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Sammendrag

The application of biochar to soils is a promising technique for increasing soil organic C and offsetting GHG emissions. However, large-scale adoption by farmers will likely require the proof of its utility to improve plant growth and soil quality. In this context, we conducted a four-year field experiment between October 2010 to October 2014 on a fertile silty clay loam Albeluvisol in Norway to assess the impact of biochar on soil physical properties, soil microbial biomass, and oat and barley yield. The following treatments were included: Control (soil), miscanthus biochar 8 t C ha1 (BC8), miscanthus straw feedstock 8 t C ha1 (MC8), and miscanthus biochar 25 t C ha1 (BC25). Average volumetric water content at field capacity was significantly higher in BC25 when compared to the control due to changes in BD and total porosity. The biochar amendment had no effect on soil aggregate (2–6 mm) stability, pore size distribution, penetration resistance, soil microbial biomass C and N, and basal respiration. Biochar did not alter crop yields of oat and barley during the four growing seasons. In order to realize biochar’s climate mitigation potential, we suggest future research and development efforts should focus on improving the agronomic utility of biochar in engineered fertilizer and soil amendment products.

Sammendrag

Precise methods for the detection of geologically stored CO2within and above soil surfaces are an impor-tant component of the development of carbon capture and storage (CCS) under terrestrial environments.Although CO2leaks are not expected in well-chosen and operated storage sites, monitoring is required bylegislation and any leakage needs to be quantified under the EU Emissions Trading Directive. The objec-tive of the present research was to test if13C stable isotope motoring of soil and canopy atmosphere CO2increases our detection sensitivity for CCS-CO2as compared with concentration monitoring only. A CO2injection experiment was designed to create a horizontal CO2gradient across 6 m × 3 m plots, which weresown with oats in 2011 and 2012. Injected CO2was methane derived and had an isotopic signature of−46.2‰. The CO2concentrations were measured within the soil profile with passive samplers and at sev-eral heights within the crop canopies. The CO2fluxes and their13C signatures were also measured acrossthe experimental plots. In situ monitoring and gas samples measurements were conducted with a cavityring down spectrometer (CRDS). The plots displayed hot spots of injected-CO2leakage clearly detectableby either concentration or isotopic signature measurements. In addition, the13C signature measurementsallow us to detect injected CO2in plot regions where its presence could not be unequivocally ascertainedbased on concentration measurement alone.

Sammendrag

Glyfosat er det mest brukte ugrasmiddelet i Norge. I 2003 ble det omsatt over 200 tonn glyfosat her til lands og bruken er økende. Glyfosat brukes hovedsakelig mot løvtrær i skogbruket og mot kveke i kornåkeren etter innhøsting. Tradisjonelt har glyfosat blitt regnet som lite miljøskadelig sammenlignet med andre sprøytemidler, fordi det brytes raskt ned og fordi det binder seg hardt til jordpartiklene. En har hatt den oppfatning at glyfosat ikke havner i vassdragene. I takt med utviklingen av bedre analysemetoder, har glyfosat de senere årene blitt påvist i grunnvannet i flere europeiske land (Tyskland, Wales, Spania, Hellas og Danmark). Danmark henter 99% av drikkevannet sitt fra grunnvann og har nå innført forbud mot sprøyting med glyfosat på leirjord i soner nær vassdrag og risikoutsatte områder. I Norge bruker vi nesten bare overflatevann som drikkevann. Statens næringsmiddeltilsyn initierte i 1997 en undersøkelse av overflatevann som benyttes til drikkevann i Norge. Lave konsentrasjoner av glyfosat og AMPA ble da påvist i 6 drikkevannskilder (Fonahn 2002). Glyfosat er altså mer mobilt enn man hittil har trodd. I prosjektet "Plantevernmidler i miljøet - Strategisk instituttprogram for redusert miljøbelastning ved bruk av plantevernmidler" har vi undersøkt hvordan klimaet påvirker nedbrytning og transport av glyfosat her til lands. Feltforsøk med glyfosat har blitt utført på to felt: Grue i Hedmark og Målselv i Troms. Resultatene fra disse feltforsøkene hjelper oss å avdekke hvilke mekanismer som styrer skjebnen til glyfosat i norsk jord.