Biografi

Erik Joner har doktorgrad i jordmikrobiologi fra Norges Landbrukshøyskole (1994) og seniorforsker grad fra Universite Henri Poincare (Habilitation a Diriger des Recherches, Frankrike 2001). Han har jobbet med nedbryting og planteopptak av miljøgifter, økotoksikologi og jordbiologi gjennom en rekke nasjonale og internasjonale prosjekter.
 
Hans fagområder omfatter i dag miljøeffekter av nanopartikler, effekter av biokull på jordorganismer, opptak av miljøgifter i planter og meitemark, nedbryting av organiske miljøgifter i jord og kompost, bruk av biokull i produsert jord og "jord" til grønne tak, mykorrhiza som mekaniske for næringsopptak i planter, bruk av nitrogenfikserende bakterier (Rhizobium/Bradyrhizobium) i dyrking av belgvekster, m.m.

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Sammendrag

Norway is strongly committed to the Paris Climate Agreement with an ambitious goal of 40% reduction in greenhouse gas emission by 2030. The land sector, including agriculture and forestry, must critically contribute to this national target. Beyond emission reduction, the land sector has the unique capacity to actively removing CO2 from the atmosphere through biological carbon storage in biomass and in soils. Soils are the largest reservoir of terrestrial carbon, and relatively small changes in soil carbon content can have an amplified mitigation effect on the Earth’s climate. Therefore, improved management of soils for carbon storage is receiving a lot of attention, for example through international political initiatives such as the “4-permill” initiative. However, in Norway, many mitigation measures targeting soil carbon might negatively impact food production and economic activity. For example, soil carbon storage can be increased by shifting from cereal crop production to grasslands, but Norway already has abundant grassland and a comparatively small area dedicated to cereals. Another such issue is cultivation on drained peatland, where food is produced at the expense of large losses of soil carbon as CO2 to the atmosphere. Therefore, there is a need to look for win-win solutions for soil carbon storage, which benefit both food production and climate mitigation. Large-scale conversion of agricultural and forest waste biomass to biochar is such an option, and is considered the activity with the largest potential for soil carbon sequestration in Norway. Biochar has been demonstrated to have a mean residence time exceeding 100 years in Norwegian field conditions (Rasse et al, 2017), and no negative effects on plant and soils has been observed. However, despite the convincing benefits of biochar as a climate mitigation solution, it has not yet advanced much beyond the research stage, notably because its effect on yield are too modest. Here, we will first present the comparative advantage of biochar technology as compared to traditional agronomy methods for large-scale C storage in Norwegian agricultural soils. We will further discuss the need for developing innovations in pyrolysis and nutrient-rich waste recycling leading to biochar-fertilizer products as win-win solution for carbon storage and food production.

Sammendrag

Antallet kunstgressbaner har økt kraftig i Norge de siste 15 årene, og det finnes per i dag 1750 kunstgressbaner i Norge. De oppmalte bildekkene og andre typer granulat fra nyprodusert industrigummi som brukes på kunstgressbaner er nå ansett som en av de største landbaserte kildene til mikroplast. Det viser seg at selv en godt driftet bane sprer granulatet i det ytre miljøet, spesielt baner med vinterdrift. I Vannområde Indre Oslofjord Vest tilsvarer dette mer enn 100 tonn granulat per år, som slippes ut i naturen. Vannområdet ba NIBIO om å ta jordprøver rundt tre av disse fotballbanene med vinterdrift for å bekrefte utlekking fra banene. Jordprøver viste at store mengder – opp til flere kg per kvadratmeter – finnes i nærheten av kunstgressbanene, og analysen av granulatet med simultan termisk analyse og Fourier-transformert infrarød spektroskopi ga oss innsyn i den kjemiske sammensetning av disse granulatpartiklene. Dette blir presentert i foredraget, samt tiltak som kan iverksettes for å redusere tap av granulat rundt kunstgressbaner.

