Publikasjoner

NIBIOs ansatte publiserer flere hundre vitenskapelige artikler og forskningsrapporter hvert år. Her finner du referanser og lenker til publikasjoner og andre forsknings- og formidlingsaktiviteter. Samlingen oppdateres løpende med både nytt og historisk materiale. For mer informasjon om NIBIOs publikasjoner, besøk NIBIOs bibliotek.

2018

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Sammendrag

Det nasjonale overvåkingsprogrammet for rovvilt i Norge har i 2017 samlet inn prøver med antatt opphav fra brunbjørn (Ursus arctos) for niende året på rad. Det ble totalt samlet inn 1034 prøver i 2017 (776 ekskrementprøver, 249 hårprøver og 9 vevsprøver) hvorav 59 % var positive for brunbjørn. Det ble påvist 125 ulike bjørner; 55 av dem var hunnbjørner og 70 var hannbjørner. Antall påviste bjørn er på nivå med forrige år (125 bjørner, 51 hunnbjørner og 74 hannbjørner), men kjønnsfordelingen viser en større andel hunner i år. Beregninger av antall ynglinger i 2017 ligger på 6,9 ynglinger, som er en svak økning i forhold til tidligere år. Forekomsten av brunbjørn er hovedsakelig konsentrert i fylkene Hedmark (48), Finnmark (37) og Nord-Trøndelag (29) som tidligere. I tillegg er det påvist hunnbjørner i Troms (4) og Nordland (1). Av det totale antallet bjørner påvist i 2017 er 66 % (82 individer) tidligere påvist i Norge, noe som utgjør en svak økning i gjenfunn i forhold til i fjor. Om man inkluderer gjenfunn fra Sverige, Finland og Russland utgjør det totale antallet gjenfunn 93 individer (74 %). DNA, brunbjørn, Ursus arctos, molekylær økologi, DNA profiler,overvåking, Norge, brown bear, molecular ecology, DNA profiles, monitoring, Norway

Sammendrag

Undersøkelse av antibiotikaresistensmarkørgenet neomycin fosfotransferase II (nptII) i prøver fra 12 ville arter fra Norge I et prosjekt fra Miljødirektoratet har vi testa for tilstedeværelse av nptII genet i 219 prøver fra 12 ulike ville arter fra hele Norge. Utvalget av prøver inkluderte planter (løvetann, rødkløver og markjordbær), insekter (skogmaur, rognebærmøll og liten høstmåler), snegl (brunsnegl), fisk (ørret og rognkjeks) og pattedyr (rødrev, brunbjørn og isbjørn). Vi brukte to ulike sanntids-PCR (Real-Time-PCR) tester for å undersøke fo tilstedeværelsen av kopier av nptII-genet i de 219 prøvene. Vi fant at nesten alle prøvene var negative (99%), mens kun tre enkeltprøver (løvetann, rødkløver og skogmaur) viste et svært lavt nivå av nptII (3-4 kopier). De positive prøvene kan være naturlige varianter eller kontaminering fra forskningslaboratorier. Vi konkluderer med at der er behov for utvida undersøkelser innenen for dette fagfeltet.

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Large terrestrial carnivores can sometimes display strong family bonds affecting the spatial distribution of related individuals. We studied the spatial genetic relatedness and family structure of female Eurasian lynx, continuously distributed in southern Finland. We hypothesized that closely related females form matrilineal assemblages, clustering together with relatives living in the neighboring areas. We evaluated this hypothesis using tissue samples of 133 legally harvested female lynx (from year 2007 to 2015), genotyped with 23 microsatellite markers, and tested for possible spatial genetic family structure using a combination of Bayesian clustering, spatial autocor ‐ relation, and forensic genetic parentage analysis. The study population had three potential family genetic clusters, with a high degree of admixture and geographic overlap, and showed a weak but significant negative relationship between pairwise genetic and geographic distance. Moreover, parentage analysis indicated that 64% of the females had one or more close relatives (sister, mother, or daughter) within the study population. Individuals identified as close kin consistently assigned to the same putative family genetic cluster. They also were sampled closer geographically than females on average, although variation was large. Our results support the possibility that Eurasian lynx forms matrilineal assemblages, and comparisons with males are now required to further assess this hypothesis.

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1. Large-scale pattern-oriented approaches are useful to understand the multi-level processes that shape the genetic structure of a population. Matching the scales of patterns and putative processes is both a key to success and a challenge. 2. We have developed a simple statistical approach, based on variogram analysis, that identifies multiple spatial scales where the population pattern, in this case genetic structure, have highest expression (i.e. the spatial scales at which the strength of patterning of isolation-by-distance (IBD) residual variance reached maximum) from empirical data and, thus, at which scales it should be studied relative to the underlying processes. The approach is applicable to any spatially explicit pairwise data, including genetic, morphological or ecological distance or similarity of individuals, populations and ecosystems. To exemplify possible applications of this approach, we analysed microsatellite genotypes of 1,530 brown bears from Sweden and Norway. 3. The variogram approach identified two scales at which population structure was strongest, thus indicating two different scale-dependent processes: home-rangerelated processes at scales <35 km, and subpopulation division at scales >98 km. On the basis of this, we performed a scale-explicit analysis of genetic structure using DResD analysis and compared the results with those obtained by the Bayesian clustering implemented in structure. 4. We found that the genetic cluster identified in central Scandinavia by Structure is caused by IBD, with distinct gene flow barriers to the south and north. We discuss possible applications and research perspectives to further develop the approach.

