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The oomycete Phytophthora infestans, the cause of late blight, is one of the most important potato pathogens. During infection, it secretes effector proteins that manipulate host cell function, thus contributing to pathogenicity. This study examines sequence differentiation of two P. infestans effectors from 91 isolates collected in Poland and Norway and five reference isolates. A gene encoding the Avr-vnt1 effector, recognized by the potato Rpi-phu1 resistance gene product, is conserved. In contrast, the second effector, AvrSmira1 recognized by Rpi-Smira1, is highly diverse. Both effectors contain positively selected amino acids. A majority of the polymorphisms and all selected sites are located in the effector C-terminal region, which is responsible for their function inside host cells. Hence it is concluded that they are associated with a response to diversified target protein or recognition avoidance. Diversification of the AvrSmira1 effector sequences, which existed prior to the large-scale cultivation of plants containing the Rpi-Smira1 gene, may reduce the predicted durability of resistance provided by this gene. Although no isolates virulent to plants with the Rpi-phu1 gene were found, the corresponding Avr-vnt1 effector has undergone selection, providing evidence for an ongoing ‘arms race’ between the host and pathogen. Both genes remain valuable components for resistance gene pyramiding.

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Pærevisnesjuke regnes som en av de mest alvorlige sjukdommene på pære. Pærevisnesjuke forårsakes av fytoplasma, små veggløse bakterier som lever i silvevet i planter Dette er en karanteneskadegjører i Norge som ble påvist her i landet for første gang i 2015. I 2016 og 2017 ble det gjenomført et OK-program for denne skadegjøreren. Det ble totalt analysert 853 prøver i OK-programmet i 2016. Det ble totalt påvist pærevisnesjuke i 72 av prøvene. Det ble påvist pærevisnesjuke i 10 av 44 undersøkte frukthager. I 2017 ble det undersøkt 260 prøver fra 14 lokaliteter i fire fylker. Det påvist pærevisnesjuke i 13 prøver fra to lokaliteter.I 2017 ble også innsamlede sugere testet for pærevisnesjuke. Av i alt 304 individer fra 6 lokaliteter var 21 individer fra to lokaliteter infisert.

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Bakterien Xanthomonas fragariae kan gjøre stor skade på jordbærplanter. Den ødelegger bladene, og kan i tillegg gi stygge, skjemmende flekker på begerbladene slik at kvaliteten på bærene blir dårlig. Sjukdommen har hittil ikke blitt påvist i Norge. I mange land med stor jordbærproduksjon har sjukdommen mange ganger ført til store tap. For å dokumentere status for Xanthomonas fragariae i Norge ble det på oppdrag av Mattilsynet gjennomført en landsomfattende kartleggingsundersøkelse i 2013, 2014, 2015 og 2016. Oppfølging av OK programmet i 2017 bestod av testing hos virksomheter med felt etablert med importerte jordbærplanter. Det ble sendt inn og analysert totalt 239 prøver fra Mattilsynets kontorer for Region Sør-Vest og Region Øst. Alle prøver ble undersøkt med den internasjonalt anbefalte og anerkjente analysemetoden real-time PCR. Xanthomonas fragariae ble ikke påvist i noen av prøvene. Det er derfor fortsatt grunn til å anta at denne skadegjøreren ikke finnes i Norge................

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Knowledge about the reproduction strategies of invasive species is fundamental for effective control. The invasive Fallopia taxa (Japanese knotweed s.l.) reproduce mainly clonally in Europe, and preventing spread of vegetative fragments is the most important control measure. However, high levels of genetic variation within the hybrid F. × bohemica indicate that hybridization and seed dispersal could be important. In Norway in northern Europe, it is assumed that these taxa do not reproduce sexually due to low temperatures in the autumn when the plants are flowering. The main objective of this study was to examine the genetic variation of invasive Fallopia taxa in selected areas in Norway in order to evaluate whether the taxa may reproduce by seeds in their most northerly distribution range in Europe. Fallopia stands from different localities in Norway were analyzed with respect to prevalence of taxa, and genetic variation within and between taxa was studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Taxonomic identification based on morphology corresponded with identification based on simple sequence repeats (SSR) and DNA ploidy levels (8× F. japonica, 6× F. × bohemica and 4× F. sachalinensis). No genetic variation within F. japonica was detected. All F. × bohemica samples belonged to a single AFLP genotype, but one sample had a different SSR genotype. Two SSR genotypes of F. sachalinensis were also detected. Extremely low genetic variation within the invasive Fallopia taxa indicates that these taxa do not reproduce sexually in the region, suggesting that control efforts can be focused on preventing clonal spread. Climate warming may increase sexual reproduction of invasive Fallopia taxa in northern regions. The hermaphrodite F. × bohemica is a potential pollen source for the male-sterile parental species. Targeted eradication of the hybrid can therefore reduce the risk of increased sexual reproduction under future warmer climate.

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The natural occurrence of fungi, mycotoxins and fungal metabolites was investigated in 100 samples of maize grains collected from south and southwestern Ethiopia in 2015. The maize samples were contaminated by Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium species. Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry 127 secondary metabolites were analysed. Zearalenone was the most prevalent mycotoxin, occurring in about 96% of the samples. Zearalenone sulfate was the second most prevalent, present in 81% of the samples. Fumonisin B1 was detected in 70% of the samples with a mean level of 606 μg kg−1 in positive samples, while FB2, FB3 and FB4 were detected in 62%, 51% and 60% of the maize samples with mean levels of 202, 136 and 85 μg kg−1, respectively. Up to 8% of the samples were contaminated with aflatoxins, with a maximum level of aflatoxin B1 of 513 μg kg−1. Results were higher than earlier reports for maize from Ethiopia.

