Til dokument

Sammendrag

Angiostoma norvegicum n. sp. (Angiostomatidae) is described from the oesophagus, crop and the buccal mass of five species of slugs of the family Arionidae, Arion vulgaris (Moquin-Tandon), Arion ater (L.), Arion fasciatus (Nilsson), Arion fuscus (Müller) and Arion rufus/Arion ater hybrid), collected throughout Norway. Angiostoma norvegicum n. sp. was found parasitising arionids at seven of the 30 sample sites examined (23.3%), and 9.9% of all Arion spp. were infected with this nematode. The new species is characterised by its large size (4.0–8.6 mm long) and in having: lateral alae; 6 + 6 papillae at the cephalic end; a large circular mouth aperture; a spacious stoma; a pharyngeal basal bulb without valvular apparatus; an excretory pore near the base of bulb; a distal part of posterior ovary always outstretched; an anterior ovary distally nearly always outstretched; a vulva situated anterior to mid-body; long, nearly straight spicules and a small gubernaculum; three circumcloacal papillae and caudal genital papillae (GP) arranged in a pattern 1+2/3+3 with GP 5 and GP 8 opened on dorsal side of narrow bursa not reaching tail tip; short conical tails in both sexes with tips supplied by 4 short, unequal denticles. Morphologically, A. norvegicum n. sp. is similar to Angiostoma limacis Dujardin, 1845, which diagnostic characteristics are given based on examination of specimens from Norway and the UK. Conversely, the phylogenetic analyses based on D2D3 large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene sequences performed in the present study did not support the morphological affinity of these two species. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that although Angiostoma spp. cluster together, A. norvegicum n. sp. forms a tight monophyletic clade with the milacid nematode parasites Angiostoma margaretae Ross, Malan & Ivanova, 2011 and Angiostoma milacis Ivanova & Wilson, 2009.

Sammendrag

A survey of nematodes associated with terrestrial slugs was conducted for the first time in Norway. A total of 611 terrestrial slugs were collected from 32 sample sites. Slugs were identified by means of morphological examination, dissection of genitalia and molecular analysis using mitochondrial DNA. Twelve slug species were identified, representing four different slug families. Internal nematodes were identified by means of morphological analysis and the sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene. Of the sample sites studied, 62.5% were found to be positive for nematode parasites, with 18.7% of all slugs discovered being infected. Five nematode species were identified in this study: Alloionema appendiculatum, Agfa flexilis, Angiostoma limacis, Angiostoma sp. and Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita. Of these species, only one nematode was previously undescribed (Angiostoma sp.). This is the first record of the presence of A. appendiculatum, A. flexilis and A. limacis in Norway.

Sammendrag

Snegler er viktige i nedbrytningsprosessen av plantemateriale i naturen. Noen ganske få arter kan opptre som skadedyr på planter i jord- og hagebruk. Områder med høy fuktighet, moderate tempe-raturer og milde vintre utgjør ideelle omgivelser for snegler. Har man i tillegg kulturer som gir sne-glene beskyttelse under et permanent plantedekke, kan skaden av snegl på plantene bli omfattende. Nettkjølsnegl (tidligere kalt åkersnegl) har lenge vært et vanlig skadedyr i mange kulturer i jord- og hagebruk i Norge. Brunskogsnegl (også kalt Iberiaskogsnegl og brunsnegl) er en nykommer i norsk fauna. Foreløpig forekommer denne arten hovedsakelig som skadedyr i småhager, men i enkelte distrikter langs kysten av Sør-Norge har den også opptrådt i dyrka områder. Den har vært rapportert fra mindre grasarealer og som skadegjører hos noen grønnsak- og jordbærprodusenter.

Sammendrag

Snegler er viktige i nedbrytningsprosessen av plantemateriale i naturen. Noen ganske få arter kanopptre som skadedyr på planter i jord- og hagebruk. Områder med høy fuktighet, moderate temperaturer og milde vintre utgjør ideelle omgivelser for snegler. Har man i tillegg kulturer som gir sneglene beskyttelse under et permanent plantedekke, kan skaden av snegl på plantene bli omfattende.Nettkjølsnegl (tidligere kalt åkersnegl) har lenge vært et vanlig skadedyr i mange kulturer i jord- oghagebruk i Norge. Brunskogsnegl (også kalt Iberiaskogsnegl og brunsnegl) er en nykommer i norsk fauna. Foreløpig forekommer denne arten hovedsakelig som skadedyr i småhager, men i enkelte distrikter langs kysten av Sør-Norge har den også opptrådt i dyrka områder. Den har vært rapportert fra mindre grasarealer og som skadegjører hos noen grønnsak- og jordbærprodusenter.

Sammendrag

Det gis en gjennomgang av det forskningsarbeidet som har blitt utført i ulike prosjekter på iberiaskogsnegl siste år. Blant annet diskuteres overvintring og bruk av biologiske og kjemiske midler.

Sammendrag

Oppsummering av resultater fra prosjekt "Kontroll av snutebiller i produksjon av jordbær ved hjelp av planteduftstoffer og andre alternative metoder" (2006-2011).

Sammendrag

Organic fields are often assumed to have less pests and more beneficials than conventionally managed fields. We monitored 12 Norwegian strawberry fields, six organic and six conventional, by sampling leaves two times per year in 2002-2003. Young folded leaflets were visually inspected for eggs and adult females of strawberry mite (Phytonemus pallidus fragariae), and mature leaves were used for extraction of mobile stages of two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae). The spider mites were examined for infection of the mite-pathogenic fungus Neozygites floridana. Predatory mites (Phytoseiidae) were recorded on both leaf types, and the females mounted and identified. Soil was also sampled from each field, to study the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic nematodes. All samples were taken 0-13 metres from the border vegetation. Both pest mites tended to be more abundant in conventional than in organic fields, while the number of phytoseiid mites was very low in both growing systems. Nevertheless, three phytoseiid species were recorded for the first time in Norway: Amblyseius rademacheri Dosse, Neoseiulus kodryensis (Kolodochka) and Neoseiulus reductus (Wainstein). N. floridana infection found in T. urticae females varied from 0-19%, and was higher in 2002 than in 2003. The fungus was recorded at least once in all 12 fields, and there was no consistent difference between the two growing systems. In 2002 there was a significant negative correlation between % T. urticae with N. floridana hyphal bodies found in the first sampling and the number of T. urticae present in the second sampling about four weeks later. Beneficial nematodes (mostly Steinernema) tended to occur in more of the organic than in the conventional soil samples. To sum up, both pests (T. urticae and P. pallidus) and one of the beneficial groups (entomopathogenic nematodes) seemed to conform to the expected difference between organic and conventional fields. There are many possible mechanisms related to the differences in pesticide and fertilization regimes that could lead to such a pattern. For the two remaining beneficials (N. floridana and Phytoseiidae) we could not find a consistent correlation between abundance and growing system.  

