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Abstract

Angiostoma norvegicum n. sp. (Angiostomatidae) is described from the oesophagus, crop and the buccal mass of five species of slugs of the family Arionidae, Arion vulgaris (Moquin-Tandon), Arion ater (L.), Arion fasciatus (Nilsson), Arion fuscus (Müller) and Arion rufus/Arion ater hybrid), collected throughout Norway. Angiostoma norvegicum n. sp. was found parasitising arionids at seven of the 30 sample sites examined (23.3%), and 9.9% of all Arion spp. were infected with this nematode. The new species is characterised by its large size (4.0–8.6 mm long) and in having: lateral alae; 6 + 6 papillae at the cephalic end; a large circular mouth aperture; a spacious stoma; a pharyngeal basal bulb without valvular apparatus; an excretory pore near the base of bulb; a distal part of posterior ovary always outstretched; an anterior ovary distally nearly always outstretched; a vulva situated anterior to mid-body; long, nearly straight spicules and a small gubernaculum; three circumcloacal papillae and caudal genital papillae (GP) arranged in a pattern 1+2/3+3 with GP 5 and GP 8 opened on dorsal side of narrow bursa not reaching tail tip; short conical tails in both sexes with tips supplied by 4 short, unequal denticles. Morphologically, A. norvegicum n. sp. is similar to Angiostoma limacis Dujardin, 1845, which diagnostic characteristics are given based on examination of specimens from Norway and the UK. Conversely, the phylogenetic analyses based on D2D3 large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene sequences performed in the present study did not support the morphological affinity of these two species. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that although Angiostoma spp. cluster together, A. norvegicum n. sp. forms a tight monophyletic clade with the milacid nematode parasites Angiostoma margaretae Ross, Malan & Ivanova, 2011 and Angiostoma milacis Ivanova & Wilson, 2009.

Abstract

A survey of nematodes associated with terrestrial slugs was conducted for the first time in Norway. A total of 611 terrestrial slugs were collected from 32 sample sites. Slugs were identified by means of morphological examination, dissection of genitalia and molecular analysis using mitochondrial DNA. Twelve slug species were identified, representing four different slug families. Internal nematodes were identified by means of morphological analysis and the sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene. Of the sample sites studied, 62.5% were found to be positive for nematode parasites, with 18.7% of all slugs discovered being infected. Five nematode species were identified in this study: Alloionema appendiculatum, Agfa flexilis, Angiostoma limacis, Angiostoma sp. and Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita. Of these species, only one nematode was previously undescribed (Angiostoma sp.). This is the first record of the presence of A. appendiculatum, A. flexilis and A. limacis in Norway.

Abstract

The detection in 1999 of the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in Portugal triggered survey activities in many European countries. With the assumption that PWN would reach frequency 10 times lower than the native B. mucronatus and the requirement of a 95 % confidence limit suggested 2 995 samples to be required for a safe statement on the absence of PWN from the territory surveyed. Samples were taken from 10 circular areas with 50 km diameter erected from a point of import of risk materials. In the period 2000-2006 3 165 wood samples, 2 880 from Pinus sylvestris, 279 from Picea abies and 6 from unknown wood, were collected from 446 logging sites, in 84 municipalities and 13 counties. Of the total material 85 % of the samples came from cutting wastes, timber or lying trees. Wood showing signs of insect activity (incl. Monochamus) formed 73 % of the total material. Nematodes were recorded in 85 % of the samples. The order Rhabditida was most frequent, followed by the orders Aphelenchida, Tylenchida and Dorylaimida. Rhabditid nematodes were equally frequent in pine and spruce, while Aphelenchida (Aphelenchus, Aphelenchoides, Cryptaphelenchus, Seinura and Bursaphelenchus) and Tylenchida (Filenchus, Lelenchus, Ditylenchus, Deladenus and Nothotylenchus) tended to be more common in pinewood. Aphelenchoides was the most common genus. The genus Bursaphelenchus occurred in 1 % of the samples. B. mucronatus was detected in 0,3 % of the samples and most often in cutting waste of pine. The pine wood nematode (PWN), B. xylophilus, was not detected in this survey. The unexpected low natural occurrence of B. mucronatus indicates that the number of potential niches for PWN also is lower than expected, and hence it will be necessary to continue this surveillance program to reach 10 000 samples. The present zone sites in central and south-eastern Norway will be supplemented with 1-2 zone sites in southwestern region of the country. In the future these zone sites will function as permanent observation areas. Care will also be taken to collect all samples from detached wood with signs of Monochamus activity.

