Arne Stensvand

Seniorforsker

(+47) 911 83 430
arne.stensvand@nibio.no

Sted
Ås - Bygg H7

Besøksadresse
Høgskoleveien 7, 1433 Ås

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Introduction and purpose: The ability of apple rootstocks to become infected by Neonectria ditissima, the cause of European canker, was studied over two years. Materials and methods: Rootstocks B9 and M9 with a size suitable for grafting (6-10 mm stem diameter, termed rootstocks), and smaller sized rootstocks (<5 mm stem diameter, termed transplants) of B9, M9, M26, MM106 and Antonovka were inoculated with N. ditissima at different times, either with contaminated map pins or with spore suspensions. In addition, the rootstocks were either defeathered (side shoots removed), topped (top shoot headed) or both, to create wounds that would normally occur during propagation, while wounds on transplants were made by removing leaves. Results and discussion: One month after inoculation, slightly sunken canker lesions had developed around the inoculation points of the map pins or wounds. No lesions developed on the non-inoculated controls. Map pin inoculation resulted in 30% to 89% infection and spore suspension sprayed on wounds from 5% to 45% infection. When the cankered areas were split open, brown lesions with necrotic tissue due to infection by N. ditissima appeared. The transplants of M9, M26 and MM106 inoculated with contaminated map pins in 2014 developed necrosis on 40% to 67% of the plants, but there were no differences in the incidence or severity among the different types. On the transplants of B9, Antonovka and M9 inoculated in 2015, there was more necrosis on B9 (42%) than on Antonovka (11%) and more sporulating lesions on B9 (29%) than on M9 (9%) or on Antonovka (4%). Conclusion: It can be concluded that rootstocks used for apple trees may become infected by N. ditissima, and wounds should thus be protected during propagation.

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Cultivars and cultivating methods for organic strawberry production were studied in experiments in open fields and high plastic tunnels during four cropping seasons in southern Norway. In open fields, flowers and fruits were attacked by grey mould when the flowering and harvest seasons were wet, and marketable yield was reduced by up to 20%. Production in high tunnels showed a potential of high yields of fruits of good quality when strawberry powdery mildew was controlled. Berry size varied significantly among the cultivars. ‘Frida’ had the largest fruits followed by ‘Sonata’ and ‘Florence’, while ‘Polka’, ‘Korona’ and ‘Iris’ had the smallest fruits. All cultivars yielded well, but due to fruit decay caused by grey mould the marketable yield was significantly reduced, especially in open field. Grey mould was the most important factor influencing marketable yields. Fruits from matted rows were largest, while the highest yield was obtained on woven polyethylene. There were no effects of mulching methods on marketable yield or the amount of fruits with grey mould. High tunnels with good control of pests and diseases showed a potential of high and stable yields of good quality.

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Nighttime ultraviolet (UV) radiation, if applied properly, has a significant potential for management of powdery mildews in many crop species. In this study, the role of growth light duration, irradiance, a combination of both (daily light integral) and light spectral quality (blue or red) on the efficacy of UV treatments against powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii and the growth performance of cucumber plants was studied in growth chambers. Increasing daily light integral provided by high-pressure sodium lamps (HPS) decreased efficacy of nighttime UV treatments against P. xanthii, but it increased plant growth. Furthermore, the efficacy of nighttime UV decreased when day length was increased from 16 to 20 h at a constant daily light integral. The efficacy of nighttime UV increased if red light was applied after UV treatment, showing the possibility of day length extension without reducing the effect of UV. Increasing the dose of blue light during daytime reduced the efficacy of nighttime UV in controlling the disease, whereas blue deficient growth light (< 6% of blue) caused UV mediated curling of young leaves. Furthermore, application of blue light after nighttime UV reduced its disease control efficacy. This showed the importance of maintaining a minimum of blue light in the growth light before nighttime UV treatment. Findings from this study showed that optimization of nighttime UV for management of powdery mildew is dependent on the spectral composition of the photosynthetically active radiation.