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Xylella fastidiosa er en planteskadegjører som kan forårsake visnesyke i mange planteslag, bl.a. prunus og en lang rekke løvtrær og grøntanleggsplanter. Denne alvorlige planteskadegjøreren er aldri funnet i norge, men er de siste årene påvist i andre europeiske land, bl.a. er det et stort utbrudd i olivenplantinger i Sør-Italia. Det er hvert år betydelig import av vertplanter fra land hvor sykdommen er blitt påvist. I sesong 2017 mottok NIBIO 328 prøver fra 9 forskjellige land (inkludert norge) og 72 forskjellige vertplanter. Det ble ikke påvis smitte av Xylella fastidiosa i noen av prøvene.

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Bakterien Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni kan gi stor skade i planter av Prunus slekten, især plomme. Bakterien har ikke vært påvist i Norge før man begynte med systematisk kartlegging. Målsettingen for programmet i 2017 var å få mer kunnskap om utbredelse i Norge. Først og fremst skulle grøntanlegg med mye laurbærhegg og prydvarianter av kirsebær, plomme, fersken, aprikos og mandel undersøkes. Mattilsynet har organisert prøveuttaket. Det ble i 2017 totalt sendt inn 416 prøver for analyse, ingen av dem viste seg å inneholde smitte av bakterien Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni.

Sammendrag

Pathogenic soft rot Enterobacteriaceae (SRE) belonging to the genera Pectobacterium and Dickeya cause diseases in potato and numerous other crops. Seed potatoes are the most important source of infection, but how pathogen-free tubers initially become infected remains an enigma. Since the 1920s, insects have been hypothesized to contribute to SRE transmission. To validate this hypothesis and to map the insect species potentially involved in SRE dispersal, we have analyzed the occurrence of SRE in insects recovered from potato fields over a period of 2 years. Twenty-eight yellow sticky traps were set up in 10 potato fields throughout Norway to attract and trap insects. Total DNA recovered from over 2,000 randomly chosen trapped insects was tested for SRE, using a specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) TaqMan assay, and insects that tested positive were identified by DNA barcoding. Although the occurrence of SRE-carrying insects varied, they were found in all the tested fields. While Delia species were dominant among the insects that carried the largest amount of SRE, more than 80 other SRE-carrying insect species were identified, and they had different levels of abundance. Additionally, the occurrence of SRE in three laboratory-reared insect species was analyzed, and this suggested that SRE are natural members of some insect microbiomes, with herbivorous Delia floralis carrying more SRE than the cabbage moth (Plutella xylostella) and carnivorous green lacewing larvae (Chrysoperla carnea). In summary, the high proportion, variety, and ubiquity of insects that carried SRE show the need to address this source of the pathogens to reduce the initial infection of seed material.

Sammendrag

The plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium langsethiae produces the highly potent mycotoxins HT-2 and T-2. Since these toxins are frequently detected at high levels in oat grain lots, they pose a considerable risk for food and feed safety in Norway, as well as in other north European countries. To reduce the risk of HT-2/T- 2-contaminated grain lots to enter the food and feed chain, it is important to identify factors that influence F. langsethiae infection and mycotoxin development in oats. However, the epidemiology of F. langsethiae is unclear. A three-year survey was performed to reveal more of the life cycle of F. langsethiae and its interactions with oats, other Fusarium species, as well as insects, mites and weeds. We searched for inoculum sources by quantifying the amount of F. langsethiae DNA in crop residues, weeds, and soil sampled from a selection of oat-fields. To be able to define the onset of infection, we analysed the amount of F. langsethiae DNA in oat plant material sampled at selected growth stages (between booting and maturation), as well as the amount of F. langsethiae DNA and HT-2 and T-2 toxins in the mature grain. We also studied the presence of possible insect- and mite vectors sampled at the selected growth stages using Berlese funnel traps. The different types of materials were also analysed for the presence F. graminearum DNA, the most important deoxynivalenol producer observed in Norwegian cereals, and which presence has shown a striking lack of correlation with the presence of F. langsethiae in oat. Results show that F. langsethiae DNA may occur in the oat plant already before heading and flowering. Some F. langsethiae DNA was observed in crop residues and weeds, though at relatively low levels. No Fusarium DNA was detected in soil samples. Of the arthropods that were associated with the collected oat plants, aphids and thrips species were dominating. Further details will be given at the meeting.

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Helminthosporium solani causes silver scurf, which affects the quality of potato. The biocontrol agent Clonostachys rosea greatly limited the severity of silver scurf symptoms and amount of H. solani genomic DNA in laboratory experiments. Transcriptomic analysis during interaction showed that H. solani gene expression was highly reduced when coinoculated with the biocontrol agent C. rosea, whereas gene expression of C. rosea was clearly boosted as a response to the pathogen. The most notable upregulated C. rosea genes were those encoding proteins involved in cellular response to oxidative stress, proteases, G-protein signaling, and the methyltransferase LaeA. The most notable potato response to both fungi was downregulation of defense-related genes and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases. At a later stage, this shifted, and most potato defense genes were turned on, especially those involved in terpenoid biosynthesis when H. solani was present. Some biocontrol-activated defense-related genes in potato were upregulated during early interaction with C. rosea alone that were not triggered by H. solani alone. Our results indicate that the reductions of silver scurf using C. rosea are probably due to a combination of mechanisms, including mycoparasitism, biocontrol-activated stimulation of plant defense mechanisms, microbial competition for nutrients, space, and antibiosis.