Sammendrag

Haukeland Solveig 1, Kalinga, Yonna 2, Mwatawala Maulid.2 & Maerere Amon.2 1Bioforsk, Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Høgskoleveien 7, 1432 Ås, Norway. solveig.haukeland@bioforsk.no 2Sokoine University of Agriculture, Department of Crop Science and Production, P.O. Box 3005 Morogoro, Tanzania. Yonna Kalinga, kalingaye@yahoo.co.uk, Maulid Mwatawala, mwatawala@yahoo.com and Amon Maerere, maerere@yahoo.co.uk Among the most important insect pests in fruit production in Tanzania are fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) these include Bactrocera spp., Ceratitis spp. and Dacus spp. that can significantly reduce yield and fruit quality. Management of fruit flies include cultural control measures such as collecting and destroying infected host fruits, regulatory control (quarantine) and the use of insecticide baits. The best approach for control of fruit flies is to develop an IPM system that include several strategies to reduce the build up of damaging pest populations. Biological control agents such as entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are potential candidates within such a system. Naturally occurring EPN isolates in the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis have been isolated from a fruit growing area in the Morogoro region in Tanzania. Selected EPN isolates have been tested against larval and pupal stages of three important fruit fly species, Bactrocera invadence, B. cucurbitae and Dacus bivittatus. Results are promising and show that several isolates caused 70% to 90% mortality of larvae for all three fruit fly species. Laboratory studies on the ecological characteristics of selected EPN were also conducted using Galleria mellonella as host.

Sammendrag

Rovmidden Neoseiulus californicus, rovtegen Orius laevigatus og nyttenematoden Heterorhabditis bacteriophora ble brukt til biologisk bekjempelse i Norge inntil 2001, da den nye godkjenningsordningen for nyttedyr trådte i kraft. Godkjenning av disse 3 artene ble avslått fordi man manglet informasjon om forekomst, kuldetoleranse, overvintringsevne og etableringspotensial i Norge. For å skaffe slik informasjon ble en kartlegging av forekomsten av de tre artene Norge startet i 2007, og videreført i 2009. Orius laevigatus og H. bacteriophora ble funnet i kartleggingsundersøkelsen. 2 individer av N. californicus ble funnet på planter på en komposthaug utenfor et veksthus i Trøndelag i 2007. Dette veksthuset har hatt en permanent egen stamme av denne rovmidden. Det ble gjort nærmere undersøkelse utenfor dette veksthuset i 2009, men da ble arten ikke funnet. Det er derfor lite sannsynlig at noen av de 3 artene har etablert seg her i Norge. Det ble også utført overvintringsforsøk med N. californicus og O. laevigatus fra kommersielle nyttedyrpreparater. Forsøkene ble utført på friland på Ås i Akershus fra august 2009 til april 2010. Verken rovmidden eller rovtegene viste tydelige tegn til å gå i diapause utover høsten. Noen få levende rovmidd og rovteger ble funnet i november, men ingen rovmidd eller rovteger overlevde fram til januar. Tidligere overvintrings- og kuldetoleranseforsøk utført på Ås og Lillestrøm med de samme nyttedyrpreparatene viste også lav kuldetoleranse hos N. californicus og O. laevigatus. En vurdering av etableringspotensial i Norge for de to artene er gjort på grunnlag av tilgjengelig informasjon om naturlig utbredelse, diapause, kuldetoleranse og overvintringsevne hos de 2 artene og historisk temperaturdata for Ås og Lier (mildt innlandsklima) og Særheim (mildt kystklima). Per i dag er det lite sannsynlig at N. californicus kan etablere seg permanent i Norge. Det er lite sannsynlig at O. laevigatus kan etablere seg permanent i områder med tilsvarende klima som Ås og Lier, men det er risiko for etablering i områder med tilsvarende klima som Særheim.

Sammendrag

Det gis en oversikt over det siste årets arbeid med iberiaskogsnegl, blant annet utprøving av ulike barrierer for å stoppe sneglene, undersøkelse av overvintring i dyrka områder og videre utprøving av Nemaslug.  Det blir særlig lagt vekt på at arten er i ferd med å invadere noen dyrka områder langs kysten. En må forvente at arten etter hvert blir et viktigere skadedyr i dyrka arealer, særlig i jordbær, grønnsaker og gras.

Sammendrag

The slug parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita is commercially available for slug control in many European countries and is mainly used in home gardens against the grey field slug Deroceras reticulatum. It is also used to a certain extent against Arion lusitanicus even though the larger (adult) stages appear to be unaffected. Few studies have examined the efficacy of this nematode on all developmental stages of A. lusitanicus.  Results from on-going studies on the effect of P. hermaphrodita on slug eggs and practical use of P. hermaphrodita will be presented.

Sammendrag

Organic fields are often assumed to have fewer pests and more beneficials than conventionally managed fields. We monitored 12 Norwegian strawberry fields, 6 organic and 6 conventional fields, by sampling leaves twice a year in 2002 and 2003. Young folded leaflets were visually inspected for eggs and adult females of strawberry mite (Phytonemus pallidus fragariae), and mature leaves were used for extraction of mobile stages of two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae). The spider mites were examined for infection of the mite-pathogenic fungus Neozygites floridana. Predatory mites (Phytoseiidae) were recorded on both leaf types, and the females mounted and identified. We also sampled leaves from selected plants in the boundary vegetation of most fields to look for sources of T. urticae, phytoseiids and N. floridana. Soil was sampled from each field, to study the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic nematodes. All samples were taken 0-13 metres from the border vegetation. Both pest mites tended to be more abundant in conventional than in organic fields, while the number of phytoseiid mites was very low in both growing systems. Nevertheless, three phytoseiid species were recorded for the first time in Norway: Amblyseius rademacheri Dosse, Neoseiulus kodryensis (Kolodochka) and Neoseiulus reductus (Wainstein). N. floridana infection found in T. urticae females varied from 0-19%, and was higher in 2002 than in 2003. The fungus was recorded at least once in all 12 fields, and there was no consistent difference between the two growing systems. In 2002 there was a significant negative correlation between % T. urticae with N. floridana hyphal bodies found in the first sampling and the number of T. urticae present in the second sampling about 4 weeks later. Beneficial nematodes (mostly Steinernema) tended to occur in more of the organic than of the conventional soil samples. To sum up, both pests (T. urticae and P. pallidus) and one of the beneficial groups (entomopathogenic nematodes) seemed to conform to the expected difference between organic and conventional fields. There are many possible mechanisms related to the differences in pesticide and fertilization regimes that could lead to such a pattern. For the two remaining beneficials (N. floridana and Phytoseiidae) we could not find a consistent correlation between abundance and growing system.