Sammendrag

Production of inoculum of Colletotrichum acutatum from both previously infected and overwintered tissue, as well as newly developed plant tissue of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), was studied in southern Norway. Plant parts were sampled from commercial, private, or research orchards, and incubated for 2 to 14 days (time depended on tissue type) in saturated air at 20°C. In early spring, abundant sporulation was found on scales of overwintered buds and shoots. A mean of 35% infected buds in four cultivars was observed, with a maximum of 72% of the buds infected in one of the samples. Over 3 years, the seasonal production of overwintered fruit and peduncles of cv. Fanal infected the previous year was investigated. In all three years, the infected plant material was placed in the trees throughout the winter and the following growing season; in two of the years, fruit and peduncles were also placed on the ground in the autumn or the following spring. Old fruit and peduncles formed conidia throughout the season, with a peak in May and June. Spore numbers declined over the season, but the decline was more rapid for plant material on the ground than in the trees. On average over 2 years, 68.7, 24.0, or 7.3% of the inoculum came from fruit placed in the trees, placed on the ground in spring, or placed on the ground the preceding autumn, respectively. The number of fruit and peduncles attached to the trees in a planting of cv. Hardangerkirsebær was followed from February to July one year, and although there was a decline over time, fruit and/or their peduncles were still attached in substantial numbers in July, thus illustrating their potential as sources of inoculum. In observations over 2 years in a heavily infected orchard of cv. Stevnsbær, 75 and 47% of flowers and newly emerged fruit, respectively, were infected. Artificially inoculated flowers and fruit produced conidia until harvest, with a peak in mid-July. It may be concluded that previously infected and overwintered, as well as newly emerged tissue of sour cherry, may serve as sources of inoculum of C. acutatum throughout the growing season.

Sammendrag

Det er per i dag påvist resistens eller nedsatt følsomhet mot kjemiske plantevernmidler hos flere skadedyr, plantepatogener og ugras i norske jord- og hagebrukskulturer. Hos skadedyr er resistens mot pyretroider og nedsatt følsomhet for tiakloprid vanlig hos rapsglansbille i oljevekster. Resistens mot pyretroider er påvist hos ferskenbladlus og potetsikade fra potet, gulrotsuger fra gulrot, ferskenbladlus fra persille, kålmøll og ferskenbladlus fra kålvekster, jordbærsnutebille fra jordbær, og ferskenbladlus, bomullsmellus, veksthusmellus og sør-amerikansk minerflue fra veksthus. Det er også funnet resistens mot pirimikarb hos ferskenbladlus og nedsatt følsomhet for imidakloprid hos ferskenbladlus og bomullsmellus. I jordbær og bringebær er det indikasjoner på begynnende resistensutvikling mot flere av middmidlene. Hos plantepatogener er resistens mot QoI-fungicider påvist hos gråskimmel fra jordbær, bringebær og gran i skogplanteskoler, hos mjøldoggsopper i jordbær og veksthusagurk, og hos bladflekksopper i hvete. Resistens mot triazoler er funnet i flere bladflekksopper i hvete. Resistens mot hydroksyanilid- og SDHI-er utbredt hos gråskimmel fra jordbær og bringebær, og i skogplanteskoler er det påvist resistens mot tiofanater.....