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Soft rot and blackleg of potato caused by pectinolytic bacteria lead to severe economic losses in potato production worldwide. To investigate the species composition of bacteria causing soft rot and black leg of potato in Norway and Poland, bacteria were isolated from potato tubers and stems. Forty-one Norwegian strains and 42 Polish strains that formed cavities on pectate medium were selected for potato tuber maceration assays and sequencing of three housekeeping genes (dnaX, icdA and mdh) for species identification and phylogenetic analysis. The distribution of the species causing soft rot and blackleg in Norway and Poland differed: we have demonstrated that mainly P. atrosepticum and P. c. subsp. carotovorum are the causal agents of soft rot and blackleg of potatoes in Norway, while P. wasabiae was identified as one of the most important soft rot pathogens in Poland. In contrast to the other European countries, D. solani seem not to be a major pathogen of potato in Norway and Poland. The Norwegian and Polish P. c. subsp. carotovorum and P. wasabiae strains did not cluster with type strains of the respective species in the phylogenetic analysis, which underlines the taxonomic complexity of the genus Pectobacterium. No correlation between the country of origin and clustering of the strains was observed. All strains tested in this study were able to macerate potato tissue. The ability to macerate potato tissue was significantly greater for the P. c. subsp. carotovorum and Dickeya spp., compared to P. atrosepticum and P. wasabiae.

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The genus Microbacterium contains bacteria that are ubiquitously distributed in various environments and includes plant-associated bacteria that are able to colonize tissue of agricultural crop plants. Here, we report the 3,508,491 bp complete genome sequence of Microbacterium sp. strain BH-3-3-3, isolated from conventionally grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa) from a field in Vestfold, Norway. The nucleotide sequence of this genome was deposited into NCBI GenBank under the accession CP017674.

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Dollar spot is a destructive and widespread disease affecting most turfgrass species, but until recently it has been absent from the Scandinavian countries of northern Europe. In the fall of 2014, disease symptoms consistent with dollar spot were observed on a golf course fairway in Sweden. A fungus was isolated from symptomatic turf and identified as Sclerotinia homoeocarpa on the basis of ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences, morphology, and culture characteristics. The ITS sequence was identical to isolates of S. homoeocarpa from the eastern and midwestern United States. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled, confirming the S. homoeocarpa isolate as the causal agent. This is the first report of turfgrass dollar spot in Sweden and only the second report of the disease from Scandinavia. Because pesticides are rarely used in the cultivation of Scandinavian turfgrass, dollar spot disease may prove difficult to control through conventional means and potentially represents a major threat to the industry.

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Phytophthora ramorum er et patogen som kan gjøre skade på en rekke vertsplanter og som i Norge har status som karanteneskadegjører. I 2016 mottok NIBIO totalt 383 prøver fra Mattilsynet for analyse for P. ramorum. Prøvene ble analysert med real-time PCR spesifikk for P. ramorum og/eller ved isolering på semiselektivt medium PARP og påføgende mikroskoperng. Prøveantallet inkluderte prøver fra 13 importsendinger, og P. ramorum ble påvist i 6 av dem. En av de positive prøvene var av pyramidelyng (Pieris japonica) og de andre var av rododendron. Sendingene kom fra Belgia og Nederland. Det ble gjennomført kontroller i 40 planteskoler og hagesentre. I 11 av dem ble det påvist P. ramorum. I alt ble det analysert 98 prøver, og det ble påvist P. ramorum i 40 av de. Alle de positive prøvene var av rododendron. Planteskolene med påvisning var lokalisert i Øst-, Vest- og Midt-Norge. I seks av planteskolene ble det gjennomført en ‘baiting’-test av rotklumper fra planter som ikke viste Phytophthora-symptomer på blader eller kvister. I 6 rododendronprøver fra en av planteskolene ble det påvist P. ramorum etter ‘baiting’. Det ble analysert 234 prøver fra grøntanlegg, og det ble påvist P. ramorum i 55 av disse. Alle påvisningene var fra kystområder på Sør-Vestlandet, med unntak av en prøve fra Midt-Norge (Stjørdal)

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Bakterien Erwinia amylovora kan gjøre stor skade på eple, pære og prydbusker i rosefamilien. Bakterien infiserer primært fruktblomstene, men kan også angripe nye blader og skudd. Sykdommen har hittil ikke blitt påvist i Norge i kjernefrukt (bortsett fra noen få tilfeller i privathager), kun i andre vertplanter som for eksempel mispelarter. Frem til november 2015 har import av vertplanter for pærebrann til Norge vært forbudt, men myndighetene har nå åpnet for import fra land hvor pærebrann er kjent å forekomme. Det var derfor ønskelig å få kunnskap om smittestatus i sendingene som i 2016 ble mottatt fra Nederland og Belgia. Disse sendingene bestod av om lag 150000 trær og grunnstammer av eple, Malus domestica. Det ble sendt inn og analysert 510 prøver (0,34%) fra Mattilsynets kontorer region Stor-Oslo, Region Øst og Region Sør og Vest. Alle prøver ble undersøkt med internasjonalt anbefalte og anerkjente analysemetoder. Erwinia amylovora ble ikke påvist i noen av prøvene.