Abstract

In this survey of 2002, 600 samples were collected from 83 forest blocks in the counties Akershus, Buskerud, Oppland and Østfold. The sampling activity involved 16 municipallities situated mainly within the three zone sites A, B, and C. Samples from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) formed 89%, while samples of Norway spruce (Picea abies) made up 10% of the total sample volume. Timber and forest debris were the most common objects sampled. Sixty-five percent of the pine samples and 81% of the spruce samples showed signs of Monochamus activity. Nematodes were common and occurred in 94% of the samples analysed. Thirteen samples of pinewood were positive for the genus Bursaphelenchus. Bursaphelenchus mucronatus was recorded for the third time in Norway, and was detected in forest debris attacked by Monochamus at Bjørdalen in the municipality of Eidsberg in the county of Østfold. The pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was not detected in this survey.

Abstract

In this survey of 2003, 600 samples were collected from 96 forest blocks in the counties of Aust-Agder and Vest-Agder in southern Norway. The sampling activity involved 19 municipalities situated mainly within the two zone sites D and E close to Kristiansand and Arendal. Samples from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) formed 92%, while samples of Norway spruce (Picea abies) made up 8% of the total sample volume. Timber and forest debris was the most common objects sampled. Ninety-eight percent of the samples, regardless of tree species, showed signs of Monochamus activity. Nematodes were common and occurred in 90% of the samples analysed. Eight samples of pinewood were positive for the genus Bursaphelenchus. This genus did not occur in spruce. Bursaphelenchus mucronatus was detected in 6 samples of forest debris of pine attacked by Monochamus and collected in the county of Aust-Agder. In the municipality of Evje and Hornes B. mucronatus was detected at Skjerkelia and Sutestad. In the municipality of Froland the nematode was found in two samples from Budalsfjellet, and in one sample from Mjålandsvatn. In the municipality of Birkenes one sample from Vågsdalen contained B. mucronatus. This is the fourth report on the occurrence of B. mucronatus in Norway. The pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was not detected.

Abstract

In 2001, a zone site C, was established as a circular areas with 50 km radius and centred in Greåker close to Sarpsborg in South-eastern Norway. Zone site C is complementary to the similar zone sites A and B established in 2000. From June 2001 to December 2002, 601 wood samples were collected from 66 forest blocks, all situated within the 3 existing zone sites A, B and C. The sampling was carried out in the provinces Akershus, Buskerud, Vestfold and Østfold, but was concentrated to the South-eastern region, where 399 samples were taken from 45 forest blocks in the province of Østfold. Samples from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) formed 96% of the collected material, while Norway spruce (Picea abies) was a minor fraction. Lying trees and various kinds of detached wood formed the main part of the objects sampled. The frequency of objects showing signs of attack by wood boring insects was 44%. Some samples were also taken in Porsgrunn in the province of Telemark from a consignment of spruce imported from Russia. Nematodes were often more common in samples from objects with signs of insect activity. In four samples, all from lying pine trees, nematodes belonging to the genus Bursaphelenchus were detected. Bursaphelenchus mucronatus was recorded for the second time in Norway, and occurred in a lying pine tree attacked by Monochamus at Ombudstvedt in the municipality of Våler in the province of Østfold. The pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was not detected, nor in forests or in 5 samples from spruce imported from Russia

Abstract

Two zone sites, i.e. two circular areas with 50 km radius, were established in southern Norway. The zone sites were centred in Tofte (the location of a major pulp mill) and in Drammen (the site of a major timber yard). From June to October 2000, 66 forest blocks were visited, 65 of which were situated within the zone site areas. Samples were collected from 40 forest blocks, especially from wood attacked by wood boring insects. At 34 forest blocks, trees of Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris, or Norway spruce Picea abies were provided as trap-logs for Monochamus spp. This material will be sampled in the survey of 2001. Some samples were also taken from a wood chip pile and from imported wood material. The total number of wood samples analysed for nematodes were 275. Out of these, 214 samples were collected from forest trees, stumps, timber and logging wastes of P. sylvestris and P. abies. Three samples contained nematodes belonging to the genus Bursaphelenchus, but the Pine Wood Nematode (PWN), B. xylophilus, was not detected. Similarly, this nematode was not detected in the 10 samples of wood chips, or in the 25 samples of imported lumber or in the 26 samples of imported solid wood packing material. In order reach the minimal number of 3000 samples within reasonable time, the number of samples for the next survey season of 2001 needs to be increased drastically. To achieve this, the sampling will continue within the existing zone sites, and be extended into new zone sites to be established in 2001.