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The potential impact of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on aquatic organisms is to a large extent determined by theirbioavailability through different routes of exposure. In the present study juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were exposed todifferent sources of radiolabeled Ag (radiolabeled110mAg NPs and110mAgNO3). After 48 h of waterborne exposure to 3mg/Lcitrate stabilized110mAg NPs or110mAgNO3, or a dietary exposure to 0.6mg Ag/kg fish (given as citrate stabilized or uncoated110mAg NPs, or110mAgNO3), Ag had been taken up in fish regardless of route of exposure or source of Ag (Ag NPs or AgNO3).Waterborne exposure led to high Ag concentrations on the gills, and dietary exposure led to high concentrations in thegastrointestinal tract. Silver distribution to the target organs was similar for both dietary and waterborne exposure, with the liveras the main target organ. The accumulation level of Ag was 2 to 3 times higher for AgNO3than for Ag NPs when exposure wasthrough water, whereas no significant differences were seen after dietary exposure. The transfer (Bq/g liver/g food or water)from exposure through water was 4 orders of magnitude higher than from feed using the smallest, citrate-stabilized Ag NPs(4 nm). The smallest NPs had a 5 times higher bioavailability in food compared with the larger and uncoated Ag NPs (20 nm).Despite the relatively low transfer of Ag from diet to fish, the short lifetime of Ag NPs in water and their transfer to sediment,feed, or sediment-dwelling food sources such as larvae and worms could make diet a significant long-term exposure route.

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Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonise roots of most plants; their extra-radical mycelium (ERM) extends into the soil and acquires nutrients for the plant. The ERM coexists with soil microbial communities and it is unresolved whether these communities stimulate or suppress the ERM activity. This work studied the prevalence of suppressed ERM activity and identified main components behind the suppression. ERM activity was determined by quantifying ERM-mediated P uptake from radioisotope-labelled unsterile soil into plants, and compared to soil physicochemical characteristics and soil microbiome composition. ERM activity varied considerably and was greatly suppressed in 4 of 21 soils. Suppression was mitigated by soil pasteurisation and had a dominating biotic component. AMF-suppressive soils had high abundances of Acidobacteria, and other bacterial taxa being putative fungal antagonists. Suppression was also associated with low soil pH, but this effect was likely indirect, as the relative abundance of, e.g., Acidobacteria decreased after liming. Suppression could not be transferred by adding small amounts of suppressive soil to conducive soil, and thus appeared to involve the common action of several taxa. The presence of AMF antagonists resembles the phenomenon of disease-suppressive soils and implies that ecosystem services of AMF will depend strongly on the specific soil microbiome.

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Green roofs are used increasingly to alleviate peaks of water discharge into the sewage systems in urban areas. Surface runoff from roofs contain pollutants from dry and wet deposition, and green roofs offer a possibility to reduce the amounts of pollutants in the water discharged from roofs by degradation and filtering. These pollutants would otherwise enter wastewater treatments plants and ultimately end up in sewage sludge that is spread on agricultural soils. The most common substrates used in green roofs have limited capacity for filtration and sorption. Also, more sustainable alternatives are sought, due to the high carbon footprint of these materials. Biochar is a carbon-rich material produced by pyrolysis of biomass, and several types of biochar have been described as good sorbents and filter materials. Biochar is also a light and carbon negative material, which may fulfill other desired criteria for new green roof substrates. We here report on an experiment where two types of biochar, produced from olive husks at 450 °C or from forest waste at 850 ° C were mixed with volcanic rock or peat, and tested for retention capacity of phenanthrene and six heavy metals in a column experiment with unsaturated gravimetric water flow lasting for 3 weeks. The results suggest that biochar as a component in green roof substrates perform better than traditional materials, concerning retention of the tested pollutants, and that different types of biochar have different properties in this respect.