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Pære-visnesjuke regnes som en av de mest alvorlige sjukdommene på pære. Dette er en karanteneskadegjører i Norge som ble påvist her i landet for første gang i 2015. I 2016 har det blitt gjenomført et OK-program for denne skadegjøreren. Det ble totalt analysert 853 prøver i OK-programmet i 2016. Det ble totalt påvist pærevisnesjukefytoplasma i 72 av prøvene. Det ble påvist pærevisnesjukefytoplasma i 10 av 44 undersøkte frukthager.

Sammendrag

Bakterien Xanthomonas fragariae kan gjøre stor skade på jordbærplanter. Den ødelegger bladene, og kan i tillegg gi stygge, skjemmende flekker på begerbladene slik at kvaliteten på bærene blir dårlig. Sjukdommen har hittil ikke blitt påvist i Norge. I mange land med stor jordbærproduksjon har sjukdommen mange ganger ført til store tap. For å dokumentere status for Xanthomonas fragariae i Norge ble det på oppdrag av Mattilsynet gjennomført en landsomfattende kartleggingsundersøkelse i 2013, 2014 og 2015. Oppfølging av OK programmet i 2016 la først og fremst vekt på testing hos bærprodusenter med etablerte felt basert på importerte jordbærplanter. Virksomheter som startet produksjon basert på importerte planter i 2015 hadde høyest prioritet. Det ble sendt inn og analysert totalt 241 prøver fra Mattilsynets kontorer for Region Stor-Oslo, Region Øst, Region Midt og Region Sør-Vest. Alle prøver ble undersøkt med den internasjonalt anbefalte og anerkjente analysemetoden real-time PCR. Xanthomonas fragariae ble ikke påvist i noen av prøvene. Det er derfor grunn til å anta at denne skadegjøreren ikke finnes i Norge.

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Det har vært overvåknings- og kartleggingsprogram (OK-program) for heksekost i eple hvert år siden 2011. Denne rapporten beskriver resultatene fra testing i OK-programmet for heksekost i eple i 2015 og 2016. I disse årene ble kartleggingsarbeidet målrettet for å avdekke eventuell infeksjon i importert eplemateriale av grunnstammer, pisker og trær. Det ble analysert i alt 640 rotprøver fra importsendinger i 2015 og 2016. Det ble ikke påvist heksekost-infeksjon i noen av disse prøvene.

Sammendrag

The genus Pectobacterium, which belongs to the bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae, contains numerous species that cause soft rot diseases in a wide range of plants. The species Pectobacterium carotovorum is highly heterogeneous, indicating a need for re-evaluation and a better classification of the species. PacBio was used for sequencing of two soft-rot-causing bacterial strains (NIBIO1006T and NIBIO1392), initially identified as P. carotovorum strains by fatty acid analysis and sequencing of three housekeeping genes (dnaX, icdA and mdh). Their taxonomic relationship to other Pectobacterium species was determined and the distance from any described species within the genus Pectobacterium was less than 94% average nucleotide identity (ANI). Based on ANI, phylogenetic data and genome-to-genome distance, strains NIBIO1006T, NIBIO1392 and NCPPB3395 are suggested to represent a novel species of the genus Pectobacterium, for which the name Pectobacterium polaris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NIBIO1006T (=DSM 105255T=NCPPB 4611T).

Sammendrag

Mørk ringråte er en karantenesykdom på potet og angriper også andre planter i søtvierfamilien. Den er forårsaket av bakterien Ralstonia solanacearum. Angrep av mørk ringråte fører til at potetplantens ledningsvev blir ødelagt og tilstoppet slik at riset visner, og det senere blir en brunfarget, ringformet råte i knollene. Skadegjøreren har ikke blitt påvist i Norge. Det er hvert år etydelig import av mat- og industripotet til Norge fra land hvor sykdommen forekommer. I sesong 2016 mottok NIBIO 160 prøver fra 13 forskjellig land og 47 forskjellige sorter. Disse ble analysert med den internasjonalt anerkjente metoden realtime PCR. Det ble ikke påvist smitte av mørk ringråte i noen av prøvene. Det ble analysert et relativt lite antall prøver i forhold til størrelsen på potetimporten i perioden, som kan stipuleres til om lag 60000 tonn.

Sammendrag

Bakterien Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni kan gi stor skade i planter av Prunus slekten, især plomme. Bakterien har ikke vært påvist i Norge før man begynte med systematisk kartlegging. Målsettingen for programmet i 2016 var å få mer kunnskap om utbredelse i Norge. Først og fremst skulle nyplantinger av plomme, søt- og sur-kirsebær i kommersielle frukthager undersøkes. Mattilsynet har organisert prøveuttaket. Det ble i 2016 totalt sendt inn 356 prøver for analyse, ingen av dem viste seg å inneholde smitte av bakterien Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni.

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Delphinella shoot blight (Delphinella abietis) attacks true firs (Abies spp.) in Europe and North America. Especially subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa), one of the main Christmas tree species in Norway, is prone to the disease. The fungus kills current year needles, and in severe cases entire shoots. Dead needles become covered with black fruiting bodies, both pycnidia and pseudothecia. Delphinella shoot blight has mainly been a problem in humid, coastal regions in the northwestern part of Southern Norway, but, probably due to higher precipitation in inland regions during recent years, heavy attacks were found in 2011 in a field trial with 76 provenances of subalpine fir in Southeastern Norway. However, the amount of precipitation seemed less important once the disease had established in the field. Significant differences in susceptibility between provenances were observed. In general, the more bluish the foliage was, the healthier the trees appeared. The analysis of provenance means indicated that, at least for the southern range, the disease ratings were correlated with foliage color. This study also includes isolation, identification, a pathogenicity test, a seed test and electron microscopy of the wax layer on the needles. The fungus was identified based on the morphology of spores and by sequencing the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of the ribosomal DNA. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled. The fungus was found present on newly harvested seeds and may therefore spread via international seed trade. When comparing the wax layers on green and blue needles, those of the latter were significantly thicker, a factor that may be involved in disease resistance.