Sammendrag

Haukeland Solveig and Sundbye Anette The slug parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita is commercially available for slug control in many European countries and is mainly used in home gardens against the grey field slug Deroceras reticulatum. In some European countries it is used against the invasive slug pest Arion lusitanicus. The standard application method for using P. hermaphrodita is by surface application at a rate of 300 000 nematodes per square meter.  Several studies have shown that A. lusitanicus individuals above 1 gram are not affected by P. hermaphrodita and field experiments indicate that this standard application method does not significantly reduce slug populations. Traditional molluscicides include an attractant, often wheat based packed around an active chemical ingredient. A slug baiting method, using P. hermaphrodita as the active ingredient, might be a better approach for biological control of slugs rather than surface application. We therefore decided to test the effect of P. hermaphrodita treated baits in laboratory and field studies. Laboratory experiments suggest this approach as promising, also against slugs above 1 gram. Results from ongoing field experiments will be presented and discussed.  

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Rotsnutebiller kan gi store skadar i jordbær. Larvane lever i jorda og gneg på røter og rotstokk. Billene kan ikkje fl yge, skaden viser seg derfor som fl ekkar i feltet. Svake angrep gir redusert plantevekst med små blad, små bær og lita avling. I enkelte tilfelle kan skaden vere total. Beste mottiltak er korte omløp, vekstskifte og god jordarbeiding. Nyttenematodar kan ha ein viss effekt.

Sammendrag

Mite damage is often considered a spray induced problem. We monitored 12 Norwegian strawberry fields, 6 organic and 6 conventional fields, by sampling leaves two times per year for two years. Young folded leaflets were visually inspected for eggs and adults of strawberry mite (Phytonemus pallidus) and completely unfolded leaves were used for extraction of mobile stages of two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychys urticae). The spider mites were examined for infection of the mite-pathogenic fungus Neozygites floridana. Predatory mites (Phytoseiidae) were recorded on both leaf types, and the females mounted and identified. We also sampled leaves from selected plants in the boundary vegetation of most fields, to look for sources of T. urticae, phytoseiids and N. floridana, and soil from each field, to study the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic nematodes. We will present the results on abundance and diversity of the organisms investigated, and discuss similarities and differences between organic and conventional fields.

Sammendrag

Fra 1. januar 2008 er ingen effektive skadedyrmidler godkjent for bruk mot kålfluer i Norge. Det har siden 2004 vært en stor innsats ved Bioforsk i smarbeid med Landbrukets forsøksringer og med næringen for å finne frem til metoder og midler som vil beskytte korsblomstrede vekster mot kålfluer. Det er spesielt to prosjekter som har støttet mye av dette arbeid, ett brukerstyrt fra kålrotdyrkerne og ett fra Forskningsfondet. Resultatene viser at både nye midler og andre bekjempelsesmetoder kan gi tilfredsstillende beskyttelse. Men det er mue arbeid som gjenstår før all den nye viten kan tas i bruk.

Sammendrag

Fra 1. januar 2008 er ingen effektive skadedyrmidler godkjent for bruk mot kålfluer i Norge. Det har siden 2004 vært en stor innsats ved Bioforsk i samarbeid med Landbrukets forsøksringer og med næringen til å finne frem til metoder og midler som vil beskytte korsblomstrede vekster mot kålfluer. Det er spesielt to prosjekter som har støttet mye av dette arbeid, ett brukerstyrt fra kålrotdyrkerne og ett fra Forskningsfondet. Resultatene viser at både nye midler og andre bekjempelsesmetoder kan gi tilfredsstillende beskyttelse. Men det er mye arbeid som gjenstår før all den nye viten kan tas i bruk.

Sammendrag

Rovtegen Orius laevigatus, rovmidden Neoseiulus californicus og nyttenematoden Heterorhabditis bacterophora ble brukt i biologisk bekjempelse i Norge før den nye godkjenningsordningen for nytteorganismer ble innført i 2001. Artene ble ikke godkjent ved vurderingen i 2001 på grunn av uklar systematikk, fare for genetiske innblandinger, usikkerhet rundt naturlig utbredelse og etableringspotensial, og at artene ikke var påvist i Norge. Næringen ønsker å få de 3 artene tilbake på markedet. I vekstsesongen 2007 gjennomførte vi derfor på oppdrag fra Mattilsynet en kartlegging for å undersøke om O. laevigatus, N. californicus og H. bacteriophora har etablert seg i Norge. Vi samlet inn prøver både i områder der artene har vært brukt og i andre områder med mildt klima. Prøvene ble tatt i habitat som så langt det var mulig tilsvarer artenes habitat i det naturlige utbredelsesområdet. Vi fant 91 tegearter, men ikke O. laevigatus. Det ble gjort ett funn av N. californicus på en kompost utenfor et veksthus tidligere har benyttet rovmidden i sin produksjon, og som har mottatt plantemateriale fra en annen produsent har hatt N.californicus i kultur i gartneriet sitt. Dette funnet er ikke tilstrekkelig for å si at rovmidden er etablert i Norge. H. bacteriophora ble ikke funnet. Kuldetoleranseforsøk med 2 populasjoner med ulikt opphav av hver av artene O. laevigatus og N. californicus ble gjennomført i klimaskap ved -12oC, -6,5oC, og 3,0oC (konstant temperatur), og det ble gjort overvintringsforsøk med disse artene på friland i Ås og Lillestrøm i januar-mars 2008. Begge artene døde raskt ved alle de konstante temperaturene. I overvintringsforsøkene ble det funnet overlevende O. laevigatus etter 2 uker, mens N. californicus overlevde i nesten 2 måneder.

Sammendrag

Jorda er bosted for et utallig antall former for planter, dyr og mikrober. Disse varierer fra mikroskopiske encellede organismer til store gravende dyr. Tilsvarende som for overjordiske miljøer, er det godt definerte næringskjeder og konkurranse om overlevelse i jordmiljøet. Ulike samspill i jordøkosystemet kan både fremme og redusere forekomsten av skadedyr (insekter og midd) som er tilknyttet jord. Skadedyr tilknyttet jorda har derfor også naturlige fiender blant jordorganismene, men også skadedyr som bare tilfeldigvis kommer i kontakt med jorda, ved at de for eksempel ramler ned fra planta de lever på, kan bli spist av predatorer ("rovdyr") eller bli infisert av mikroorganismer som finnes på jorda.

Sammendrag

Snegler er viktige i nedbrytningsprosessen av plantemateriale i naturen. Noen ganske få arter kan opptre som skadedyr på planter i jord- og hagebruk. Områder med høy fuktighet, moderate temperaturer og milde vintre utgjør ideelle omgivelser for snegler. Har man i tillegg kulturer som gir sneglene beskyttelse under et permanent plantedekke, kan skaden av snegl på plantene bli omfattende. Åkersnegl har lenge vært et vanlig skadedyr i mange kulturer i jord- og hagebruk i Norge. Iberiaskogsnegl, også kalt brunsnegl, er en nykommer i norsk fauna. Foreløpig forekommer denne arten hovedsakelig som skadedyr i småhager, men i enkelte distrikter langs kysten av Sør-Norge har den også opptrådt i dyrka områder. Den har vært rapportert fra mindre grasarealer og som skadegjører hos noen grønnsakog jordbærprodusenter. På nettsiden snegler.bioforsk.no fi nner du mer informasjon.