Sammendrag

Matching high performing varieties of legumes with effective symbiotic N-fixing bacteria can potentially enhance production volumes and economic returns when cultivating grain legumes. We investigated whether field inoculation with local or introduced Rhizobia to six different varieties of faba bean improved growth, nitrogen (N) fixation and protein content in a field experiment in Southern Norway. In 2016, a full factorial experiment featuring three inoculation treatments (a mixture of four morphotypes of Rhizobia isolated from locally grown faba bean, a mix of two efficient and well documented Rhizobium strains from Latvia, and a non-inoculated control treatment) and six faba bean (Vicia faba) genotypes (Agua Dulce, Bauska, Jõgeva, Gloria, Julia, Lielplatones) was set up in an experimental field with sandy loam soil with no recent legume culture history (>10 years). At late flowering/early pod formation stage we quantified N fixation of the crop using the N-15 natural abundance method, using weeds from the same plots as reference plants. We also assessed morphological and phenological characters, seed yields and protein levels at plant maturity. Clear differences were observed, and detailed results from this study will be presented at the conference (analyses are still pending). This research is a part of the EU FP7 project Eurolegume.

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Sewage sludge is an important amendment that enriches soils with organic matter and provides plants with nutrients such asnitrogenandphosphorus.However,knowledgeonthe fateandeffectsof organic pollutants presentin the sludge on soilorganisms is limited.In the present study, the uptake of triclosan, galaxolide, and tonalide in the earthworm Dendrobaena veneta was measured 1 wk afteramendment of agricultural soil with sewage sludge, while elimination kinetics were assessed over a 21-d period after transferring worms toclean soil. After 1-wk exposure, earthworms had accumulated 2.6  0.6 mgg1galaxolide, 0.04  0.02 mgg1tonalide, and0.6  0.2 mgg1triclosan. Both synthetic musks were efficiently excreted and below the limit of quantification after 3 and 14 d ofdepuration for tonalide and galaxolide, respectively. Triclosan concentrations, on the other hand, did not decrease significantly over thedepuration period, which may lead to the transfer of triclosan in the food web.

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Two types of nano-scale zero-valent iron (nZVI-B prepared by borohydride reduction and nZVI-T produced by thermal reduction of iron oxide nanoparticles in H2) and amicro-scale ZVI (mZVI) were compared for PCB degradation efficiency in water and soil. In addition, the ecotoxicity of nZVI-B and nZVI-T particles in treated water and soil was evaluated on bacteria, plants, earthworms, and ostracods. All types of nZVI and mZVI were highly efficient in degradation of PCBs in water, but had little degradation effect on PCBs in soil. Although nZVI-B had a significant negative impact on the organisms tested, treatment with nZVI-T showed no negative effect, probably due to surface passivation through controlled oxidation of the nanoparticles.

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Nano-scale zero-valent iron (nZVI) has been conceived for cost-efficient degradation of chlorinated pollutants in soil as an alternative to e.g permeable reactive barriers or excavation. Little is however known about its efficiency in degradation of the ubiquitous environmental pollutant DDT and its secondary effects on organisms. Here, two types of nZVI (type B made using precipitation with borohydride, and type T produced by gas phase reduction of iron oxides under H2) were compared for efficiency in degradation of DDT in water and in a historically (>45 years) contaminated soil (24 mg kg−1 DDT). Further, the ecotoxicity of soil and water was tested on plants (barley and flax), earthworms (Eisenia fetida), ostracods (Heterocypris incongruens), and bacteria (Escherichia coli). Both types of nZVI effectively degraded DDT in water, but showed lower degradation of aged DDT in soil. Both types of nZVI had negative impact on the tested organisms, with nZVI-T giving least adverse effects. Negative effects were mostly due to oxidation of nZVI, resulting in O2 consumption and excess Fe(II) in water and soil.

