Publikasjoner

NIBIOs ansatte publiserer flere hundre vitenskapelige artikler og forskningsrapporter hvert år. Her finner du referanser og lenker til publikasjoner og andre forsknings- og formidlingsaktiviteter. Samlingen oppdateres løpende med både nytt og historisk materiale. For mer informasjon om NIBIOs publikasjoner, besøk NIBIOs bibliotek.

2022

Sammendrag

Etter oppdrag fra Statens vegvesen Region sør og prosjektet E18 Bommestad – Sky har NIBIO utført oppfølging av vannmiljø i Farris. Arbeidene har vært tilknyttet utlegging av siltgardiner i forbindelse med frigraving av vannspeil mellom østre og vestre odde, og flytting av siltgardiner før etablering av lensefester, samt opptak av siltgardiner etter endt anleggsperiode. Det har i tillegg blitt tatt bunndyrprøver som etterundersøkelse i Farriselva.

Sammendrag

English summary On behalf of Tinfos AS, NIBIO and Faun Nature Management carry out environmental monitoring of the river Hovlandsåna during the construction of a new powerplant at Flateland in Vegusdal (Birkenes municipality). The environmental monitoring includes continuous monitoring of water quality, quarterly and weekly sampling, as well as biological surveys at a total of three stations in Hovlandsåna. This quarterly report includes results from preliminary studies (water samples, benthic animals and algae carried out on 21.10.2021), results for weekly water samples in the period 30.11.2021 - 30.03.2022 (4th quarter 2021 and 1st quarter 2022) and measurement data from continuous monitoring at two stations in Hovlandselva from 13.10.2021 - 30.11.2021 (4th quarter 2021). The construction work related to the establishment of the Flateland power plant has so far had low impact on the water quality in Hovlandsåna. With the exception of some elevated turbidity values 25.10. - 07.11.2021, no exceedances of the limit values given by the County Governor of Aust- and Vest-Agder (State Administrator in Agder) have been registered. The elevated turbidity values were registered during the establishment of a connection site to provide electrical power to Nygårdsdalen from the power grid running along the river and Fv42. The overall condition in the Hovland River is «good» and the benthic surveys from HOV_REF, HOV_NED1 and HOV_NED2, showed two species of acidification-sensitive mayflies (ephemeroptera) and several other species were found within families with a high ASPT value. This indicates that the impact of acidification in the river is small and that the liming of the watercourse has given good results. A more even water flow as a result of the changed regulation regime in Vikestølvatnet has also contributed to a significant reduction in leaching of sediments from the beach zone. The anadromous stretch of the river reaches up to Trollfoss and is said to have good populations of sea trout. Good populations of stationary trout (upstream of Trollfoss / Flateland) are also recorded. The anadromous section of the river is likely to be somewhat affected by the construction work for the Flateland power plant and increased focus on this part of the river is required Sammendrag På oppdrag fra Tinfos AS gjennomfører NIBIO og Faun naturforvaltning miljøovervåking av Hovlandsåna under bygging av Flateland kraftverk. Miljøovervåkingen omfatter kontinuerlig overvåking av vannkvalitet, kvartalsvis og ukentlig prøvetaking, samt biologiske undersøkelser ved til sammen tre stasjoner i Hovlandsåna. Denne kvartalsrapporten omfatter resultater fra forundersøkelser (vannprøver, bunndyr og begroing utført 21.10.2021), resultater for ukentlige vannprøver i perioden 30.11.2021 – 30.03.2022 (4. kvartal 2021 og 1. kvartal 2022) og måledata fra kontinuerlig overvåking ved to stasjoner i Hovlandselva fra 13.10.2021 – 30.11.2021 (4. kvartal 2021). Anleggsarbeidene i forbindelse med bygging av Flateland kraftverk har til nå gitt svært liten påvirkning på Hovlandsåna. Med unntak av noen forhøyede turbiditetsverdier i forbindelse med etablering av byggestrøm til Nygårdsdalen 25.10. – 07.11.2021 har det ikke blitt registrert noen overskridelser av grenseverdiene gitt av Fylkesmannen i Aust- og Vest-Agder (Statsforvalteren i Agder).