Sammendrag

Snegler har vært det store samtaleemnet på Hageselskapets nettprat i sommer. En kjølig og ikke minst fuktig sommer i sør, har ført til at snegleplagen nærmest har eksplodert mange steder i landet. Artikkelen er i form av et intervju av Arild Andertsen og Solveig Haukeland om snegler og deres bekjempelse.

Sammendrag

The large arionid slug Arion lusitanicus is a serious pest in northern Europe including many parts of Norway. In Norway it is mainly a pest in home gardens but in recent years it has also spread to horticultural and vegetable crops such as strawberry and lettuce. The use of the slug parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita against A. lusitanicus is being investigated in an ongoing research project that was initiated in 2005. A survey was conducted to examine the natural occurrence of the slug parasitic nematode P. hermaphrodita. The result of the survey was positive which led to registration of the product Nemaslug in 2005. Several experiments have been conducted to study the effect of both the commercial product Nemaslug and Norwegian isolated P. hermaphrodita on A. lusitanicus slugs. Laboratory and controlled pot experiments confirm that young stages of the slug (0.02 - 0.04g) are most susceptible to infection and death. It also appears that soil based bioassays give more consistent results than assays using Petri dishes with filter paper. Further work on the infection process of nematodes in A. lusitanicus slugs as well as the practical aspects of nematode use in gardens and the field are being addressed.

Sammendrag

Gransnutebillen gjør stor skade i granplantninger over hele Europa og kan føre til stort økonomisk tap dersom det ikke settes inn tiltak (Langström & Day, 2004). De voksne billene blir lokket til nye hogstflater av duftene fra hogstavfall og stubber. Billene legger egg i røttene til de ferske stubbene, og larvene utvikler seg i innerbarken. De voksne billene lever lenge og eggleggingen kan skje i to sesonger. Når den nye billegenerasjonen klekker fra stubbene etter 1-2 år begynner de også å ete på de små bartreplantene. Billene kan "ringbarke" plantene og plantedødeligheten på en hogstflate kan bli nesten 100 %,(Christiansen 1971, Langström & Day, 2004). Skadene kan strekke seg over fire år etter hogst. Den mest vanlige bekjempelses-metoden er forebyggende påføring av et pesticid for å beskytte bartreplantene før utplanting. Utfasing av pesticidbruken mot gransnutebillen er et mål for EU, men det blir stadig forskjøvet frem i tid fordi det foreløpig mangler effektive alternativer. I artikkelen presenteres resultater fra studier med nyttenematoder som et mulig alternativ eller supplement til bekjempelse av gransnutebillen. Metoden går ut på å redusere antall nye generasjoner av gransnutebiller ved å drepe så mange larver som mulig i stubbene på hogstflater hvor de lever.

Sammendrag

Gransnutebillen gjør stor skade i granplantninger over hele Europa og kan føre til stort økonomisk tap dersom det ikke settes inn tiltak (Langström & Day, 2004). De voksne billene blir lokket til nye hogstflater av duftene fra hogstavfall og stubber. Billene legger egg i røttene til de ferske stubbene, og larvene utvikler seg i innerbarken. De voksne billene lever lenge og eggleggingen kan skje i to sesonger. Når den nye billegenerasjonen klekker fra stubbene etter 1-2 år begynner de også å ete på de små bartreplantene.

Sammendrag

De fleste av oss har, enten vi har hage, dyrket mark eller ferdes i skog og mark, hatt befatning med iberiaskogsneglen, brunsneglen, mordersneglen, rambosneglen. Mange navn på en etter hvert velkjent skapning i hagene våre. Sneglene tar godt for seg av plantene blomsterbedet, og man kvier seg for å gå barbeint over en duggfrisk villaplen en sen sommerkveld. Salat- og jordbærbøndene har ennå mer å frykte, eller? Foredrag om iberiaskogsnegl levesett og bekjempelse.

Sammendrag

For at en fremmed art skal godkjennes til bruk i biologisk bekjempelse må det gjennomføres grundige studier av bl.a. utbredelse og etableringspotensial i Norge. Rovtegen Orius laevigatus, rovmidden Neoseiulus californicus og nyttenematoden Heterorhabditis bacterophora har vært brukt i biologisk bekjempelse før 2001, da den nye godkjenningsordningen for nytteorganismer ble innført. Artene ble imidlertid ikke godkjent ved vurderingen i 2001. Begrunnelsen var uklar systematikk, fare for genetiske innblandinger, og usikkerhet rundt naturlig utbredelse og etableringspotensial, og at artene ikke var påvist i Norge. Næringen ønsker å få de 3 artene tilbake på markedet. I 2007 gjennomførte vi derfor en kartlegging for å undersøke om O. laevigatus, N. californicus og H. bacteriophora har etablert seg i Norge. Det er samlet inn prøver både i områder der artene har vært brukt og i andre områder med mildt klima. Prøvene ble tatt i habitat som så langt det var mulig tilsvarer artenes habitat i det naturlige utbredelsesområdet. Det ble funnet 91 tegearter, men O. laevigatus ble ikke ble funnet. Det er funnet en del rovmidd, og nyttenematoder. Identifisering av artene vil bli gjort i februar 2008. Kuldetoleranseforsøk med 2 populasjoner fra hver av artene O. laevigatus og N. californicus er startet, og vil avsluttes i mai 2008.

Sammendrag

Occurrence of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) have been reported from all continents in the world except Antarctica. Africa is the continent with fewest reports so far. There have however been reports on EPNs occurrence in Egypt, Kenya and South Africa. EPNs are well known due to their potential as biological control agents of insect pests. Banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus) is as an important insect pest of banana. This pest causes reduced banana production in all countries of the East African Highlands in particular Tanzania and Uganda. Different strategies have been employed to control the insect. However the potential for using entomopathogenic nematodes as biological control agents of the weevil has not yet been considered in Tanzania. A preliminary study is ongoing to find out if entomopathogenic nematodes naturally exist in banana growing areas in Tanzania. Currently nine soil samples have been collected from three regions (Mbeya, Morogoro and Coast) with different agroecological conditions. The samples have been taken to Bioforsk in Norway, for extraction of EPNs. Analysis of the samples has been done using larvae of the Greater Wax moth (Galleria mellonella) as bait. After 7 and 14 days dead larvae were removed from the soil samples and placed on water agar. Some of the dead larvae were infected with entomopathogenic fungi and at least one sample had a dead larva with EPN infection. In this sample an adult nematode in the genus Steinernema was isolated. Many dead larvae also had what appeared to be secondary infections of saprophytic nematodes (Rhabditidae) and/or saprophytic fungi. Identification to species or genus level of the nematodes is ongoing. This study reports the find of EPNs for the first time in Tanzania. The isolation of indigenous EPNs are important for further studies on their suitability for control of local insect pests including banana weevils. Future work will include more soil samples for EPNs analysis and semi-field tests using EPNs against banana weevil.

