areas were 14 municipalities within a 2,184 km2 study area for which an estimate of the mean forest biomass was sought. The municipalities were between 31 and 527 km2 and contained 1–35 NNFI sample plots located within forest. The mean canopy height obtained from the CHM was found to have a strong linear correlation with forest biomass. Both the SRS estimator and the GREG estimator result in unstable estimates if they are based on too few observations. Although this is not the case for the EBLUP estimator, the estimators were only compared for municipalities with more than five sample plots. The SRS resulted in the highest standard errors in all municipalities. Whereas the GREG and EBLUP standard errors were similar for small areas with many sample plots, the EBLUP standard error was usually smaller than the GREG standard error. The difference between the EBLUP and GREG standard error increased with a decreasing number of sample plots within the small area. The EBLUP estimates of mean forest biomass within the municipalities ranged between 95.01 and 153.76 Mg ha−1, with standard errors between 8.20 and 12.84 Mg ha−1.

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Stand and disturbance dynamics are key processes that need to be assessed along with climate-species interactions if we are to better understand the impacts of climate change on species. In this study we investigated the biotic interactions (competition) between species, the influence of disturbance type, and changes in resource availability (moisture and light) on the response of six tree species to climate change in the northwest region of central British Columbia, Canada. Two ecological models were parameterized, linked together and coupled to climate change scenarios to explore the interactions between: (1) the response of species in the regeneration phase and (2) the role of disturbance, resource availability and competition on determining stand composition and productivity. Climate change was found to reduce soil moisture availability which resulted in a decline in regeneration potential for all species on dry sites and negative to neutral responses on sites with higher water availability. Following fire, stand dynamics and composition were modeled to undergo significant changes under the 2080s climate compared to current climate conditions on dry and mesic sites. Changes in stand dynamics under climate change were marginal following bark beetle disturbances. While significant changes to stand dynamics were found on dry sites, the presented results suggest that the sites with the highest moisture availability maintain the same general stand dynamics and composition following disturbances under climate change. This study highlights the need to consider species response to climate change in interaction with existing stand conditions, disturbance type, competition, resource availability, not just temperature and precipitation.

Sammendrag

Vegetation height information is one of the most important variables for predicting forest attributes such as timber volume and biomass. Although airborne laser scanning (ALS) data are operationally used in forest planning inventories in Norway, a regularly repeated acquisition of ALS data for large regions has yet to be realized. Therefore, several research groups analyze the use of other data sources to retrieve vegetation height information. One very promising approach is the photogrammetric derivation of vegetation heights from overlapping digital aerial images. Aerial images are acquired over almost all European countries on a regular basis making image data readily available. The Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute (Skog og Landskap) invited researchers and practitioners that produce and utilize photogrammetric data to share their experiences. More than 30 participants followed the invitation and contributed to a successful event with interesting presentations and discussions. We wish to thank the speakers for their contributions and hope that all participants found the seminar useful. These short proceedings of the seminar include summaries of the talks. The presentations, which provide more information, can be found at the end of this document.

Sammendrag

I denne rapporten gis en oversikt over den produktive skogen langs kysten, med fokus på ressursgrunnlaget, tilgjengelighet for utnyttelse og hogstaktiviteten de senere årene. Videre presenteres prognoser for framtidig virketilgang (balansekvantum og langsiktig produksjonsnivå) med ulike forutsetninger om økonomisk drivverdig areal. Egne prognoser er også kjørt for å estimere effekten av miljørestriksjoner, varierende skogkulturinnsats og økt treslagsskifte på tilgjengelig kvantum. Da det foreløpig mangler takstdata som dekker hele Finnmark er skogressursene i dette fylket beskrevet separat basert på en sammenstilling av tilgjengelige data, og fylket er av samme årsak holdt utenom i prognosesammenheng....