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Sammendrag

Land use and management affect soil hydrological processes, and the impacts can be further enhanced and accelerated due to climate change. In this study, we analyzed the possible long-term effects of different land use types on soil hydrological processes based on future climatic scenarios. Soil moisture and temperature probes were installed at four land use sites, a cropland, a vineyard, a meadow, and a forest area. Based on modeling of long-term changes in soil water content (SWC) using the HYDRUS 1D model, we found that changes in precipitation have a more pronounced effect on soil water content than changes in air temperature. Cropland is at the highest risk of inland water and SWC values above field capacity (FC). The number of days when the average SWC values are above FC is expected to increase up to 109.5 days/year from the current 52.4 days/year by 2081–2090 for the cropland. Our calculations highlight that the forest soil has the highest number of days per year where the SWC is below the wilting point (99.7 days/year), and based on the worst-case scenario, it can increase up to 224.7 days/year. However, general scenario-based estimates showed that vineyards are the most vulnerable to projected climate change in this area. Our study highlights the limitations of potential land use change for specific agricultural areas, and emphasizes the need to implement water retention measures to keep these agricultural settings sustainable.

Sammendrag

Microbial water quality is of vital importance for human, animal, and environmental health. Notably, pathogenically contaminated water can result in serious health problems, such as waterborne outbreaks, which have caused huge economic and social losses. In this context, the prompt detection of microbial contamination becomes essential to enable early warning and timely reaction with proper interventions. Recently, molecular diagnostics have been increasingly employed for the rapid and robust assessment of microbial water quality implicated by various microbial pollutants, e.g., waterborne pathogens and antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs), imposing the most critical health threats to humans and the environment. Continuous technological advances have led to constant improvements and expansions of molecular methods, such as conventional end-point PCR, DNA microarray, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), multiplex qPCR (mqPCR), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), digital droplet PCR (ddPCR), and high-throughput next-generation DNA sequencing (HT-NGS). These state-of-the-art molecular approaches largely facilitate the surveillance of microbial water quality in diverse aquatic systems and wastewater. This review provides an up-to-date overview of the advancement of the key molecular tools frequently employed for microbial water quality assessment, with future perspectives on their applications.

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Sammendrag

Soils form the skin of the Earth’s surface, regulating water and biogeochemical cycles and generating production of food, timber, and textiles around the world. Changes in soil and its ability to perform a range of processes have important implications for Earth system function, especially in the critical zone (CZ)—the area that extends from the top of the canopy to the bottom of groundwater and that harbors most of Earth’s biosphere. A key aspect of the way soil functions results from its structure, defined as the size, shape, and arrangement of soil particles and pores. The network of pores provides storage space for at least a quarter of Earth’s biodiversity, while the abundance, size and connectivity of the pore space regulates fluxes of heat, water, nutrients and gases that define the physical and chemical environment. Here we review the nature of soil structure, focusing on its co-evolution with the plants and microbes that live within the soil, and the degree to which these processes have been incorporated into flow and transport models. Though it is well known that soil structure can change with wetting and drying events, often oscillating seasonally, the dynamic nature of soil structure that we discuss is a systematic shift that results in changes in its hydro-bio-geochemical function over decades to centuries, timescales over which major changes in carbon and nutrient cycles have been observed in the Anthropocene. We argue that the variable nature of soil structure, and its dynamics, need to be better understood and captured by land surface and ecosystem models, which currently describe soil structure as static. We further argue that modelers and empiricists both are well-poised to quantify and incorporate these dynamics into their studies. From these efforts, four fundamental questions emerge: 1) How do rates of soil aggregate formation and collapse, and their overall arrangements, interact in the Anthropocene to regulate CZ functioning from soil particle to continental scales? 2) How do alterations in rooting-depth distributions in the Anthropocene influence pore structure to control hydrological partitioning, biogeochemical transformations and fluxes, exchanges of energy and carbon with the atmosphere and climate, regolith weathering, and thus regulation of CZ functioning? 3) How does changing microbial functioning in a high CO2, warmer world with shifting precipitation patterns influence soil organic carbon dynamics and void-aggregate profile dynamics? 4) How deeply does human influence in the Anthropocene propagate into the subsurface, how does this depth relate to profile structure, and how does this alter the rate at which the CZ develops? The United Nations has recently recognized that 33% of the Earth's soils are already degraded and over 90% could become degraded by 2050. This recognition highlights the importance of addressing these proposed questions, which will promote a predictive understanding of soil structure.

