Publikasjoner

NIBIOs ansatte publiserer flere hundre vitenskapelige artikler og forskningsrapporter hvert år. Her finner du referanser og lenker til publikasjoner og andre forsknings- og formidlingsaktiviteter. Samlingen oppdateres løpende med både nytt og historisk materiale. For mer informasjon om NIBIOs publikasjoner, besøk NIBIOs bibliotek.

2022

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Sammendrag

Just as the aboveground tree organs represent the interface between trees and the atmosphere, roots act as the interface between trees and the soil. In this function, roots take-up water and nutrients, facilitate interactions with soil microflora, anchor trees, and also contribute to the gross primary production of forests. However, in comparison to aboveground plant organs, the biomass of roots is much more difficult to study. In this study, we analyzed 19 European datasets on above- and belowground biomass of juvenile trees of 14 species to identify generalizable estimators of root biomass based on tree sapling dimensions (e.g. height, diameter, aboveground biomass). Such estimations are essential growth and sequestration modelling. In addition, the intention was to study the effect of sapling dimension and light availability on biomass allocation to roots. All aboveground variables were significant predictors for root biomass. But, among aboveground predictors of root biomass plant height performed poorest. When comparing conifer and broadleaf species, the latter tended to have a higher root biomass at a given dimension. Also, with increasing size, the share of belowground biomass tended to increase for the sapling dimensions considered. In most species, there was a trend of increasing relative belowground biomass with increasing light availability. Finally, the height to diameter ratio (H/D) was negatively correlated to relative belowground biomass. This indicates that trees with a high H/D are not only more unstable owing to the unfavorable bending stress resistance, but also because they are comparatively less well anchored in the ground. Thus, single tree stability may be improved through increasing light availability to increase the share of belowground biomass.

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Purpose of Review Mechanized logging operations with ground-based equipment commonly represent European production forestry but are well-known to potentially cause soil impacts through various forms of soil disturbances, especially on wet soils with low bearing capacity. In times of changing climate, with shorter periods of frozen soils, heavy rain fall events in spring and autumn and frequent needs for salvage logging, forestry stakeholders face increasingly unfavourable conditions to conduct low-impact operations. Thus, more than ever, planning tools such as trafficability maps are required to ensure efficient forest operations at reduced environmental impact. This paper aims to describe the status quo of existence and implementation of such tools applied in forest operations across Europe. In addition, focus is given to the availability and accessibility of data relevant for such predictions. Recent Findings A commonly identified method to support the planning and execution of machine-based operations is given by the prediction of areas with low bearing capacity due to wet soil conditions. Both the topographic wetness index (TWI) and the depth-to-water algorithm (DTW) are used to identify wet areas and to produce trafficability maps, based on spatial information. Summary The required input data is commonly available among governmental institutions and in some countries already further processed to have topography-derived trafficability maps and respective enabling technologies at hand. Particularly the Nordic countries are ahead within this process and currently pave the way to further transfer static trafficability maps into dynamic ones, including additional site-specific information received from detailed forest inventories. Yet, it is hoped that a broader adoption of these information by forest managers throughout Europe will take place to enhance sustainable forest operations.

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Sammendrag

Denne rapporten er et produkt av Interreg-prosjektet «Skoglig anpassning för ett ändrat klimat» som pågikk i perioden 2018 - 2022. Rapporten sammenfatter kunnskapsfronten for de driftstekniske utfordringene knyttet til transport av virke i terrenget og på skogsvei i et varmere og våtere klima. Velfungerende og kostnadseffektive skogsveier vil være en bærebjelke i begge lands skognæring, så rapporten fokuserer også på byggeskikk, metoder og rammefaktorer for dette.

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Sammendrag

Using periodic measurements from permanent plots in non-thinned and thinned Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) stands in Norway, individual-tree growth models were developed to predict annual diameter increment, height increment, and height to crown base increment. Based on long-term data across a range of thinning regimes and stand conditions, alternative approaches for modeling response to treatment were assessed. Dynamic thinning response functions in the form of multiplicative modifiers that predict no effect at the time of thinning, a rapid increase followed by an early maximum before the effect gradually declines to zero could not be fitted to initially derived baseline models without thinning related predictors. However, alternative approaches were used and found to perform well. Specifically, indicator variables representing varying time periods after thinning were statistically significant and behaved in a robust manner as well as consistent with general expectations. In addition, they improved overall prediction accuracy when incorporated as fixed effects into the baseline models for diameter and height to crown base increment. Further, more simply, including exponentially decreasing multiplicative thinning response functions improved prediction accuracy for height increment and height to crown base increment. Irrespective of studied attribute and modelling approach, improvement in performance of these extended models was relatively limited when compared to the corresponding baseline models and more pronounced in trees from thinned stands. We conclude that the largely varying and often multi-year measurement intervals of the periodic data used in this study likely prevented the development of more sophisticated thinning response functions. However, based on the evaluation of the final models’ overall performance such complex response functions may not to be necessary to reliably predict individual tree growth after thinning for certain conditions or species, which should be further considered in future analyses of similar nature.