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Important losses in strawberry production are often caused by the oomycete Phytophthora cactorum, the causal agent of crown rot. However, very limited studies at molecular levels exist of the mechanisms related to strawberry resistance against this pathogen. To begin to rectify this situation, a PCR-based approach (NBS profiling) was used to isolate strawberry resistance gene analogs (RGAs) with altered expression in response to P. cactorum during a time course (2, 4, 6, 24, 48, 96 and 192 h post-infection). Twenty-three distinct RGA fragments of the NB-LRR type were identified from a resistance genotype (Bukammen) of the wild species Fragaria vesca. The gene transcriptional profiles after infection showed that the response of most RGAs was quicker and stronger in the resistance genotype (Bukammen) than in the susceptible one (FDP821) during the early infection stage. The transcriptional patterns of one RGA (RGA109) were further monitored and compared during the P. cactorum infection of two pairs of resistant and susceptible genotype combinations (Bukammen/FDP821 and FDR1218/1603). The 5′ end sequence was cloned, and its putative protein was characteristic of NBS-LRR R protein. Our results yielded a first insight into the strawberry RGAs responding to P. cactorum infection at molecular level.

Sammendrag

The prevalence of Fusarium dry rot in potatoes produced in Norway was investigated in a survey for three consecutive years in the period 2010 to 2012. A total of 238 samples (comprising 23,800 tubers) were collected, representing different cultivars and production regions in Norway. Fusarium spp. were detected in 47% of the samples, with one to three species per sample. In total, 718 isolates of Fusarium spp. were recovered and identified to seven species. The most commonly isolated species was Fusarium coeruleum, comprising 59.6% of the total Fusarium isolates and found in 17.2% of the collected samples, followed by Fusarium avenaceum (27.2% of the isolates and found in 27.7% of the samples). Fusarium sambucinum was the third most prevalent species (6.4% in 8.8% of the samples) and Fusarium culmorum the fourth (5.2% in 6.3% of the samples). Less prevalent species included Fusarium cerealis, Fusarium graminearum, and Fusarium equiseti (<1% in 0.4 to 1.3% of the samples). F. coeruleum was the most prevalent species in northern and southwestern Norway, whereas F. avenaceum was dominating in eastern Norway. The potato cultivars Berber and Rutt were susceptible to all Fusarium spp. A new TaqMan real-time PCR assay specific for F. coeruleum was developed, which successfully identified Norwegian isolates. This and other previously developed real-time PCR assays targeting different Fusarium species were evaluated for their ability to detect latent infections in potatoes at harvest. This study provides new information on the current occurrence of different Fusarium species causing Fusarium dry rot in potatoes in Europe including areas far into the arctic in the north of Norway.

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Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used to study the genetic variation among 80 F. verticillioides isolates from kernels of Ethiopian maize, collected from 20 different maize growing areas in four geographic regions. A total of 213 polymorphic fragments were obtained using six EcoRI/MseI primer combinations. Analysis of the data based on all 213 polymorphic AFLP fragments revealed high level of genetic variation in the F. verticillioides entities in Ethiopia. About 58% of the fragments generated were polymorphic. The genetic similarity among F. verticillioides isolates varied from 46% to 94% with a mean Dice similarity of 73%. Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Average (UPGMA) analysis revealed two main groups and four subgroups. The principal coordinate analysis (PCO) also displayed two main groups that agreed with the results of UPGMA analysis, and there was no clear pattern of clustering of isolates according to geographic origin. Analysis of molecular variance: (AMOVA) showed that only 1.5% of the total genetic variation was between geographic regions, while 98.5% was among isolates from the same geographic regions of Ethiopia. Eighty distinct haplotypes were recognized among the 80 isolates analyzed. Hence, breeding efforts should concentrate on quantitative resistance that is effective against all genotypes of the pathogen.

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Lack of resistance to pink snow mould (Microdochium nivale) is a major constraint for adaptation of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) to continental regions with long-lasting snow cover at higher latitudes. Almost all investigations of genetic variation in resistance have been performed using cold acclimated plants. However, there may be variation in resistance mechanisms that are functioning independently of cold acclimation. In this study our aim was to identify candidate genes involved in such resistance mechanisms. We first characterized variation in resistance to M. nivale among non-acclimated genotypes from the Norwegian cultivar ‘Fagerlin’ based on relative regrowth and fungal quantification by real-time qPCR. One resistant and one susceptible genotype were selected for transcriptome analysis using paired-end sequencing by Illumina Hiseq 2000. Transcriptome profiles, GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis indicate that defense response related genes are differentially expressed between the resistant and the susceptible genotype. A significant up-regulation of defense related genes, as well as genes involved in cell wall cellulose metabolic processes and aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity, was observed in the resistant genotype. The candidate genes identified in this study might be potential molecular marker resources for breeding perennial ryegrass cultivars with improved resistance to pink snow mould.

