Publikasjoner

NIBIOs ansatte publiserer flere hundre vitenskapelige artikler og forskningsrapporter hvert år. Her finner du referanser og lenker til publikasjoner og andre forsknings- og formidlingsaktiviteter. Samlingen oppdateres løpende med både nytt og historisk materiale. For mer informasjon om NIBIOs publikasjoner, besøk NIBIOs bibliotek.

2022

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Sammendrag

Rapporten gir en oversikt over skogressurser og skogtilstand i Møre og Romsdal for referanseåret 2018 (data innsamlet i løpet av femårsperioden 2016-2020). Nye resultater settes også sammen med resultat fra tidligere takster, for å vise historisk utvikling. Resultatene er basert på data registrert i Landsskogtakseringens permanente prøveflatenett, supplementært med temporære prøveflater for å oppnå tilfredsstillende nøyaktighet på fylkesnivå.

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Like large carnivores, hunters both kill and scare ungulates, and thus might indirectly affect plant performance through trophic cascades. In this study, we hypothesized that intensive hunting and enduring fear of humans have caused moose and other forest ungulates to partly avoid areas near human infrastructure (perceived hunting risk), with positive cascading effects on recruitment of trees. Using data from the Norwegian forest inventory, we found decreasing browsing pressure and increasing tree recruitment in areas close to roads and houses, where ungulates are more likely to encounter humans. However, although browsing and recruitment were negatively related, reduced browsing was only responsible for a small proportion of the higher tree recruitment near human infrastructure. We suggest that the apparently weak cascading effect occurs because the recorded browsing pressure only partly reflects the long-term browsing intensity close to humans. Accordingly, tree recruitment was also related to the density of small trees 5–10 years earlier, which was higher close to human infrastructure. Hence, if small tree density is a product of the browsing pressure in the past, the cascading effect is probably stronger than our estimates suggest. Reduced browsing near roads and houses is most in line with risk avoidance driven by fear of humans (behaviorally mediated), and not because of excessive hunting and local reduction in ungulate density (density mediated).

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Vi gir i den første delen av denne rapporten en oversikt over dagens skogressurser i Norge og den historiske utviklingen tilbake til 1990. Oversiktene er basert på data fra Landsskogtakseringens permanente prøveflater. Vi presenterer arealfordeling av bonitet og skogtyper i ulike hogstklasser, skogvolum og tilvekst, aldersutviklingen i skog, historisk avvirkning, samt omfang av sluttavvirkning i yngre skog de senere årene, her definert som skog som er yngre enn nedre aldersgrense for hogstklasse 5. Vi dokumenterer også hvor stor andel av skogressursene som står på arealer der det etter sertifiseringsordninger og skoglovgivningen må tas særskilte hensyn ved hogst. I tillegg har vi analysert omfanget av hogst i yngre skog, og som her er definert som avvirkning i skog som er yngre enn nedre aldersgrense for hogstklasse 5. I andre halvdel av rapporten presenterer vi 14 forskjellige prognoser for balansekvantum, med ulike forutsetninger med hensyn til økonomisk drivverdig areal (basert på driftskostnad), skogkulturinnsats, nedre alder ved sluttavvirkning, og for alternative scenarier for prioritering av arealer ved økning av vern av skog. Varierende skogkulturinnsats hadde relativt liten effekt på balansekvantum, men større effekt på tilvekst og volumutvikling samt sammensetningen av framtidig hogstkvantum og skogvolum per treslagsgruppe (gran, furu, lauvtrær). Varierende forutsetninger om nedre aldersgrense for sluttavvirkning hadde også effekt på utviklingen av ressursene og på balansekvantumet. Prognosene der inntil 25 prosent av hogstkvantumet fra sluttavvirkning kan hentes i hogstklasse 4 og resten i hogstklasse 5 gav et høyere balansekvantum enn i prognosene der sluttavvirkning tidligst kan gjennomføres når skogen når nedre aldersgrense for hogstklasse 5. Prognosene uten hogst i hogstklasse 4 gav imidlertid som resultat en større oppbygning av stående volum og tilvekst over tid....

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Sammendrag

It is expected that European Boreal and Temperate forests will be greatly affected by climate change, causing natural disturbances to increase in frequency and severity. To detangle how, through forest management, we can make forests less vulnerable to the impact of natural disturbances, we need to include the risks of such disturbances in our decision-making tools. The present review investigates: i) how the most important forestry-related natural disturbances are linked to climate change, and ii) different modelling approaches that assess the risks of natural disturbances and their applicability for large-scale forest management planning. Global warming will decrease frozen soil periods, which increases root rot, snow, ice and wind damage, cascading into an increment of bark beetle damage. Central Europe will experience a decrease in precipitation and increase in temperature, which lowers tree defenses against bark beetles and increases root rot infestations. Ice and wet snow damages are expected to increase in Northern Boreal forests, and to reduce in Temperate and Southern Boreal forests. However, lack of snow cover may increase cases of frost-damaged seedlings. The increased temperatures and drought periods, together with a fuel increment from other disturbances, likely enhance wildfire risk, especially for Temperate forests. For the review of European modelling approaches, thirty-nine disturbance models were assessed and categorized according to their required input variables and to the models’ outputs. Probability models are usually common for all disturbance model approaches, however, models that predict disturbance effects seem to be scarce.

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Sammendrag

The increasing disturbances in monocultures around the world are testimony to their instability under global change. Many studies have claimed that temporal stability of productivity increases with species richness, although the ecological fundamentals have mainly been investigated through diversity experiments. To adequately manage forest ecosystems, it is necessary to have a comprehensive understanding of the effect of mixing species on the temporal stability of productivity and the way in which it is influenced by climate conditions across large geographical areas. Here, we used a unique dataset of 261 stands combining pure and two-species mixtures of four relevant tree species over a wide range of climate conditions in Europe to examine the effect of species mixing on the level and temporal stability of productivity. Structural equation modelling was employed to further explore the direct and indirect influence of climate, overyielding, species asynchrony and additive effect (i.e. temporal stability expected from the species growth in monospecific stands) on temporal stability in mixed forests. We showed that by adding only one tree species to monocultures, the level (overyielding: +6%) and stability (temporal stability: +12%) of stand growth increased significantly. We identified the key effect of temperature on destabilizing stand growth, which may be mitigated by mixing species. We further confirmed asynchrony as the main driver of temporal stability in mixed stands, through both the additive effect and species interactions, which modify between-species asynchrony in mixtures in comparison to monocultures. Synthesis and applications. This study highlights the emergent properties associated with mixing two species, which result in resource efficient and temporally stable production systems. We reveal the negative impact of mean temperature on temporal stability of forest productivity and how the stabilizing effect of mixing two species can counterbalance this impact. The overyielding and temporal stability of growth addressed in this paper are essential for ecosystem services closely linked with the level and rhythm of forest growth. Our results underline that mixing two species can be a realistic and effective nature-based climate solution, which could contribute towards meeting EU climate target policies.