Sammendrag

Nonylphenols (NP) are a group of alkylphenols, formed upon degradation of nonylphenol ethoxylates such as nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO) or nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO), which have been broadly used as non-ionic surfactants. Both NP and their ethoxylates are often present in the sewage, despite being banned and substituted by less toxic alcohol ethoxylates in many countries. There is a number of degradation studies of nonylphenol in the soil environment, but there is a lack of understanding on how plants and soil organisms such as earthworms can affect the degradation. In our study, we investigated the degradation of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) in a mineral field soil in the presence of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa). Soil was spiked with 4-NP at a concentration of 12.5 mg kg-1 d.w. soil. Results showed that the degradation of 4-NP in soil was rapid during the 28 days after spiking, with remaining concentration of 0.397 mg kg-1 d.w. soil on day 28. Degradation was much slower between days 28 and 120, with a remaining concentration of 0.214 mg kg-1 d.w. soil on day 120. No significant difference in the degradation of 4-NP in the presence of either plants or worms was observed, but sampling after 28 days of exposure revealed transfer of 4-NP to worms (worm tissue concentration = 0.79 μg g-1), which increased with time (1.66 μg g-1 after 120 d). The calculated transfer factor after 28 (TF28) and 120 days (TF120) was 0.07 and 0.13 respectively. No toxicity or accumulation in plants was observed at the concentration tested herein. Concentration of 4-NP in the rhizosphere was not statistically different from that in the bulk soil.

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Red fescue (RF, Festuca rubra L.) is used on golf putting greens in the Nordic region due to its high disease resistance and low requirements for nitrogen (N) and water, but low density and growth rate makes RF susceptible to annual bluegrass (AB, Poa annua L.) invasion. Putting greens seeded with RF + bentgrass (Agrostis sp.) may be more competitive with AB but also have different playing characteristics. Our objective was to compare RF, RF + colonial bentgrass (CB, Agrostis capillaris L.), and RF + velvet bentgrass (VB, Agrostis canina L.) putting greens at two mowing heights (4.0 or 5.5 mm), three N rates (5, 10, or 15 g N m−2 yr−1), and three phosphorus (P)–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi treatments (0 and 1.8 g P m−2yr−1 without inoculation and 0 g P m−2yr−1 with inoculation). The four-factorial experiment was conducted in 2011 and 2012 at Landvik, Norway. Red fescue provided lower visual quality and density and less competition against AB than RF + bentgrass combinations. Increasing the N rate from 5 to 15 g N m−2yr−1 increased the proportion of bentgrass tillers from 53 to 64% in RF + CB and from 86 to 92% in RF + VB. Surface hardness increased in the order RF + VB < RF + CB < RF turfs. Ballroll distance decreased with increasing N rate and was longer with RF and RF + VB than with RF + CB. The main effects of N and mowing height on AB invasion were not significant, but lower mowing increased AB competition in RF. Mycorrhiza colonization of roots was not significantly affected by any practice, and neither P nor arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi influenced the competition against AB.

Sammendrag

Remediation of soil and groundwater has been attempted using various iron based nanoparticles during more than a decade, but the technology has not been adopted as widely as expected. This is partly due to ongoing work on optimization of the nanoparticles used, as well as their coatings, injection parameters and correct choice of particles according to the pollutants to be treated. Another aspect that has hampered large scale adoption or even testing is the lack of knowledge on possible negative effects of what is perceived a large scale spreading of reactive nanoparticles into the environment. This may potentially cause harm to humans and the environment, including organisms living in soil and neighboring streams, rivers and lakes. Two years ago, the EU project NanoRem (Taking Nanotechnological Remediation Processes from Lab Scale to End User Applications for the Restoration of a Clean Environment) started a considerable effort in valorizing nanoremediation, and as part of this testing the potential toxicity of particles used and developed during the project. After two years, seven different types of nanoparticles have been tested with a range of standardized and non-standardized tests adapted to nanotoxicological assessments, and results show that most particles are non-toxic at environmentally relevant concentrations (<100 mg/kg or mg/L). In some cases, however, iron nanoparticles have shown toxicity at far lower concentrations, and these effects have not been caused by competition for electron acceptors, as often observed when highly reductive chemicals are tested for biological effects. An overview of the tests used and results obtained will be presented. Also, our strategy for field testing and early results from polluted fields injected with different nanoparticles will be discussed to make some preliminary conclusions on the overall benefit of this technology in terms of environmental protection and risks.