Sammendrag

Med grunnlag i Landsskogtakseringens prøveflater beskriver denne rapport skogtilstanden på vernet areal samt vurder mulighetene for økt overvåking av vernet areal gjennom Landsskogtakseringen. I henhold til Landsskogtakseringens utvalgskartlegging er 2,3% av den produktive skogen vernet, mens andelen er 5,5% for den uproduktive skogen. Dette betyr at 3,1% (343 000 ha) av det totale skogarealet er vernet. Størsteparten av den vernete produktive skogen er i naturreservater (134 000 ha), mens nasjonalparkene utgjør en relativt liten del av det vernete produktive skogarealet (55 000 ha). Den mest vanlige skogtypen i vernområdene er bjørkedominert skog, det vil si arealer hvor over 70% av det stående volum er bjørk (120 000 ha). Et nesten like stort areal er furudominert (106 000 ha), mens grandominert skog utgjør et noe mindre areal (60 000 ha). Fordelingen av den vernete skogen på produktivitetsklasser viser at høyproduktiv og middels produktiv skog er underrepresentert, mens lavproduktiv og uproduktiv skog er overrepresentert. […]

Sammendrag

The Norwegian National Forest Inventory (NNFI) provides estimates of forest parameters on national and regional scales by means of a systematic network of permanent sample plots. One of the biggest challenges for the NNFI is the interest in forest attribute information for small subpopulations such as municipalities or protected areas. Frequently, too few sampled observations are available for those small areas to allow an estimate with acceptable precision. However, if an auxiliary variable exists that is correlated with the variable of interest, small area estimation (SAE) techniques may provide means to improve the precision of estimates.

Sammendrag

Competition for canopy space is a fundamental structuring feature of forest ecosystems and remains an enduring focus of research attention. We used a spatial neighborhood approach to quantify the influence of local competition on the size of individual tree crowns in north-central British Columbia, where forests are dominated by subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and interior spruce (Picea glaucax engelmanii).Using maximum likelihood methods, we quantified crown radius and length as functions of tree size and competition, estimated by the species identity and spatial arrangement of neighboring trees.Tree crown size depended on tree bole size in all species. Given low levels of competition, pine displayed the widest, shortest tree crowns compared to the relatively long and narrow crowns found in spruce and fir. Sensitivity to crowding by neighbors declined with increasing tree height in all but the pine crown radius model. Five of the six selected best models included separate competition coefficients for each neighboring tree species, evidence that species generally differ in their competitive effects on neighboring tree crowns.The selected crown radius model for lodgepole pine, a shade-intolerant species, treated all neighbors as equivalent competitors. In all species, competition from neighbors exerted an important influence on crown size. Per-capita effects of competition across different sizes and species of neighbors and target trees varied, but subalpine fir generally displayed the strongest competitive effects on neighbors.Results from this study provide evidence that species differ both in their response to competition and in their competitive influence on neighbors, factors that may contribute to maintaining coexistence.

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The suitability of interferometric X-band radar for forest monitoring was investigated. Working in a spruce-dominated forest in southeast Norway, top height, mean height, stand density, stem volume, and biomass were related to space shuttle interferometric height above ground. A ground truth dataset was produced for each radar data pixel in the study area by combining a field inventory and automatic tree detection with airborne laser scanning data. Pixels were aggregated to forest stands. Interferometric height was strongly related to all of the five forest variables, and most strongly to top height with R-2 = 0.71 and RMSE = 13% at the pixel level and R-2 = 0.82 and RMSE = 5.6% at the stand level. Interferometric height was linearly related to stem volume and biomass up to 400 m(3)/ha and 200 t/ha, respectively, and RMSE was approximately 19% for both variables. These errors contain error components caused by the 3.5-year time lag between the radar acquisition and the laser scanning. It is concluded that interferometric X-band radar has potential for use in forest monitoring.

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The primary aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of interferometric X-band SAR (InSAR) for inventory of boreal forest biomass. We investigated the relationship between SRTM X-band InSAR height and above-ground biomass in a study area in southern Norway. We generated biomass reference data for each SRTM pixel from a field inventory in combination with airborne laser scanning (ALS). One set of forest inventory plots served for calibrating ALS based biomass models, and another set of field plots was used to validate these models. The biomass values obtained in this way ranged up to 250 t/ha at the stand level. The relationship between biomass and InSAR height was linear, no apparent saturation effect was present, and the accuracy was high (RMSE = 19%). The relationship differed between Norway spruce and Scots pine, where an increase in InSAR height of 1 m corresponded to an increase in biomass of 9.9 and 7.0 t/ha. respectively. Using a high-quality terrain model from ALS enabled biomass to be estimated with a higher accuracy as compared to using a terrain model from topographic maps. Interferometric X-band SAR appears to be a promising method for forest biomass monitoring. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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Sammendrag