Sammendrag

Bakterien Xanthomonas fragariae kan gjøre stor skade på jordbærplanter. Den ødelegger bladene, og kan i tillegg gi stygge, skjemmende flekker på begerbladene slik at kvaliteten på bærene blir dårlig. Sjukdommen har hittil ikke blitt påvist i Norge. I mange land med stor jordbærproduksjon har sjukdommen mange ganger ført til store tap. For å dokumentere status for Xanthomonas fragariae i Norge ble det på oppdrag av Mattilsynet gjennomført en landsomfattende kartleggingsundersøkelse i 2013 og 2014. Oppfølging av OK programmet i 2015 la først og fremst vekt på grundig testing innen planteproduksjon av jordbær. I tillegg ble det tatt prøver fra virksomheter som driver forskning og foredling innen jordbær. Det ble sendt inn og analysert totalt 92 prøver fra Mattilsynets kontorer for Region Stor-Oslo, Region Øst, Region Midt og Region Sør-Vest. Alle prøver ble undersøkt med de internasjonalt anbefalte og anerkjente analysemetodene immunofluorescens og real-time PCR.Xanthomonas fragariae ble ikke påvist i noen av prøvene. Det er derfor grunn til å anta at denne skadegjøreren ikke finnes i Norge.

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Sammendrag

Fusarium species causing maize kernel rot are major threats to maize production, due to reduction in yield as well as contamination of kernels by mycotoxins that poses a health risk to humans and animals. Two-hundred maize kernel samples, collected from 20 major maize growing areas in Ethiopia were analyzed for the identity, species composition and prevalence of Fusarium species and fumonisin contamination. On average, 38 % (range: 16 to 68 %) of maize kernels were found to be contaminated by different fungal species. Total of eleven Fusarium spp. were identified based on morphological characteristics and by sequencing the partial region of translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1α) gene. Fusarium verticillioides was the dominant species associated with maize kernels (42 %), followed by F. graminearum species complex (22.5 %) and F. pseudoanthophilium (13.4 %). The species composition and prevalence of Fusarium species differed among the areas investigated. Fusarium species composition was as many as eight and as few as four in some growing area. The majority of the maize samples (77 %) were found positive for fumonisin, with concentrations ranging from 25 μg kg−1 to 4500 μg kg−1 (mean: 348 μg kg−1 and median: 258 μg kg−1). Slight variation in fumonisin concentration was also observed among areas. Overall results indicate widespread occurrence of several Fusarium species and contamination by fumonisin mycotoxins. These findings are useful for intervention measures to reduce the impact of the main fungal species and their associated mycotoxins, by creating awareness and implementation of good agricultural practices.

Sammendrag

De siste ti årene er det i Norge, som i mange andre land, observert store skader på trær og andre planter både i grøntanlegg og naturområder etter angrep av planteskadegjørere innen slekten Phytophthora. Spredningen og sjukdomsomfanget viser med all tydelighet at arter av Phytophthora har et stort skadepotensiale og må tas på største alvor.

Sammendrag

Bakterien Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni kan gi stor skade i planter av Prunus slekten, især plomme. Bakterien har ikke vært påvist i Norge før denne kartleggingen ble gjennomført. Målsettingen var å dokumentere status for denne skadegjøreren i plantemateriale av plomme, både i import og i norsk produksjon. Mattilsynet har organisert prøveuttaket. Det ble fra og med desember 2014 og ut 2015 totalt sendt inn 799 prøver for analyse, 49 av dem viste seg å inneholde smitte av bakterien Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni. Bakterien ble påvist i 38 importprøver av plomme (grunnstammer fra Nederland) og 11 prøver fra norske planteprodusenter (nasjonal kartlegging). Dette tilsvarer en infeksjonsgrad av 15% i importprøvene og av 2% i prøver fra nasjonal kartlegging. Kun ett funn ble gjort i Prunus lauroceracus, 48 derimot i Prunus domestica.

Sammendrag

A survey of nematodes associated with terrestrial slugs was conducted for the first time in Norway. A total of 611 terrestrial slugs were collected from 32 sample sites. Slugs were identified by means of morphological examination, dissection of genitalia and molecular analysis using mitochondrial DNA. Twelve slug species were identified, representing four different slug families. Internal nematodes were identified by means of morphological analysis and the sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene. Of the sample sites studied, 62.5% were found to be positive for nematode parasites, with 18.7% of all slugs discovered being infected. Five nematode species were identified in this study: Alloionema appendiculatum, Agfa flexilis, Angiostoma limacis, Angiostoma sp. and Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita. Of these species, only one nematode was previously undescribed (Angiostoma sp.). This is the first record of the presence of A. appendiculatum, A. flexilis and A. limacis in Norway.

Sammendrag

The plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium langsethiae produces the highly potent mycotoxins HT-2 and T-2. Since these toxins are frequently detected at high levels in oat grain lots, they pose a considerable risk for food and feed safety in Norway, as well as in other north European countries. To reduce the risk of HT-2/T- 2-contaminated grain lots to enter the food and feed chain, it is important to identify factors that influence F. langsethiae infection and mycotoxin development in oats. However, the epidemiology of F. langsethiae is unclear. A three-year survey was performed to reveal more of the life cycle of F. langsethiae and its interactions with oats, other Fusarium species, as well as insects, mites and weeds. We searched for inoculum sources by quantifying the amount of F. langsethiae DNA in weeds, crop residues, and soil, sampled from a predetermined selection of oat-fields. To be able to define the onset of infection, we analysed the amount of F. langsethiae DNA in oat plant material sampled at selected growth stages (between booting and maturation), as well as the amount of F. langsethiae DNA and HT-2 and T-2 toxins in the mature grain. We also studied the presence of possible insect- and mite vectors sampled at the selected growth stages using Berlese funnel traps. All the different types of materials were also analysed for the presence F. graminearum DNA, the most important deoxynivalenol producer observed in Norwegian cereals, and which presence has shown a striking lack of correlation with the presence F. langsethiae in oat. Preliminary results show that F. langsethiae DNA may occur in the oat plant before heading and flowering. Some F. langsethiae DNA was observed in crop residues and weeds, though at relatively low levels. More results from this work will be presented at the meeting.