Sammendrag

The apple fruit moth Argyresthia conjugella (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) is a seed predator of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) and is distributed in Europe and Asia. In Fennoscandia (Finland, Norway and Sweden), rowan fruit production is low every 2–4 years, and apple (Malus domestica) functions as an alternative host, resulting in economic loss in apple crops in inter-mast years. We have used Illumina MiSeq sequencing to identify a set of 19 novel tetra-nucleotide short tandem repeats (STRs) in Argyresthia conjugella. Such motifs are recommended for genetic monitoring, which may help to determine the eco-evolutionary processes acting on this pest insect. The 19 STRs were optimized and amplified into five multiplex PCR reactions. We tested individuals collected from Norway and Sweden (n = 64), and detected very high genetic variation (average 13.6 alleles, He = 0.75) compared to most other Lepidoptera species studied so far. Spatial genetic differentiation was low and gene flow was high in the test populations, although two non-spatial clusters could be detected. We conclude that this set of genetic markers may be a useful resource for population genetic monitoring of this economical important insect species.

2017

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Det nasjonale overvåkingsprogrammet for rovvilt i Norge har i 2016 samlet inn prøver med antatt opphav fra brunbjørn (Ursus arctos) for åttende år på rad. Totalt ble det samlet inn 928 prøver i 2016 (680 ekskrementprøver, 240 hårprøver og 8 vevsprøver). Av disse prøvene var 67 % po-sitive for brunbjørn, og det ble påvist 125 ulike bjørner, hvorav 51 hunnbjørner og 74 hannbjør-ner. Dette er en svak nedgang sammenlignet med forrige år da det ble påvist 53 hunnbjørner og 75 hannbjørner. Beregninger av antall ynglinger i samme periode ligger relativt stabilt på ca. 6 ynglinger. Som tidligere år er forekomsten av brunbjørn i hovedsak konsentrert i fylkene Hed-mark (46), Finnmark (35) og Nord-Trøndelag (29). Av det totale antallet i 2016 er 63 % (79 indi-vider) tidligere påvist i Norge, noe som utgjør en noe lavere gjenfunnsandel enn forrige år. NØKKELORD : DNA, brunbjørn, Ursus arctos, molekylær økologi, DNA profiler, overvåking, Norge, DNA, brown bear, Ursus arctos, molecular ecology, DNA profiles, monitoring, Norway

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We reconstructed family relationships, parent-child and siblings, among the brown bear (Ursus arctos) sampled in Sør-Varanger, Norway. Basis of this study are observed family relationships by the wildlife management. We compared this strong indication of relatedness with testing particular family relationships using SNP- and STR-genotype data of 154 brown bears sampled mainly non-invasively in the area from 2004 to 2016. We calculated likelihood ratios (LRs) and reconstructed family groups with the program FAMILIAS, which was used to reconstruct family relationships in human forensics. When the LR of each relationship, parent-child or siblings, was tested, 40 (38.1%) relationships were confirmed based solely on genetic data. The allele sharing analysis visualized as dendrograms supported that a large proportion of the remaining observed cases that were not confirmed as parent-child or siblings did share a closer family relationship. More detailed analysis is necessary to deduce the nature of these relationships (cousins, uncle-nephew etc.). Based on the genetic data we found, that the minimum number of cubs per year was on average 4.08. The applied SNP-chip has been developed on the Swedish brown bear population, a population different to the bears living in Sør-Varanger. The performance of the SNP-chip in this study rises questions of its applicability for family analysis in other brown bear populations and shows the need for further evaluation of the individual loci on the chip. Nevertheless, the combined SNP-data from all loci seems to provide power enough to detect the previously reported subpopulation structure. The observational data, sampling effort and quality of the sample material of the brown bears in Sør-Varanger is remarkable and the material provides an excellent testing ground to validate and improve the SNP-chip to reconstruct family groups.

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The number of effective breeders (Nb) and effective population size (Ne) are population parameters reflective of evolutionary potential, susceptibility to stochasticity, and viability. We have estimated these parameters using the linkage disequilibrium-based approach with LDNE through the latest phase of population recovery of the brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Finland (1993–2010; N = 621). This phase of the recovery was recently documented to be associated with major changes in genetic composition. In particular, differentiation between the northern and the southern genetic cluster declined rapidly within 1.5 generations. Based on this, we have studied effects of the changing genetic structure on Nb and Ne, by comparing estimates for whole Finland with the estimates for the two genetic clusters. We expected a potentially strong relationship between estimate sizes and genetic differentiation, which should disappear as the population recovers and clusters merge. Consistent with this, our ­estimates for whole Finland were lower than the sum of the estimates of the two genetic clusters and both approaches produced similar estimates in the end. Notably, we also found that admixed genotypes strongly increased the estimates. In all analyses, our estimates for Ne were larger than Nb and likely reflective for brown bears of the larger region of Finland and northwestern Russia. Conclusively, we find that neglecting genetic substructure may lead to a massive underestimation of Nb and Ne. Our results also suggest the need for further empirical analysis focusing on individuals with admixed genotypes and their potential high influence on Nb and Ne.