Ambitious targets for renewable energy production in Norway draw attention to biomass potent-ials. The objective of this report is to review the state of the art regarding research on estimation methods, the availability and production of tree biomass resources for energy purposes in Norway in order to indentify knowledge gaps and thus facilitate appropriate focus, development and priorities regarding research for the coming years. The review focuses on biomass from pri-mary forest production with emphasis on Norwegian conditions, but also considers international research, especially from the other Nordic countries. Three main subject areas are considered: - biomass estimation - biomass resources and availability - biomass production. The first part of this report comprises an overview of existing biomass equations and associated inventory methods applied for estimating biomass in Norway. The overview includes a description of the Norwegian National Forest Inventory data as a basis for large-scale biomass assessments. The second part of the report comprises an overview of previous Norwegian assessments of biomass as an energy supplier as well as suggestions for improvements in such assessments. Improvement possibilities regarding the impacts of environmentally oriented restrictions, appropriate models for productivity and cost calculations regarding biomass harvesting systems, and implementation of biomass-related features in existing decisions support systems to facilitate analyses, where timber production and biomass production for energy purposes are equally important, are identified. The final part of the review focuses on silvi-cultural options aiming at optimizing the value of total biomass instead of the conventional approach to silviculture where the main focus is timber values.

Sammendrag

There is an increasing need for forest resource monitoring methods, as more attention is paid to deforestation, bio-energy and forests as habitats. Most national forest inventories are based on networks of field inventory plots, sometimes together with satellite data, and airborne laser scanning (ALS) is increasingly used for local forest mapping. These methods are expensive to establish or carry out, and many countries, including some severely affected by deforestation, do not apply such methods.Satellite based remote sensing methods in use today are hampered by problems caused by clouds and saturation at moderate biomass levels. Satellite SAR is not hampered by cloud problems, and monitoring of canopy surface elevation, which is correlated to key forest resource variables, might be a future method in forest monitoring.We here present the main findings of three studies (Solberg et al. 2010, a, b, c) investigating the potential of interferometric SAR (InSAR) for forest monitoring, by describing the relationship between InSAR height above ground and key forest variables. We based this study on InSAR data from the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) with its acquisition in February 2000. We obtained SRTM InSAR DEM data from DLR for two forest areas in Norway, and built a ground-truth from the combination of field inventory and ALS.The forest areas were dominated by Norway spruce and Scots pine. In each forest area we laid out a number of field inventory plots, where we recorded standard forest variables such as Dbh and tree height, and from this derived plot aggregated variables of top height, mean height, stand density (mean tree height divided by the mean tree spacing), volume and biomass. We used this to calibrate and validate ALS based models, from which we derived estimates of the same variables for each SRTM pixel. This served as reference data for the SRTM data.From the X-band SRTM digital surface model (DSM) image we subtracted a high quality digital terrain model (DTM) derived from the ALS data. This was based on an extraction of ground echoes from the data provider, and the elevations of these echoes were interpolated into a grid fitting the SRTM grid.This produced data on the RADAR echo height above ground (InSAR height), which we related to the forest variables. With digital stand maps we aggregated the variables to the stand level. The X-band microwaves penetrate a little into the canopy, and the InSAR height was on average about 1.2 m below the mean tree height. InSAR height was strongly related to all forest variables, most strongly to top height.Particularly valuable was that stem volume and biomass, ranging up to 400 m3/ha and 200 t/ha, respectively, were linearly related to InSAR height with an accuracy, RMSE, of 19% at the stand level. However, these relationships had an intercept, which represents the microwave penetration into the vegetation, and due to this the relationships were non-linear for forest stands having heights and biomass values close to zero.With a lower quality DTM derived from topographic maps, the relationships were weaker. However, as long as a forest variable is within the ranges of the linear relationship, any change in InSAR elevation would be proportional to a change in forest height, volume or biomass. And, any logging should be detectable as a sudden decrease in InSAR elevation.Hence, a forest monitoring based on X-band InSAR might be suitable even without a DTM. An application of space borne InSAR for forest monitoring would be feasible for large areas at low cost, whereas an ALS acquisition for a part of the area would serve as reference data for calibration.