Sammendrag

The plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium langsethiae produces the highly potent mycotoxins HT-2 and T-2. Since these toxins are frequently detected at high levels in oat grain lots, they pose a considerable risk for food and feed safety in Norway, as well as in other north European countries. To reduce the risk of HT-2/T- 2-contaminated grain lots to enter the food and feed chain, it is important to identify factors that influence F. langsethiae infection and mycotoxin development in oats. However, the epidemiology of F. langsethiae is unclear. A three-year survey was performed to reveal more of the life cycle of F. langsethiae and its interactions with oats, other Fusarium species, as well as insects, mites and weeds. We searched for inoculum sources by quantifying the amount of F. langsethiae DNA in weeds, crop residues, and soil, sampled from a predetermined selection of oat-fields. To be able to define the onset of infection, we analysed the amount of F. langsethiae DNA in oat plant material sampled at selected growth stages (between booting and maturation), as well as the amount of F. langsethiae DNA and HT-2 and T-2 toxins in the mature grain. We also studied the presence of possible insect- and mite vectors sampled at the selected growth stages using Berlese funnel traps. All the different types of materials were also analysed for the presence F. graminearum DNA, the most important deoxynivalenol producer observed in Norwegian cereals, and which presence has shown a striking lack of correlation with the presence F. langsethiae in oat. Preliminary results show that F. langsethiae DNA may occur in the oat plant before heading and flowering. Some F. langsethiae DNA was observed in crop residues and weeds, though at relatively low levels. More results from this work will be presented at the meeting.

Sammendrag

The woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) has become the model plant for the economically important, but genetically complex, octoploid F. × ananassa. Crown rot caused by the oomycete Phytophthora cactorum is a major problem for the strawberry industry and the identification and incorporation of efficient resistance genes into superior cultivars are important for breeding. In the present study, two experimental populations were used in inoculation experiments under controlled greenhouse condition. Studies of a sparse diallel cross between resistant and susceptible F. vesca genotypes concluded that resistance to crown rot is inherited as a dominant trait under nuclear control. Subsequently, an F2 population derived from the grandparents Bukammen (resistant) and Haugastøl 3 (susceptible) collected in Norway, were phenotyped in infection experiments and genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing. A 416.2-cM linkage map was constructed, and a single major gene locus was identified on linkage group 6 that we attributed to resistance to Phytopthora infection. We propose to name the resistance locus RPc-1 (Resistance to Phytophthora cactorum 1). Gene prediction of the 3.3 Mb QTL recovered 801 genes of which 69 had a potential role in plant disease resistance.

Sammendrag

Pythium species are fungal-like organisms distributed all over the world. Most Pythium spp. live as saprophytes, but some of them are pathogenic. Here we report on disease incidence in Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings caused by Pythium undulatum, and pathogenicity in vitro of Norwegian isolates of P. undulatum and P. anandrum.

Sammendrag

Initial sources of inoculum of Phytophthora infestans were investigated in ten potato fields with early outbreaks of potato late blight. Infected plant samples and isolates from these fields were examined with respect to mating type prevalence, fungicide resistance and genotypes based on microsatellites A high proportion (91 %) of the isolates recovered were of mating type A1. However, both mating types were found in 3 of 9 fields with more than one isolate recovered, and sometimes both mating types were found on the same plant. Most of the isolates recovered from fields treated with metalaxyl-M prior to sampling had reduced sensitivity or were resistant to metalaxyl-M, and most of the isolates recovered form fields without metalaxyl treatment were sensitive. The isolates recovered from fields treated with propamocarb prior to sampling had a higher frequency of reduced sensitivity to propamocarb than isolates from fields without propamocarb treatment. We found that most plants contained more than one P. infestans SSR-genotype. Clustering analysis of the infected samples revealed that most samples clustered together according to fields. By combining information from P. infestans isolates and DNA extracts from the leaf lesions we found examples of both mating type A1 and A2 having the same multilocus genotype. This result indicates that both of these genotypes have a common ancestor, hence the inoculum originates from oospores. Although this a minor study of only 10 fields with a limited amount of isolates and plant samples, the results indicate oospores in the soil is an inoculum source. Hence the forecasting model to predict outbreaks of potato late blight should be modified to include this.

Sammendrag

In 2008, an epidemic caused by a new Neonectria sp. was discovered on white fir (Abies concolor) in several counties in southern Norway [1]. Later the pathogen was also found on other fir species in Norway and Denmark [2]. Typical symptoms and signs were dead shoots, flagging (dead branches), canker wounds, heavy resin flow, and occasionally red fruiting bodies (perithecia). Pathogenicity tests on several Abies spp. proved the fungus to be very aggressive, which corresponds well with observations of mortality of white fir and subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa) from different age classes under field conditions. Sequencing of the internal transcribed regions (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA showed that this Neonectria sp. was most similar to N. ditissima (only 5 bp different from isolates in the GenBank), a common pathogen worldwide on broad leaf trees. The ITS sequences were very different (> 20 bp) from N. fuckeliana, a well-known fungus on Norway spruce in Scandinavia and other parts of the world, especially in the northern hemisphere. In 2011, the new Neonectria species was found on diseased trees in a Danish nordmann fir (Abies nordmanniana) seed orchard. Resin flow was seen from mature cones, and tests revealed that the seeds were infected by the Neonectria sp.