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Global land use change has resulted in more pasture and cropland, largely at the expense of woodlands, over the last 300 years. How this change affects soil hydraulic function with regard to feedbacks to the hydrological cycle is unclear for earth system modelling (ESM). Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) used to predict soil hydraulic conductivity (K) take no account of land use. Here, we synthesize >800 measurements from around the globe from sites that measured near-saturated soil hydraulic conductivity, or infiltration, at the soil surface, on the same soil type at each location, but with differing land use, woodland (W), grassland (G) and cropland (C). We found that texture based PTFs predict K reasonably well for cropland giving unbiased results, but increasingly underestimate K in grassland and woodland. In native woodland and grassland differences in K can usually be accounted for by differences in bulk density. However, heavy grazing K responses can be much lower indicating compaction likely reduces connectivity. We show that the K response ratios (RR) between land uses vary with cropland (C/W = 0.45 [W/C = 2.2]) and grassland (G/W = 0.63 [W/G = 1.6]) having about half the K of woodland.

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Sammendrag

Groundwater utilization and groundwater quality vary in the Baltic and Nordic countries mainly because of different geological settings. Based on the geology, the countries were treated in the following three groups: (1) Fennoscandian countries (Finland, Sweden, and Norway), (2) Denmark and Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania), and (3) Iceland. Most of the utilized groundwater resources are taken from Quaternary deposits, but Denmark and the Baltic countries have in addition, important resources in Phanerozoic rocks. The groundwater quality reflects the residence time of water in the subsurface and the chemical composition of the geological formations. Concentrations of ions in the Fennoscandian bedrock are elevated compared to Iceland, but lower than in Denmark and the Baltic countries. Compared to groundwater in the bedrock, groundwater in Quaternary deposits has usually lower concentrations of dissolved minerals. Unconfined Quaternary aquifers are vulnerable to contamination. Examples from Denmark and the Baltic countries illustrate challenges and successful effects of mitigation strategies for such aquifers related to agricultural application and management of nitrogen. Confined and deeper groundwater is better protected against anthropogenic contamination, but water quality may be affected by harmful compounds caused by geogenic processes (viz, sulfide, arsenic, fluoride, and radon).

Sammendrag

På oppdrag fra Bane NOR har NIBIO overvåket vannkvalitet i resipienter som kan motta avrenning fra anleggsarbeider i forbindelse med utbygging av Follobanen. NIBIO har driftet opptil 10 målestasjoner utstyrt med multiparametersensorer for automatisk overvåking av vannkvalitet. I tillegg har det blitt tatt ut vannprøver ved opptil 15 stasjoner og utført biologiske undersøkelser ved opptil seks stasjoner. Overvåkingen har pågått i vannforekomster nedstrøms riggområdet på Åsland og i Alna i Oslo, i bekker sør for stasjonsområdet på Ski, langs anleggsområdet mellom Ski og Langhus, samt ved Sagdalsbekken i Langhus. Årsrapporten omfatter alle resultater samlet inn på disse stasjonene i 2020 og har blitt sammenlignet med tidligere resultater.