Sammendrag

Denne rapporten er en framdriftsrapport fra Overvåkingsprogrammet for hjortevilt ved NINA, og er utarbeidet i henhold til kontrakt med oppdragsgiver, Direktoratet for naturforvaltning (DN). I rapporten viser vi utviklingen i bestandskondisjon (slaktevekt, fruktbarhet og rekrutteringsrater) og til dels bestandsstruktur og bestandstetthet for elg, hjort og villrein i de 17 overvåkingsområdene for hjortevilt i Norge. I tillegg rapporterer vi den nasjonale og regionale utviklingen i fellingsstatistikk og antall viltpåkjørsler for elg, hjort, rein og rådyr, samt sett elg- og sett hjort-registreringer fram til 2009. I årets rapport presenterer vi også en oversikt over utviklingen i beitetilbud av og beitetrykk på trær og busker som beites av elg og hjort i perioden 2005-2008, og variasjonen i rekruttering av de samme artene i perioden 1994-2008. Beitetreovervåkingen er gjennomført i samarbeid med Landsskogtakseringen ved Norsk institutt for skog og landskap. Resultatene antyder at det samlede antallet hjortevilt økte ytterligere fra 2008 til 2009. Aldri tidligere er det felt flere elg, hjort og villrein samlet sett som under høsten 2009. Økningen skyldes i all hovedsak økt avskytning av hjort, mens antallet felte elg og rein var tilnærmet uforandret. Også antallet hjortevilt drept i trafikken økte fra jaktåret 2007-08 til 2008-09. I jaktåret 2008-09 ble det påkjørt og drept 7 487 hjortevilt. En grov estimering antyder at det var omkring 450 000 hjortevilt i Norge vinteren 2008, hvorav mest hjort og rådyr (≈300 000). Den samlede bestanden av villrein var drøye 30 000 i 2009 og tilnærmet uforandret fra året før. I alle overvåkingsområdene er det nå nært samsvar mellom bestandsstørrelse og bestandsmålet, med unntak for Hardangervidda og Setesdal Ryfylke. I sistnevnte områder er bestandene fortsatt under bestandsmålet, men økende. I de samme områdene har bestandskondisjonen økt de siste 20 årene, til tross for en svak nedgang i antall kalv pr. 100 simler i 2009. I de andre områdene er rekrutteringsratene stabilt høye eller i tilbakegang. Årsaken til denne tilbakegangen er uklar, men jaktrelaterte mekanismer kan være involvert og bør undersøkes. I overvåkingsområdet på Svalbard var det på ny vekst i bestanden i 2009 etter at den kollapset i 2008. I samsvar med dette ble det registrert over gjennomsnittlig kalveproduksjon og svært lav dødelighet, målt som antall kadaver. Som et resultat av antallet dyr i bestanden fortsatt høy i overvåkingsområdet i forhold til det langsiktige gjennomsnittet. I overvåkingsregionene for hjort var slaktevektene for kalv og åringsdyr i 2009 stort sett lavere enn det langsiktige gjennomsnittet. Dette er i samsvar med en synkende trend i alle regionene siden 1990- tallet og skyldes sannsynligvis økende fødekonkurranse som følge av høy og økende bestandstetthet. I samsvar med dette finner vi også at andelen 2-årige koller som har vært drektige er redusert i overvåkingsperioden i Hordaland og i Sogn og Fjordane. I Møre og Romsdal og Sør-Trøndelag er trenden mer stabil eller svakt økende som følge av høyere drektighetsrater de to siste årene. For å unngå ytterligere fall i bestandskondisjonen tror vi det er nødvendig å hindre ytterligere bestandsvekst og endog redusere tettheten i enkelte områder. Resultatene fra sett hjort antyder ingen vesentlig bestandsvekst for hjort de to siste årene, men antallet kommuner med gode sett hjort data er fortsatt for få til å kunne si noe entydig om bestandstrendene i hele landet. Bestandsovervåking, Elg, Hjort, Hjorteviltforvaltning, Norge, rådyr, villrein, hjortevilt, ungulate management, moose, Norway, population monitoring, red deer, reindeer, roe deer

Sammendrag

Skog som hugges til sagtømmer, massevirke eller bioenergi vil gjenoppstå og er – i motsetning til fossilt brennstoff – fornybar. Spørsmålet er bare i hvilket tidsperspektiv. Skogen bør hugges for å gi størst mulig produksjon av trevirke over tid. Rapporten ”Klimakur 2020” har skapt debatt om skogens rolle i klimapolitikken, og rundt bruken av skog som klimatiltak. Skog er sentral for klimagassregnskapet – både nasjonalt og globalt. Men skal skogen brukes til å maksimere CO2–opptaket på kort sikt, eller er hovedmålet mer langsiktig; leveranse av energi og trematerialer på vei mot et karbonnøytralt samfunn?