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Nano-sized zero valent iron (nZVI) has been studied for in situ remediation of contaminated soil and ground water. However, little is known about its effects on organisms in soil and aquatic ecosystems. In this study, the effect of nZVI on degradation of DDT and its ecotoxicological effects on collembola (Folsomia candida) and ostracods (Heterocypris incongruens) were investigated. Two soils were used in suspension incubation experiments lasting for 7 and 30 d; a spiked (20 mg DDT kg−1) sandy soil and an aged (>50 years) DDT-polluted soil (24 mg DDT kg−1). These were incubated with 1 or 10 g nZVI kg−1, and residual toxicity in soil and the aqueous phase tested using ecotoxicological tests with collembola or ostracods. Generally, addition of either concentration of nZVI to soil led to about 50% degradation of DDT in spiked soil at the end of 7 and 30 d incubation, while the degradation of DDT was less in aged DDT-polluted soil (24%). Severe negative effects of nZVI were observed on both test organisms after 7 d incubation, but prolonged incubation led to oxidation of nZVI which reduced its toxic effects on the tested organisms. On the other hand, DDT had significant negative effects on collembolan reproduction and ostracod development. We conclude that 1 g nZVI kg−1 was efficient for significant DDT degradation in spiked soil, while a higher concentration was necessary for treating aged pollutants in soil. The adverse effects of nZVI on tested organisms seem temporary and reduced after oxidation.

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Sewage sludge application on soils represents an important potential source of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to terrestrial ecosystems, and it is thus important to understand the fate of Ag NPs once in contact with soil components. Our aim was to compare the behavior of three different forms of silver, namely silver nitrate, citrate stabilized Ag NPs (5 nm) and uncoated Ag NPs (19 nm), in two soils with contrasting organic matter content, and to follow changes in binding strength over time. Soil samples were spiked with silver and left to age for 2 h, 2 days, 5 weeks or 10 weeks before they were submitted to sequential extraction. The ionic silver solution and the two Ag NP types were radiolabeled so that silver could be quantified by gamma spectrometry by measuring the 110mAg tracer in the different sequential extraction fractions. Different patterns of partitioning of silver were observed for the three forms of silver. All types of silver were more mobile in the mineral soil than in the soil rich in organic matter, although the fractionation patterns were very different for the three silver forms in both cases. Over 20% of citrate stabilized Ag NPs was extractible with water in both soils the first two days after spiking (compared to 1–3% for AgNO3 and uncoated Ag NPs), but the fraction decreased to trace levels thereafter. Regarding the 19 nm uncoated Ag NPs, 80% was not extractible at all, but contrary to AgNO3 and citrate stabilized Ag NPs, the bioaccessible fraction increased over time, and by day 70 was between 8 and 9 times greater than that seen in the other two treatments. This new and unexpected finding demonstrates that some Ag NPs can act as a continuous source of bioaccessible Ag, while AgNO3 is rapidly immobilized in soil.

Sammendrag

Norway has the world’s largest facility for testing and improving CO2 capture. The aim of carbon capture technology is to minimize greenhouse gas emissions through a reaction between amines and effluents from gas power plants. During the overall process of CO2 capture, amines and their transformation products might escape to the environment through emissions, leakage, and as solid waste. The two main groups of transformation products with the most potential to cause environmental harm have been identified as nitrosamines and nitramines, both of which are considered to be carcinogenic. Recent theoretical modelling as well as laboratory experiments have found nitramine compounds, 2-nitroaminoethanol (CAS: 74386-82-6) and dimethylnitramine (CAS: 4164-28-7) to be present. However, despite the likelihood of these compounds increasing in the environment, no environmental toxicity data for these compounds currently exist. The aim of this project was to provide an environmental risk assessment for the selected nitramine compounds taking into account the key trophic groups within freshwater, marine and terrestrial environments. The toxicity assessment was made using a suite of standardised bioassays for the measure of acute and chronic toxicity. In the soil environment, the most potent compound was 2-nitroaminoethanol, which impaired the reproduction of earthworms and the seedling emergence of sunflower and ryegrass. The opposite was found in the aquatic environment, with freshwater and marine species consistently more affected by dimethylnitramine. All the tested freshwater species were more sensitive to nitramines than marine species. The selected amines were not acutely toxic to aquatic and soil species, with EC50 in the mg/L range. Both nitramines increased the nitrogen and carbon transformation activity of soil microorganisms.