Sammendrag

Occurrence of entomopathogenic nematodes (Epn) have been reported from all continents in the world except Antarctica. Africa is the continent with fewest reports so far. There have however been reports on Epn occurrence in Egypt, Kenya and South Africa. Epns are well known due to their potential as biological control agents of insect pests. Banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus) is considered as an important insect pest of banana. This pest causes reduced banana production in all countries of the East African Highlands in particular Tanzania and Uganda. Different strategies have been employed to control the insect. However the potential for using entomopathogenic nematodes as biological control agents of the weevil has not yet been considered in Tanzania. A preliminary study is ongoing to find out if entomopathogenic nematodes naturally exist in banana growing areas in Tanzania. Currently nine soil samples have been collected from three regions (Mbeya, Morogoro and Coast) with different ecological conditions. The samples have been taken to Bioforsk in Norway, for extraction of Epn. Analysis of the samples has been done using larvae of the Greater Wax moth (Galleria mellonella) as bait. After 7 and 14 days dead larvae were removed from the soil samples and placed on water agar. Some of the dead larvae were infected with entomopathogenic fungi and at least one sample had a dead larva with Epn infection. In this sample an adult nematode in the genus Steinernema was isolated. Many dead larvae also had what appeared to be secondary infections of saprophytic nematodes (Rhabditidae) and/or saprophytic fungi. Identification to species or genus level of the nematodes is ongoing. This study reports the find of Epn for the first time in Tanzania. The isolation of indigenous Epns are important for further studies on their suitability for control of local insect pests including banana weevils. Future work will include more soil samples for Epn analysis and semi-field tests using Epn against banana weevil.

Sammendrag

Fra tid til annen gulner plenen og andre grøntarealer uten at noen synlig grunn foreligger. Årsaken til gulningen kan være oldenborrelarver. Artikkelen beskriver problemet med oldenborrer i plen og om bekjempelse.

Sammendrag

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are commercially available for control of soil dwelling larvae of the vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus). In Europe several products are available comprising three different species, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, H. megidis, and Steinernema kraussei. The latter species is for use at low temperatures. Results from several trials using H. megidis and S. kraussei against vine weevil in strawberry fields indicate that low temperature, soil type and possibly the application method are limiting factors that appear to reduce their efficacy. The use of EPNs against vine weevil larvae in the field will be discussed including results from cold-activity studies and application methods.

Sammendrag

Different methods to reduce the population of Arion lusitanicus are being investigated in private gardens naturally infested with the slug. In the laboratory the effect of different mulches are also being tested. Preliminary results from the studies conducted in gardens indicate that physical removal of slugs by picking or trapping and killing is most effective. In arenas in the laboratory, slugs avoided cocoa chips mulch and alginate granules. These studies are on-going and will be completed at the end of 2008. The slug parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita has recently been isolated in Norway. It is being studied as a biological control agent of A. lusitanicus. Results so far show that young slugs (0,02 " 0,04g) are most susceptible to infection and death. It also appeared that soil based bioassays gave better and more consistent results than assays using Petri dishes with filter paper. Further studies on the host-parasitic relationship of the nematode and slug are required.

Sammendrag

The detection in 1999 of the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in Portugal triggered survey activities in many European countries. With the assumption that PWN would reach frequency 10 times lower than the native B. mucronatus and the requirement of a 95 % confidence limit suggested 2 995 samples to be required for a safe statement on the absence of PWN from the territory surveyed. Samples were taken from 10 circular areas with 50 km diameter erected from a point of import of risk materials. In the period 2000-2006 3 165 wood samples, 2 880 from Pinus sylvestris, 279 from Picea abies and 6 from unknown wood, were collected from 446 logging sites, in 84 municipalities and 13 counties. Of the total material 85 % of the samples came from cutting wastes, timber or lying trees. Wood showing signs of insect activity (incl. Monochamus) formed 73 % of the total material. Nematodes were recorded in 85 % of the samples. The order Rhabditida was most frequent, followed by the orders Aphelenchida, Tylenchida and Dorylaimida. Rhabditid nematodes were equally frequent in pine and spruce, while Aphelenchida (Aphelenchus, Aphelenchoides, Cryptaphelenchus, Seinura and Bursaphelenchus) and Tylenchida (Filenchus, Lelenchus, Ditylenchus, Deladenus and Nothotylenchus) tended to be more common in pinewood. Aphelenchoides was the most common genus. The genus Bursaphelenchus occurred in 1 % of the samples. B. mucronatus was detected in 0,3 % of the samples and most often in cutting waste of pine. The pine wood nematode (PWN), B. xylophilus, was not detected in this survey. The unexpected low natural occurrence of B. mucronatus indicates that the number of potential niches for PWN also is lower than expected, and hence it will be necessary to continue this surveillance program to reach 10 000 samples. The present zone sites in central and south-eastern Norway will be supplemented with 1-2 zone sites in southwestern region of the country. In the future these zone sites will function as permanent observation areas. Care will also be taken to collect all samples from detached wood with signs of Monochamus activity.

Sammendrag

The large arionid slug Arion lusitanicus is a serious pest in parts of northern Europe including many parts of Norway. In Norway it has mainly been a pest in home gardens but in recent years it has also spread to horticultural and vegetable crops such as strawberry and lettuce. The use of the nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita against A. lusitanicus is being investigated in an on-going research project that was initiated in 2005. A survey was conducted in 2004 to examine if the nematode P. hermaphrodita could be found occurring naturally in Norway. The result of the survey was positive which led to registration of the product Nemaslug in 2005. Several experiments have been carried out since 2005, to study the effect of both the commercial product Nemaslug and Norwegian isolated P. hermaphrodita on A. lusitanicus slugs. Laboratory and controlled pot experiments confirm that young stages of the slugs are susceptible to the slug parasitic nematode. Further work on the infection process of nematodes in slugs as well as the practical aspects of nematode use in gardens and the field will be addressed as a next step in these studies.