Sammendrag

I juni 2009 ble Norsk Institutt for Skog og Landskap bedt om å bistå Landbruks- og Matdepartementet samt Statens Forurensningstilsyn med en analyse av endringene i skogens fremtidige karbonlager under alternative skogbruksscenarioer. Prognosene skal brukes til å avdekke ulike konsekvenser av regelverket for skog og arealbruk i Kyoto-protokollen for forpliktelsesperioden etter 2012. Med utgangspunkt i St. meld. nr. 39 vurderes i denne rapporten 4 scenarioer for det fremtidige skogbruket i Norge: Scenario 1 er en videreføring av dagens hogst, som utgjør 10 millioner m3, og skogkulturinnsats hvor det plantes om lag 20 millioner planter; Scenario 2 forutsetter at hogsten økes til 15 millioner m3 per år, og at det plantes omkring 50 millioner planter årlig; Scenario 3 forutsetter at hogsten økes til om lag 15 millioner m3 per år, og at planteintensiteten er økt i forhold til Scenario 2 til omkring 70 millioner planter årlig; Scenario 4 forutsetter at hogsten økes til om lag 15 millioner m3 per år. Planteintensiteten (planter per arealenhet) er den samme som i Scenario 1, men med økt avvirkning blir det ca. 30 millioner planter per år. [...]

Sammendrag

Helgeland er i foreliggende rapport definert som kommunene Hattfjelldal, Grane, Vefsn, Bindal, Brønnøy, Hemnes og Rana. Det er 38 utredningsområder som skal vurderes for vern, hvilket tilsvarer 119 090 ha eller 7 % av Helgelands totale areal. De 38 utredningsområder utgjør et brutto produktivt skogareal på 8 916 ha, hvorav omkring 46 % (4 130 ha) er fradrag. Det er fradrag for nøkkelbiotoper, samt buffer mot vann og myr, som utgjør forskjellen mellom brutto og netto produktivt skogareal. De 8 916 ha produktiv skog som berøres av utredningsområdene utgjør 4 % av den produktive skogen på Helgeland, og 1 % av den produktive skogen i Nordland. Det totale brutto virkesvolumet på statens grunn på Helgeland er 2 978 094 m3, hvorav 17 % er berørt av de 38 utredningsområdene. Dette tilsvarer et berørt volum som utgjør omkring 3,5 % av Helgelands totale volum, og 1,5 % av Nordlands totale volum. Innenfor de 38 utredningsområdene er 46 % av det produktive skogareal dekket av nøkkelbiotoper, samt buffer mot vann og myr. Dette illustrerer at utredningsområdene har en stor naturverdi (andel viktige habitater) i forhold til det generelle landskapet på Helgeland og i hele Nordland. 19 av områdene er vurdert å ha regionalt unike naturkvaliteter, mens 16 områder tillegges nasjonalt unike kvaliteter. Et meget stort innhold av signal- og rødlistearter er knyttet til 9 av utredningsområdene, men rødlistearter er funnet i (minst) 29 av områdene. Kunnskaper om de observerte rødlisteartenes populasjonsstørrelse og utvikling i de ulike utredningsområdene er svært begrenset, og forekomst av moser, insekter og fugl er generelt lite undersøkt i de fleste av utredningsområdene. Dette innebærer at det ikke er mulig å foreta en kvantifisering av effekter på rødlisteartene ved å ikke verne. […]

Sammendrag

Evaluation of climate change consequences and national carbon reporting such as under the Kyoto protocol require long-term monitoring of carbon fluxes. We report on an ongoing project aimed at a national-level assessment of the terrestrial carbon sequestration potential under present conditions and under various climate and land use change scenarios, in particular in terms of their temperature effect. We develop empirical models for national soil carbon stock assessment and evaluate process-based soil carbon models for prediction of future carbon dynamics.....