Publikasjoner

NIBIOs ansatte publiserer flere hundre vitenskapelige artikler og forskningsrapporter hvert år. Her finner du referanser og lenker til publikasjoner og andre forsknings- og formidlingsaktiviteter. Samlingen oppdateres løpende med både nytt og historisk materiale. For mer informasjon om NIBIOs publikasjoner, besøk NIBIOs bibliotek.

2019

Til dokument Til datasett

Sammendrag

Field and laboratory studies show increased leaching of pesticides through macropores in frozen soil. Fast macropore flow has been shown to reduce the influence of pesticide properties on leaching, but data on these processes are scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of soil freezing and thawing on transport of pesticides with a range of soil sorption coefficients (Kf). To do this we conducted a soil column study to quantify the transport of bromide and five pesticides (2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, clomazone, boscalid, propiconazole, and diflufenican). Intact topsoil and subsoil columns from two agricultural soils (silt and loam) in southeastern Norway were used in this experiment, and pesticides were applied to the soil surface in all columns. Half the columns were then frozen (−3°C), and the other half were left unfrozen (4°C). Columns were subjected to repeated irrigation events where 25 mm of rainwater was applied during 5 h at each event. Irrigations were followed by 14-d periods of freezing or refrigeration. Percolate was collected and analyzed for pesticides and bromide. Pesticide leaching was up to five orders of magnitude larger from frozen than unfrozen columns. Early breakthrough (<<1 pore volume) of high concentrations was observed for pesticides in frozen columns, indicating that leaching was dominated by preferential flow. The rank order in pesticide leaching observed in this study corresponded to the rank order of mean Kf values for the pesticides, and the results suggest that sorption plays a role in determining leaching losses even in frozen soil.

Sammendrag

OBJECTIVES • Gain a better understanding of the fate of pesticides in the environment by also screening and detecting their metabolites • Predict and detect pesticide metabolites in soils using high resolution accurate mass (HRAM) tools; Thermo Q Exactive orbitrap and Compound DiscovererTM software. HIGHLIGHTS • We present in silico metabolism simulation to predict fungicide metabolites in soil • We present a screening method for 800 pesticides and metabolites in soil and food, exemplified with soil samples from strawberry field degradation studies (including fluopyram, boscalid and pyraclostrobin and others) • We address the lack of molecular formulas for known metabolites in current databases as an obstacle in establishing HRAM screening methods

Sammendrag

Vi har tatt i bruk nye metoder innen plantemetabolomikk for å påvise og identifisere forsvarsstoff i gran og presenterer her noen resultater fra dette arbeidet. Hvert fjerde tre i skogen er angrepet av råtesopp. Rotråtesopp angriper treet gjennom rota og spiser opp kjerneveden på sin vei oppover i stammen. Den delen av trestokken som er angrepet av rotråte kan ikke lenger brukes til byggematerialer og skognæringen lider store tap. Kan de soppangrepne trestammene brukes til andre formål? Vi vet grana produserer en mengde forsvarsstoffer som en reaksjon på soppangrepet. Kan forsvarsstoffene utnyttes til å lage nye plantevernmidler, trebeskyttelsesmidler eller legemidler?

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Preferential flow may become significant in partially frozen soils because infiltration can occur through large, initially air-filled pores surrounded by a soil matrix with limited infiltration capacity. The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate a dual-permeability approach for simulating water flow and heat transport in macroporous soils undergoing freezing and thawing. This was achieved by introducing physically based equations for soil freezing and thawing into the dual-permeability model MACRO. Richards’ equation and the heat flow equation were loosely coupled using the generalized Clapeyron equation for the soil micropore domain. Freezing and thawing of macropore water is governed by a first-order equation for energy transfer between the micropore and macropore domains. We assumed that macropore water was unaffected by capillary forces, so that water in macropores freezes at 0°C. The performance of the model was evaluated for four test cases: (i) redistribution of water in the micropore domain during freezing, (ii) a comparison between the first-order energy transfer approach and the heat conduction equation, (iii) infiltration and water flow in frozen soil with an initially air-filled macropore domain, and (iv) thawing from the soil surface during constant-rate rainfall. Results show that the model behaves in accordance with the current understanding of water flow and heat transport in frozen macroporous soil. To improve modeling of water and heat flow in frozen soils, attention should now be focused on providing experimental data suitable for evaluating models that account for macropore flow.