Sammendrag

The presence of Steinernema carpocapsae is reported for the first time in a Nordic country. Entomopathogenic nematodes were isolated from soil in apple orchards in Western Norway. Nematodes in the genus Steinernema were present in 11.9% of the samples including a population of S. carpocapsae. According to our knowledge the presence of S. carpocapsae is rare in northern Europe, and a report several years ago of this species from northern Sweden appears to have been S. feltiae not S. carpocapsae. This paper also presents an overview of entomopathogenic nematodes in the Nordic countries where the following species are reported: S. affine; S. bicornotum; S. carpocapsae; S. feltiae; S. intermedium; S. kraussei; S. silvaticum; `Steinernema sp. C1", `Steinernema sp. E"; Heterorhabditis downesii and H. megidis. The occurrence of entomopathogenic nematodes in the Nordic countries is based on area-wide surveys for some of the countries.

Sammendrag

Snegler som skadedyr på planter er et økende problem både for yrkesdyrkere og for private hageeiere. Artikkelen presenterer snegler som skadedyr, særlig hos dyrkere, og beskriver de viktigste bekjempingsmetodene vi kjenner til i dag.

Sammendrag

Alternative metoder for å begrense skader forårsaket av gransnutebillen er svært aktuelle, både av hensyn til miljøet og fordi dagens kjemiske midler er på vei ut av bruk. I denne artikkelen fokusere vi på muligheten for å bruke et biologisk middel, nyttenematoder. Strategien med bruk av nyttenematoder går ut på å redusere produksjonen av nye gransnutebiller ved å drepe så mange larver som mulig i stubbene hvor de lever.

Sammendrag

The black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) is an important pest in many crops in several countries worldwide. The adults feed on the leaves of strawberries, rhododendrons, azaleas and many other ornamental plants. Indoors, O. sulcatus can infest begonias, ferns, cyclamins, and other common container plants. Adult feeding does not seriously affect the plants, it is the larval feeding on roots of host plants that causes the most serious plant injury. Larvae may also girdle the main stem below the soil line. Leaves will yellow and plants may be stunted or die. O. sulcatus weevils are difficult to control once established because of their nocturnal behaviour and the subterranean habits of the larvae. In strawberries chemical control using a pesticide against the adult weevils after harvest is the most common control method today, however the most effective pesticides will shortly no longer be available and there are few alternative pesticides on the market. Fortunately there are Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) that can be used to control the soil dwelling larvae and in Europe there are several products on the market comprising three species (Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, H. megidis, and Steinernema kraussei). The use of these nematodes has shown to be quite successful in potted plants (in nurseries), whereas in field grown crops such as strawberry they are still not consistently effective. In this presentation results from a number of field trials using H. megidis and S. kraussei against O. sulcatus larvae infesting field grown strawberry will be presented and discussed.

Sammendrag

The pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, which is indigenous to North America, was introduced to Asia in the early 1900 and now causes severe damage to susceptible pine species in Japan, China, Korea and Taiwan. B. xylophilus was included in the A1 list of quarantine organisms by EPPO (European Plant Protection Organization) in 1985. B. xylophilus was reported for the first time in Europe in Portugal in 1999. There are more than 50 described species within the genus Bursaphelenchus worldwide, that are associated with coniferous and deciduous trees and spread by insect vectors. Within this genus is a group of morphologically very similar species; B. xylophilus, B. mucronatus, B. fraudulentus, B. kolymensis, B. conicaudatus and B. luxuriosae. This group of species is often referred to as the "B. xylophilus group". Due to the morphological similarity of the species, identification of Bursaphelenchus species in the B. xylophilus group is difficult. The common method of molecular identification for separating species within the B. xylophilus group is the use of ITS-RFLP (Hoyer et al. 1998). We have developed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method with specific primers, and the primers amplified product were 740, 340 and 300 bp for B. xylophilus, B. fraudulentus and B. mucronatus respectively. No cross reactions on the three studied species were observed. In contrast to the previously described PCR-RFLP method, this new method allows detection not only on pure isolates, but also on crude nematode suspensions from wood samples, and it could be very useful for quarantine purposes. References Hoyer U, Burgermeister W, Braasch H 1998 Identification of Bursaphelenchus species (Nematoda, Aphelenchoididae) on the basis of amplified ribosomal DNA (ITS-RFLP). Nachrichtenbl. Deut. Pflanzenschutzd. 50:273-27. Mota M M, Braasch H, Bravo M A, Penas A C, Burgermeister W, Metge K, and Sousa E 1999. First report of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Portugal and in Europe. Nematology 1:727-734. Smith, I. M. 1985. Pests and disease problems in European forests. FAO Plant Prot. Bull. 33:159-164. Yi C, Park J, and Chang K 1989. Occurrence of pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner & Buhrer) Nickle, and its vector, Monochamus alternatus Hope, in Korea. Pages 183-193 in: Proc. IUFRO Reg. Workshop For. Insect Pests and Tree Dis. in NE Asia. For. Prod. Res. Inst., Tsukuba, Japan.

Sammendrag

The use of entomopathogenic nematodes against the vine weevil Otiorynchus sulcatus was studied under field conditions. A number of field trials were conducted using two commercial products of EPN, Nemasys H (Heterorhabditis megidis) and Nemasys L (Steinernema kraussei). The results from these trials indicate that low temperature is still a limiting factor for the successful use of EPN against O. sulcatus in Northern Europe. Furthermore it was observed that application methods of EPN in field grown strawberries requires improvement.

Sammendrag

The large arionid slug Arion lusitanicus is a serious pest in parts of northern Europe including many parts of Norway. In Norway it has mainly been a pest in home gardens but in recent years it has also spread to horticultural and vegetable crops such as strawberry and lettuce. This latter aspect is of great concern and a research project was initiated in 2005 to study the biology and control of this pest. The main aim of the project is to develop direct and preventive measures to reduce damage and further spread of the slug. To achieve this aim, the life-cycle, population dynamics and over-wintering strategies needs to be determined, as well as the distribution of the slug in the country. Direct and preventive measures are studied in gardens, in crops and in more controlled conditions. The studies include the use of biological agents such as the slug-parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita

Sammendrag

Sneglene er viktige i nedbrytningsprosessen av plantemateriale i naturen. Noen ganske få arter kan opptre som skadedyr på planter i jord- og hagebruk. Områder med høy fuktighet, moderate temperaturer og milde vintre utgjør ideelle omgivelser for snegler. Har man i tillegg kulturer som gir sneglene beskyttelse under et permanent plantedekke, kan skaden av snegl på plantene bli omfattende. Åkersnegl har lenge vært et vanlig skadedyr i mange kulturer i jord- og hagebruk i Norge. Iberiaskogsnegl, også kalt brunsnegl, er en nykommer i norsk fauna. Foreløpig forekommer denne arten hovedsakelig som skadedyr i småhager, men i enkelte distrikter langs kysten av Sør-Norge har den opptrådt i store mengder. Den har vært rapportert fra mindre grasarealer og som skadegjører hos noen grønnsaks- og jordbærprodusenter.

