Publikasjoner

NIBIOs ansatte publiserer flere hundre vitenskapelige artikler og forskningsrapporter hvert år. Her finner du referanser og lenker til publikasjoner og andre forsknings- og formidlingsaktiviteter. Samlingen oppdateres løpende med både nytt og historisk materiale. For mer informasjon om NIBIOs publikasjoner, besøk NIBIOs bibliotek.

2022

Til dokument

Sammendrag

The genus Ceratocystiopsis (Ophiostomatales, Ascomycota) includes 21 species, which can be found mainly in association with bark beetles in the Northern Hemisphere. A survey of Ceratocystiopsis species associated with bark beetles infesting Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris in Norway yielded 126 isolates, representing Ceratocystiopsis neglecta and Ceratocystiopsis rollhanseniana, and four species described herein as Ceratocystiopsis chalcographii, Ceratocystiopsis debeeria, Ceratocystiopsis norroenii and Ceratocystiopsis troendelagii. The new taxa were morphologically characterised and phylogenetically analysed on the basis of sequence data of multiple loci (ITS, LSU, beta-tubulin (TUB2), calmodulin (CAL) and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1) genes). Ceratocystiopsis norroenii and C. rollhanseniana were the most frequently isolated species, and the latter species had the wider vector range.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Chafer grubs and leatherjackets can cause severe damages to Scandinavian Golf Courses – mainly in the southern areas. Damages from chafer grubs are occasional, damages from leatherjackets tend to be increasing. Restrictions on insecticides have necessitated the use of alternative control methods. Many experiments with microbiological agents like entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) and strains of Bacillus thuringiensis have been conducted, but monitoring and warning, and methods for application, spraying equipment and technique, formulation of and effective species of microbiological agents must be improved. Good communication with the golfers is essential, as more damages from insect pests will occur now and in the future, and alternative methods are often more expensive and less effective than the synthetic insecticides. Course managers and greenkeepers have to become experts in the use of microbiological control.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Sustainable water resources management roots in monitoring data reliability and a full engagement of all institutions involved in the water sector. When competences and interests are overlapping, however, coordination may be difficult, thus hampering cooperative actions. This is the case of Santa Cruz Island (Galápagos, Ecuador). A comprehensive assessment on water quality data (physico-chemical parameters, major elements, trace elements and coliforms) collected since 1985 revealed the need of optimizing monitoring efforts to fill knowledge gaps and to better target decision-making processes. A Water Committee (Comité de la gestión del Agua) was established to foster the coordinated action among stakeholders and to pave the way for joint monitoring in the island that can optimize the efforts for water quality assessment and protection. Shared procedures for data collection, sample analysis, evaluation and data assessment by an open-access geodatabase were proposed and implemented for the first time as a prototype in order to improve accountability and outreach towards civil society and water users. The overall results reveal the high potential of a well-structured and effective joint monitoring approach within a complex, multi-stakeholder framework.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

The hypothesis of the present study was that increased growth in spring, stimulated by increasing temperature and daylength, leads to oxidative stress in Atlantic salmon with accumulation of oxidation products in the tissues and increased utilization of antioxidants. The drop in fillet pigmentation and astaxanthin, often observed in spring by the industry, could be explained by oxidative stress. Furthermore, oxidative stress may cause production related diseases such as development of cataracts and melanin spots in the fillet. We sampled Atlantic salmon from two cages in a commercial scale experiment in Northern Norway (67°N), every month from April until August and then every second month until December (510 ± 160–3060 ± 510 g, mean weight ± std). The specific growth rate (SGR) increased with increasing temperature until midsummer and decreased thereafter. We found that vitamin E in the fillet and vitamin C in the liver were depleted in the spring and were restored in the autumn, even though the dietary concentrations were stable. Astaxanthin concentration in the muscle was constant during the spring and summer and increased in the autumn, concomitant with an increase in astaxanthin supplementation. Cataract increased from zero in May until July, when 90% of the fish were affected. The glutathione based redox-potential in the lenses became more reduced from June, indicating a protective mechanism against oxidative stress and cataract. The number of fish with melanin spots was high in June and decreased in August and October, but the size and intensity of the remaining spots increased in the same period. The change in vitamin C and E concentrations, cataract and glutathione metabolism during spring and early summer, indicate that the fish became oxidized in this period, while malon-di-aldehyde (MDA) and astaxanthin concentrations did not support the hypothesis. There are too few data to draw conclusions on possible effects of oxidative stress on melanin spots.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Atrazine is a widely used triazine herbicide, which poses a serious threat to human health and aquatic ecosystem. A montmorillonite–biochar composite (MMT/BC) was prepared for atrazine remediation. Biochar samples were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS). Structural and morphological analysis of raw biochar (BC) and MMT/BC showed that MMT particles have been successfully coated on the surface of biochar. Sorption experiments in aqueous solution indicated that the MMT/BC has higher removal capacity of atrazine compared to BC (about 3.2 times). The sorption of atrazine on the MMT/BC was primarily controlled by both physisorption and chemisorption mechanisms. The amendment of MMT/BC increased the sorption capacity of soils and delayed the degradation of atrazine. Findings from this work indicate that the MMT/BC composite can effectively improve the sorption capacity of atrazine in aquatic environment and farmland soil and reduce the environmental risk.