Sammendrag

Prosjektet Transplant har som mål å isolere og teste mykorrhizasopp for kommersiell bruk i en rekke næringer; skogplanteproduksjon, produksjon av parktrær og andre flerårige dekorative vekster, oppal av grønnsaker, frukt- og bærplanter, samt etablering av golfgreener der mykorrhiza benyttes til biologisk bekjempelse (egentlig utkonkurrering) av tunrapp.

Sammendrag

Bioforsk tar i dette prosjektet initiativ til å utvikle vekstmedier som er mer klimanøytrale, basert på resirkulerte næringsstoffer og anriket med mykorrhizasopp og andre mikroorganismer. Framtidige bruksområdene spenner fra oppal av planter i økologiske og konvensjonelle gartnerier og planteskoler, via grøntanleggssektoren til hobbybrukere.

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Abstract Due to difficulties in tracing engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in complex media, there are few data on the exposure of soil biota to ENPs. This study used neutron activated cobalt (Co NPs) and silver (Ag NPs) nanoparticles, as well as soluble cobalt and silver salts, to assess the uptake, excretion and biodistribution in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Concentrations of cobalt in worms after four weeks exposure reached 88% and 69% of the Co ions and Co NPs concentrations in food, respectively, while corresponding values for Ag ions and Ag NPs were 2.3% and 0.4%. Both Ag ions and Ag NPs in earthworms were excreted rapidly, while only 32% of the cobalt accumulated from Co ions and Co NPs were excreted within four months. High accumulation of cobalt was found in blood and in the digestive tract. Metal characterization in the exposure medium was assessed by sequential extraction and ultrafiltration. The Co NPs showed significant dissolution and release of ions, while Ag ions and particularly Ag NPs were more inert.

Sammendrag

Due to sewage sludge application on soils, terrestrial ecosystems are very likely to be exposed to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and it is thus important to understand the behavior of Ag NPs once in contact with soil components. The aim of this work was to compare the behavior of silver under three forms, silver nitrate, citrate stabilized AgNPs (C-ANPs) and uncoated AgNPs (P-AgNPs), in two soils with contrasting organic matter content, and over time. The physical and chemical properties of the studied soils as well as the nanoparticles size, shape, crystallographic structure and specific surface area were characterized. Soil samples were spiked with silver nitrate, C-AgNPs or P-AgNPs, and let for ageing 2 hours, 2 days, 5 weeks or 10 weeks before they were submitted to sequential extraction. The ionic silver solution and the two AgNPs types were radiolabeled so that we could detect and quantify silver by gamma spectrometry by measuring the 110mAg tracer in the different sequential extraction fractions. We thereby obtained for each silver form, soil type and time point a distribution of silver in the different fractions. Silver was generally more mobile in the mineral soil, although the fractionation patterns were very different for the three silver types in both cases. Over 20% of the total C-AgNPs concentration were water soluble in both soils (<5% for AgNO3 and P-AgNPs) the first two days after spiking, but the fraction decreased to trace levels thereafter. This was compensated by an increase in the reducible fraction. Regarding P-AgNPs, 80% were not extractable at all, but contrary to AgNO3 and C-AgNPs, the water soluble and ion exchangeable fractions did not decrease over time in the mineral soil, and even increased in the organic soil.