Sammendrag

Snegler er mange hageeiers store fortvilelse. Har du først fått brunsnegl (iberiaskogsneglen) i hagen, spiser den det meste. Foreløpig er det ikke mulig å utrydde den, men starter du sneglekrigen tidlig er det mulig å begrense antallet.

Sammendrag

In Scandinavia studies on entomopathogenic nematodes (epn) began in Denmark more than 70 years ago and two new species in the genus Steinernema were described (Bovien 1937). In Sweden, a few decades later, Pye and Burman (1978) studied the use of Steinernema spp. against the large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) in forestry for the first time. Today the use of epn in Scandinavia is, like most countries, most successful and most commonly employed in protected environments such as glasshouses. Use outdoors is mostly in strawberries or in nurseries against root weevils (Otiorhynchus spp.) but in general the use outdoors is still rather limited. The potential for using epn in forestry against the large pine weevil (H. abietis) has not yet been realized. For Sweden with its large forested areas it may be difficult to use epn due to immigration of the pest from surrounding forests. The use of epn in smaller Norwegian forests may be more feasible where immigration of the pest may be less of a problem. The use of epn in a slow release system (`Nemabag") against pests, such as the pollen beetle and flea beetle (Meligethes aeneus and Phyllotreta spp.) in arable crops, has been studied in Finland. Use of epn in private gardens has not been monitored, but there appears to be great interest in using epn to control grubs such as the garden chafer (Phyllopertha horticola), which is an increasing problem in many countries. In Denmark Heterorhabditis bacteriophora has been tested, not always successfully, against P. horticola on golf courses. Another beneficial nematode, pathogenic to slugs, Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita is also on the market in some of the countries for use against the important slug pests Deroceras reticulatum and Arion lusitanicus. The latter species is becoming increasingly important as a pest not only in private gardens but also in cultivated crops such as strawberries.

Sammendrag

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are used for biological control of the soil dwelling stages of the vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus, a serious pest of ornamentals and field grown strawberries. Several nematode species such as Heterorhabditis megidis, H. bacteriophora and Steinernema kraussei are commercially available in Europe for control of the vine weevil. S. kraussei is sold as a cold active strain for use outdoors at low temperatures. In southern Norway, several field trials have been conducted to examine the effect of S. kraussei on vine weevil larvae at low temperatures. The trials were assessed one month after nematode treatments and showed rather poor effect at soil temperatures below 12oC. Further work is necessary to investigate the long-term effect of the applied nematodes as well as biotic and abiotic factors that may affect nematode efficacy.

Sammendrag

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are used for biological control of the soil dwelling stages of the vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus, a serious pest of ornamentals and field grown strawberries. The nematodes Heterorhabditis megidis, H. bacteriophora and Steinernema kraussei are commercially available in Europe for control of the vine weevil. S. kraussei is sold as a cold active strain for use outdoors at low temperatures. In southern Norway, several field trials were conducted in strawberries to examine the effect of S. kraussei on vine weevil larvae at low temperatures. The trials were assessed one month after nematode treatments and showed rather poor effect at soil temperatures below 12oC. Further work is necessary to investigate the long-term effect of the applied nematodes as well as biotic and abiotic factors that may affect nematode efficacy. For comparison, the nematode H. megidis was used in these same trials and the results showed that this species is effective at soil temperatures above 12oC, there was no indication that H. megidis had any effect at low temperatures.

Sammendrag

I 2004 og 2005 ble det utført en del feltforsøk for å undersøke effekten av to kommersielle preparater av nyttenematoder, Nemasys H og Nemsays L, mot larver av veksthussnutebillen. Resultatene viser at Nemasys H har ingen eller svært dårlig virkning når gjennomsnittstemperaturen i jorda (5-10 cm dybde) faller under 12 grader. For Nemasys L var virkningen ved slik lav temperatur noe bedre, men ikke så god som forventet. Langtidsvirkningen av nematodeutslippetne er ikke undersøkt, men basert på erfaringer fra feltforsøk utført hittil anbefales det å behandle med Nemasys H om høsten eller tidlig på våren når jordtemperaturen er 12 grader eller mer.

Sammendrag

Sammendrag av foredrag som ble holdt på engelsk på et COST-møte om nyttenematoder i Italia i juni 2005. Foredraget tok for seg biologien til jordbærsnutebille og bringebærbille og så på mulighetene for å bekjempe dem med nematoder. Se engelsk versjon for mer informasjon

Sammendrag

Artikkelen oppsummerer noen små forsøk som er gjort på biologi, overvåking og skade, samt med nye kjemiske midler, nyttenematoder og utgjerding i årene 2000-2003.  Enkelte populasjoner av jordbærsnutebille ser ikke lenger ut til å la seg bekjempe med konvensjonelle plantevernmidler. Utenlandske forsøk har vist at jordbærplanter kan kompensere for opptil 50% avbitte knopper ved å utvikle nye knopper og/eller øke bærstr, men dette ser i liten grad ut til å gjelde norske jordbærplanter. I et økologisk felt som ble fulgt i 4 år, økte antall avbitte knopper per plante sterkt fra første til tredje høstingsår, for så å avta. I det tredje året var oppimot 80 blomsterknopper avbitt per plante. For å overvåke billebestanden i et felt, er registrering av selve billen ved risitng av planter over et hvitt fat en raskere metode enn å telle avbitte knopper, og sier også mer om mulig framtidig skade. Pilotforsøk med utgjerding og nyttenematoder har vist lovende resultater.

Sammendrag

In this survey of 2002, 600 samples were collected from 83 forest blocks in the counties Akershus, Buskerud, Oppland and Østfold. The sampling activity involved 16 municipallities situated mainly within the three zone sites A, B, and C. Samples from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) formed 89%, while samples of Norway spruce (Picea abies) made up 10% of the total sample volume. Timber and forest debris were the most common objects sampled. Sixty-five percent of the pine samples and 81% of the spruce samples showed signs of Monochamus activity. Nematodes were common and occurred in 94% of the samples analysed. Thirteen samples of pinewood were positive for the genus Bursaphelenchus. Bursaphelenchus mucronatus was recorded for the third time in Norway, and was detected in forest debris attacked by Monochamus at Bjørdalen in the municipality of Eidsberg in the county of Østfold. The pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was not detected in this survey.

Sammendrag

Summary: In this survey of 2003, 600 samples were collected from 96 forest blocks in the counties of Aust-Agder and Vest-Agder in southern Norway. The sampling activity involved 19 municipalities situated mainly within the two zone sites D and E close to Kristiansand and Arendal. Samples from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) formed 92%, while samples of Norway spruce (Picea abies) made up 8% of the total sample volume. Timber and forest debris was the most common objects sampled. Ninety-eight percent of the samples, regardless of tree species, showed signs of Monochamus activity. Nematodes were common and occurred in 90% of the samples analysed. Eight samples of pinewood were positive for the genus Bursaphelenchus. This genus did not occur in spruce. Bursaphelenchus mucronatus was detected in 6 samples of forest debris of pine attacked by Monochamus and collected in the county of Aust-Agder. In the municipality of Evje and Hornes B. mucronatus was detected at Skjerkelia and Sutestad. In the municipality of Froland the nematode was found in two samples from Budalsfjellet, and in one sample from Mjålandsvatn. In the municipality of Birkenes one sample from Vågsdalen contained B. mucronatus. This is the fourth report on the occurrence of B. mucronatus in Norway. The pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was not detected.

