Publikasjoner

NIBIOs ansatte publiserer flere hundre vitenskapelige artikler og forskningsrapporter hvert år. Her finner du referanser og lenker til publikasjoner og andre forsknings- og formidlingsaktiviteter. Samlingen oppdateres løpende med både nytt og historisk materiale. For mer informasjon om NIBIOs publikasjoner, besøk NIBIOs bibliotek.

2022

Sammendrag

Dette er en oppstartrapport for NIBIOs bidrag i prosjektet “E2SOILAGRI”. Rapporten sammenfatter informasjon om det latviske jordinformasjonssystemet som framkom gjennom intervjuer med part-nere og interessenter i prosjektet. Arbeidet er definert som underaktivitet 4.1 i Terms of Reference for NIBIOs rolle i prosjektet.

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Sammendrag

Background Biochar-based fertilizer products (BCF) have been reported to increase both crop yield and N-use efficiency. Such positive effects are often assumed to result from the slow-release of N adsorbed on BCF structures. However, a careful review of the literature suggests that actual mechanisms remain uncertain, which hampers the development of efficient BCF products. Scope Here, we aim at reviewing BCF mechanisms responsible for enhanced N uptake by plants, and evaluate the potential for further improvement. We review the capacity of biochar structures to adsorb and release N forms, the biochar properties supporting this effect, and the methods that have been proposed to enhance this effect. Conclusions Current biochar products show insufficient sorption capacity for the retention of N forms to support the production of slow-release BCFs of high enough N concentration. Substantial slow-release effects appear to require conventional coating technology. Sorption capacity can be improved through activation and additives, but currently not to the extent needed for concentrated BCFs. Positive effects of commercial BCFs containing small amount of biochar appear to result from pyrolysis-derived biostimulants. Our review highlights three prospects for improving N retention: 1) sorption of NH3 gas on specifically activated biochar, 2) synergies between biochar and clay porosities, which might provide economical sorption enhancement, and 3) physical loading of solid N forms within biochar. Beyond proof of concept, quantitative nutrient studies are needed to ascertain that potential future BCFs deliver expected effects on both slow-release and N use efficiency.

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Sammendrag

The Environmental Effects Assessment Panel of the Montreal Protocol under the United Nations Environment Programme evaluates effects on the environment and human health that arise from changes in the stratospheric ozone layer and concomitant variations in ultraviolet (UV) radiation at the Earth’s surface. The current update is based on scientific advances that have accumulated since our last assessment (Photochem and Photobiol Sci 20(1):1–67, 2021). We also discuss how climate change affects stratospheric ozone depletion and ultraviolet radiation, and how stratospheric ozone depletion affects climate change. The resulting interlinking effects of stratospheric ozone depletion, UV radiation, and climate change are assessed in terms of air quality, carbon sinks, ecosystems, human health, and natural and synthetic materials. We further highlight potential impacts on the biosphere from extreme climate events that are occurring with increasing frequency as a consequence of climate change. These and other interactive effects are examined with respect to the benefits that the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments are providing to life on Earth by controlling the production of various substances that contribute to both stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change.

Sammendrag

Short-term trials on cultivated soil were planted with families of Norway spruce that had shown epigenetic memory effects in early tests up to age two years. Measurements and assessments were made of phenology traits, tree heights and stem defects until age 16 years in these trials. The memory effects of the temperature conditions during embryo development and seed maturation were confirmed for the timing of bud flush and for start and cessation of shoot elongation at age six years. The mean differences in timing of these events caused by temperature treatments were on average less than two days. They were considerably larger for families with strong effects on terminal bud set at the end of the first growing season. The memory effects did not result in a prolonged shoot growth period, nor did they affect height growth. Interaction effects expressed in adaptive traits between factorial treatments of temperature and daylength during seed production were large in the short-term trial and were still present at age nine years. The results presented demonstrate that strong memory effects observed in early tests may also be expressed in phenology traits for at least the next five growing seasons.

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Sammendrag

Det första dom flesta tänker på när någon nämner älgbete är RASE. Rön, asp, sälg och ek är de mest eftertraktade betesväxterna för skogens kung i Skandinavien. Men de är ofta bara en liten del av den typiska älgdieten. Flera andra faktorer avgör också kvaliteten på älgbetesmarkerna.

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Sammendrag

Det første de fleste tenker på når en nevner elgbeite er ROS. Rogn, osp og selje (og eik i Sverige) er de mest ettertraktede beiteplantene for skogens konge i Skandinavia. De utgjør derimot ofte bare en liten del av den typiske dietten til elg. Flere andre faktorer avgjør også kvaliteten på elgbeitene.