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Jordlevende sopp vokser som lange trådformede strukturer kalt hyfer. Når flere hyfer vokser sammen dannes et hvitaktig mycel som vi kan se med det blotte øye. Sopp har ikke klorofyll og må derfor skaffe seg næring på annet vis. Det gjør de ved å hente næring fra organisk materiale i jorda, fra å bryte ned ferske planterester på overflaten og/eller ved å leve i samliv (symbiose) med levende planterøtter (bildet). Selv om man kan se store og små sopper på overflaten, er det alltid slik at mesteparten av soppen finnes under jordoverflaten.

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In terrestrial ecotoxicology there is a serious lack of data for potential hazards posed by engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). This is partly due to complex interactions between ENPs and the soil matrix, but also to the lack of suitable toxicological end points in organisms that are exposed to ENPs in a relevant manner. Earthworms are key organisms in terrestrial ecosystems, but so far only physiological end points of low sensitivity have been used in ecotoxicity studies with ENPs. We exposed the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris to silver nanoparticles and measured their impact on apoptosis in different tissues. Increased apoptotic activity was detected in a range of tissues both at acute and sublethal concentrations (down to 4 mg/kg soil). Comparing exposure in water and soil showed reduced bioavailability in soil reflected in the apoptotic response. Apoptosis appears to be a sensitive end point and potentially a powerful tool for quantifying environmental hazards of ENPs.

Sammendrag

Studies regarding the environmental impact of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are hampered by the lack of tools to localize and quantify ENPs in water, sediments, soils, and organisms. Neutron activation of mineral ENPs offers the possibility of labeling ENPs in a way that avoids surface modification and permits both localization and quantification within a matrix or an organism. Time-course experiments in vivo also may be conducted with small organisms to study metabolism and exposure, two aspects currently lacking in ecotoxicological knowledge about ENPs. The present report explains some of the prerequisites and advantages of neutron activation as a tool for studying ENPs in environmental samples and ecologically relevant organisms, and it demonstrates the suitability of neutron activation for Ag, Co/Co3O4, and CeO2 nanoparticles. In a preliminary experiment with the earthworm Eisenia fetida, the dietary uptake and excretion of a Co nanopowder (average particle size, 4 nm; surface area, 59 m(2)/g) were studied. Cobalt ENPs were taken up to a high extent during 7 d of exposure (concentration ratios of 0.16-0.20 relative to the ENP concentration in horse manure) and were largely retained within the worms for a period of eight weeks, with less than 20% of absorbed ENPs being excreted. Following dissection of the worms, Co-60 was detected in spermatogenic cells, cocoons, and blood using scintillation counting and autoradiography. The experimental opportunities that neutron activation of ENPs offer are discussed.

Sammendrag

Fytoremediering er en kostnadseffektiv og miljøvennlig teknologi til opprensning av forurenset jord og vann ved hjelp av planter. Ulike anvendelser benytter seg av planters evne til absorpsjon og nedbryting, eller synergistiske effekter der samspill med mikroorganismer inngår. Potensialet for fytoremediering i Norge er stort og ubenyttet.

Jorde med løk. Stange i Hedmark.
Alunskiferjord – Overføring av tungmetaller og radionuklider til mat


Alunskiferjord inneholder større mengder potensielt helseskadelige sporstoffer enn annen jord (halvmetaller som arsen, tungmetaller som kadmium og radionuklider som radium). Disse tas opp i planter i varierende grad. Hvor mye som tas opp er avhengig av sporstoffenes iboende egenskaper, av ulike planters evne til å ta opp disse, og av dyrkingspraksis. Det er for eksempel godt kjent at kalking kan redusere opptak av de fleste tungmetaller. Likeledes kan ulike gjødseltyper påvirke opptaket ved at de har ulik evne til å forsure rotsonen eller gjøre denne mer alkalisk.

Active Updated: 25.01.2018
End: des 2021
Start: sep 2016