Sammendrag

I Bergen, Haugesund, Stavanger og Larvik har vi funne typiske Phytophthora-symptom på bøk (Fagus sylvatica). Ordet Phytophthora tyder planteøydeleggjar (phyto =plante, phthora=øydeleggjar) og skadeorganismar i denne slekta kan ta livet av store tre på relativt kort tid. På verdsbasis spreier Phytophthora-artar seg stadig til nye lokalitetar og vertplanter. Dette skuldast i stor grad internasjonal handel med planter. Det fins over 100 ulike Phytophthora-artar, og mange av dei er svært aggressive og har eit vidt vertplantespekter. Generelt trivest dei best i fuktig jord og vatn, men dei har også tjukkvegga sporar (oosporar) som kan overleva i årevis i jord under ugunstige tilhøve for patogenet. Så langt har vi isolert P. cambivora og P. plurivora frå bøk i Noreg. Begge artane er kjende som skadegjerarar på bøk i parkar og skogplantasjar i mange land i Europa og USA og vert sett på som ein stor trus¬sel mot naturområde.

Sammendrag

Danmark vart det i vekstsesongen 2011 funne til dels store skadar på fjelledelgran på grunn av ein kreftsopp i slekta Neonectria. Soppen er truleg ein ny art og har tidlegare berre vore rapportert frå Noreg. Typiske symptom var visne greiner og sterk kvaeutflod. Nokre tre hadde dauda heilt ned. Smitteforsøk stadfesta at soppen var svært aggressiv.

Sammendrag

Tidlig på våren i 2012 ble det observert døde og døende trær av gråor i vannkanten langs Årungen i Ås kommune (Akershus). På stammene var det tjærefargede flekker, et symptom som gjerne forbindes med angrep av plantepa¬togene arter innen slekten Phytophthora. Fram til 1990-tallet var det ikke kjent at Phytophthora kunne angripe or, men i 1993 ble dette oppdaget i England, hvor tusenvis av oretrær har blitt ødelagt av denne sjukdomsorganismen. Det er en egen art, Phytophthora alni, som angriper or. Den er senere funnet i mange europeiske land og i Nord-Amerika. I august 2012 påviste vi P. alni for første gang i Norge på prøver fra gråor ved Årungen.

Sammendrag

I bøkeskogen i Larvik vart det i 2012 påvist Phytophthora-skade på fleire tre. I samband med ny E18 forbi Larvik må store mengder masse flyttast, noko som kan spreia Phytophthora spp. til nye område dersom massen inneheld Phytophthora spp. Statens vegvesen bad difor Bioforsk i 2012 om ei kartlegging av evt. Phytophthora-smitte i anleggsområdet, noko som resulterte i funn av fleire Phytophthora-artar. Aktuelle tiltak vert diskutert i rapporten.

Sammendrag

Internasjonal handel med plantemateriale spreier ulike skadeorganismar, noko som har store, negative konsekvensar for plantehelsa verda over. Spesielt hytophthora-artar har stort skadepotensiale og hadde difor hovudfokus i dette prosjektet. I fleire norske grøntanlegg har det vorte funne omfattande angrep av P. ramorum på rododendron , ein skadegjerar som har ført til epidemi ar på skog både i USA og England. I England er no om lag 3 million ar japanlerk (Larix kaempferi) felt på grunn av P. ramorum. I prosjektet Grøntanleggshygiene i 2011 fann vi P. ramorum i ei elv som renn gjennom Bryne sentrum og i ein bekk ved Gamlehaugen i Bergen. Vatn kan føra smitten med seg, så denne organismen er truleg spreidd langt utover grøntanlegg. Med eit klima langs vestlandskysten som liknar det ein har på vestkysten av England, kan vi ikkje utelukka at vi kan koma til å få epidemiske utbrot i skog-og naturområde også her i landet. I prosjektet fann vi også fleire andre Phytophthora-artar i vatn. I bøkeskogen i Larvik påviste vi angrep av P. cambivora, ein art som gjer stor skade på bøk mellom anna i Sverige. Vidare kartlegging og overvaking må difor ha høg prioritet framover.

Sammendrag

Tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid ble nylig påvist i et tomatgartneri i Rogaland. Påvisning av viroid som skadegjører i tomat representerer noe nytt for plantehelsesituasjonen i Norge. Til tross for at dette viroidet ikke står på karante¬nelister, har det blitt rapportert om store skader ved angrep i veksthus i andre europeiske land. De siste 10 årene har det blitt klart at mange viroid opptrer latent i prydplanter, og at mange av de samme viroidene kan forårsake sterke symptomer og skade i tomat. De to viktigste spredningsveiene inn til tomatveksthusene er kontaktsmitte fra prydplanter som ikke viser symptomer, og frøsmitte.

Sammendrag

I juli 2010 ble bakteriekreft funnet på hestekastanje (Aesculus hippocastanum) i Rogaland. Sykdommen skyldes Pseudomonas syringae pv. aesculi. Bakterien er påvist på hestekastanje i en rekke Europeiske land. Angrep fører til visning i kronen og blødende sår på stamme og grener. I alvorlige tilfeller dør trærne.