Sammendrag

Planteforsk Plantevernet får mange henvendelser om skade på plen som skyldes hageoldenborre Phyllopertha horticola. Artikkelen tar for seg biologisk bekjempelse av disse skadegjørerne med nematoden Heterorabditis megidis. Det er også en kort beskrivelse om hageoldenborrenes biologi.

Sammendrag

Artikkelen omhandler spesielt regulering og risikovurdering for bruk av nyttenematoder i biologisk bekjempelse av skadedyr.

Sammendrag

I Norge har vi to viktige arter bladnematoder som skader jordbær: Aphelenchoides fragariae og A. blastophthorus. Sistnevnte forekommer naturlig på en rekke ugrasarter, og er særlig godt utbredt på Vestlandet og i Nord-Norge. Den fremstår som et unikt norsk problem og i juni 1996 ble det startet et prosjekt for å finne tiltak mot nematoden. Artikkelen beskriver biologi og symptomer, overlevelse og smitte, forebyggende tiltak, retningslinjer for innsending av prøver og aktuell litteratur.

Sammendrag

Jordprøver ble samlet inn fra ett økologisk og ett konvensjonelt jordbærfelt, fra hver av 6 lo-kaliteter i Norge (Lier, Follo, Evje, Finnskog, Kise, Toten). Prøvetakingen ble foretatt i sep-tember/oktober 2002. Det er foreløpig påvist insektpatogene nematoder i slekten Steinernema i 3 av lokalitetene. Nematodene som er isolert oppformeres og vil bli artsidentifisert og un-dersøkt nærmere til bruk mot rotsnutebiller. I et laboratorieforsøk er to norske nematodearter testet ved to temperaturer mot larver av rotsnutebiller, sammenlignet med det kommersielle produktet Nemasys H. Fra dette prelimi-nære forsøket ble det etter to ukers inkubasjon observert mortalitet av larvene ved 6oC for en av de norske artene, og en noe lavere mortalitet for larver behandlet med Nemasys H.

Sammendrag

Steinernema feltiae er bruk til bekjempelse av hærmygg (Bradysia paupera) på prydplanter, f.eks. julestjerne i veksthus.  Hos julestjerneprodusenter er det registrert dårlig virkning av S. feltiae ved høye temperaturer rundt 30 grader eller mer.  I denne artikkelen beskrives et forsøk der overlevelse av S. feltiae i torvbrikketer (Jiffy-7) med stikklinger av julestjerne.  Temperaturene som ble tested var 24, 30 og 35 grader der overlevelse (antall nematoder per torvbrikkett) ble registrert etter 4, 10 og 21 dager.  Ved alle temperaturene ble det registrert redusert overlevelse over tid.  Det ble ikke registrert signifikant dårligere overlevelse ved 30 eller 35 grader.

Sammendrag

In 2001, a zone site C, was established as a circular areas with 50 km radius and centred in Greåker close to Sarpsborg in South-eastern Norway. Zone site C is complementary to the similar zone sites A and B established in 2000. From June 2001 to December 2002, 601 wood samples were collected from 66 forest blocks, all situated within the 3 existing zone sites A, B and C. The sampling was carried out in the provinces Akershus, Buskerud, Vestfold and Østfold, but was concentrated to the South-eastern region, where 399 samples were taken from 45 forest blocks in the province of Østfold. Samples from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) formed 96% of the collected material, while Norway spruce (Picea abies) was a minor fraction. Lying trees and various kinds of detached wood formed the main part of the objects sampled. The frequency of objects showing signs of attack by wood boring insects was 44%. Some samples were also taken in Porsgrunn in the province of Telemark from a consignment of spruce imported from Russia. Nematodes were often more common in samples from objects with signs of insect activity. In four samples, all from lying pine trees, nematodes belonging to the genus Bursaphelenchus were detected. Bursaphelenchus mucronatus was recorded for the second time in Norway, and occurred in a lying pine tree attacked by Monochamus at Ombudstvedt in the municipality of Våler in the province of Østfold. The pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was not detected, nor in forests or in 5 samples from spruce imported from Russia

Sammendrag

Two zone sites, i.e. two circular areas with 50 km radius, were established in southern Norway.  The zone sites were centred in Tofte (the location of a major pulp mill) and in Drammen (the site of a major timber yard). From June to October 2000, 66 forest blocks were visited, 65 of which were situated within the zone site areas. Samples were collected from 40 forest blocks, especially from wood attacked by wood boring insects. At 34 forest blocks, trees of Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris, or Norway spruce Picea abies were provided as trap-logs for Monochamus spp. This material will be sampled in the survey of 2001. Some samples were also taken from a wood chip pile and from imported wood material. The total number of wood samples analysed for nematodes were 275. Out of these, 214 samples were collected from forest trees, stumps, timber and logging wastes of P. sylvestris and P. abies. Three samples contained nematodes belonging to the genus Bursaphelenchus, but the Pine Wood Nematode (PWN), B. xylophilus, was not detected. Similarly, this nematode was not detected in the 10 samples of wood chips, or in the 25 samples of imported lumber or in the 26 samples of imported solid wood packing material. In order reach the minimal number of 3000 samples within reasonable time, the number of samples for the next survey season of 2001 needs to be increased drastically. To achieve this, the sampling will continue within the existing zone sites, and be extended into new zone sites to be established in 2001.

Sammendrag

Angrep av rotsnutebillelarver kan være et problem særlig der jordbær dyrkes på plast på lettere jordarter. Bare angrep av få larver kan gi økonomisk skade. Tradisjonelt er bekjempelse gjort med kjemiske midler, men effektiviteten har vært for dårlig slik at angrep av rotsnutebiller i feltene har vært katastrofalt. Nå er en ny og oppsiktsvekkende biologisk bekjempingsmetode under utprøving som et samarbeid mellom Planteforsk Plantevernet og prosjektet "Miljøvennlig kvalitetsproduksjon av jordbær" i Midt-Agder Forsøksring. I utprøvingen blir det brukt nyttenematoder som selv søker etter rotsnutebillelarvene og dreper dem. Resultatene hittil er meget lovende.

Sammendrag

Skade- og nyttedyr i frukthagar, deira kroppsbygnad, struktur og funksjon, utvikling og skade. Bestemmingsnøklar. Plantesjukdommar. Skade- og mangelsymptom. Norsk tekst til 72 fargeplansjar