Sammendrag

På grunn av uventa avlingssvikt i jordbær forårsaket av gråskimmel på Sørlandet i 2016, ble det tatt ut prøver fra 20 jordbærfelt i Agder etter høsting for å undersøke mulig resistensforekomst hos gråskimmelsoppen mot kjemiske soppmidler. Totalt ble 148 til 157 soppisolater fra 19 felt analysert for resistens mot alle de kjemiske gruppene av virksomme stoffer som brukes mot gråskimmel; boskalid (SDHI), fenheksamid (hydroksyanilid), iprodion (dikarboksimid), pyrimetanil (anilinopyrimidin) og pyraklostrobin (QoI/strobilurin). Vi fant at 89,7, 86,0 og 65,0 % av isolatene var resistente mot henholdsvis boskalid, pyraklostrobin og fenheksamid. Videre var 25,0 % resistente mot pyrimetanil og 2,6 % resistente mot iprodion, mens ingen av soppisolatene var resistente mot fludioksonil. Kun 8,9 % av soppisolatene var sensitive overfor alle de virksomme stoffene, mens 5,1 % var resistente mot ett stoff (kjemisk gruppe). De øvrige isolatene var multiresistente mot to (21,0 %), tre (43,9 %), fire (19,1 %) og fem (1,9 %) virksomme stoffer. Resulatene stemmer godt med tidligere funn både i Norge og andre land. Høy grad av resistens mot boskalid, fenheksamid og pyraklostrobin er alvorlig, fordi disse har vært svært viktige for å bekjempe gråskimmel i jordbær. Dårlig virkning av disse midlene kan gjøre bekjempelse av gråskimmel framover svært vanskelig for produsentene. Det er viktig å understreke at det var relativt stor variasjon i resistensforkomst mellom de ulike jordbærfeltene, og at det er mange andre faktorer i tillegg til resistens (som værforhold, sprøyteteknikk og dyrkingssystem) som vil påvirke hvor mye avlingstap gråskimmel forårsaker.

Sammendrag

Fungi within the Colletotrichum acutatum species complex occur asymptomatically on plant parts of many different plant species. Leaves from apple orchards in southern Norway were sampled, frozen for five hours and incubated for six days to reveal presence of asymptomatic infections of C. acutatum. Number of leaves (incidence) and leaf area covered (severity) with conidial masses of C. acutatum were assessed biweekly on cv. Aroma from late May to late September during three growing seasons. The first finding of conidial masses occurred in the second half of July, and there was a higher incidence occurring in August and September. Sampling of leaves from fruit spurs and vegetative shoots of cvs. Aroma and Elstar showed that conidial masses of C. acutatum developed on leaves on both shoot types, and there was no difference in incidence between these two types. The fungus was detected on leaves from six of eight commercial orchards of cv. Aroma over three years, with a mean incidence of 5.5 %. After storage, bitter rot was found on apple fruit from all eight orchards. There was no correlation between incidence of conidial masses of C. acutatum on leaves and on fruit. In all orchards and seasons investigated, incidence and severity on leaves varied from 0 to 67%and 0 to 85 %, respectively. The discovery of apple leaves containing conidial masses of C. acutatum clearly indicate for leaves as a potential source of inoculum for fruit infections.

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Oidium neolycopersici, the cause of powdery mildew in tomato, was exposed to UV radiation from 250 to 400 nm for 1, 12, or 24 min. Radiation ≤ 280 nm strongly reduced conidial germination, hyphal expansion, penetration attempt and infection of O. neolycopersici. From 290 to 310 nm the effect depended on duration of exposure, while there was no effect ≥310 nm. There were no significant differences within the effective UV range (250–280 nm). Conidial germination on a water agar surface was b20% or around 40%, respectively, if samples were exposed for 1 min within the effective UV range followed by 24 h or 48 h incubation. Twelve or 24 min exposure reduced germination to close to nil. A similar trend occurred for germination of conidia on leaf disks on water agar in Petri dishes. The effective UV range significantly reduced all subsequent developmental stages of O. neolycopersici. There was no cytoplasmic mitochondrial streaming in conidia exposed to the effective UV range, indicating that there may be a direct effect via cell cycle arrest. There was no indication of reactive oxygen species involvement in UV mediated inhibition of O. neolycopersici. Optical properties of O. neolycopersici indicat- ed that the relative absorption of UV was high within the range of 250 to 320 nm, and very low within the range of 340 to 400 nm. Identification of UV wavelengths effective against O. neolycopersici provides a future basis for precise disease control.

Sammendrag

Effects of controlled atmosphere (CA) conditions on physiological disorders and fungal fruit decay on apple ‘Aroma’ were investigated. Fruit from three growing seasons were stored at 1% or 2% O2 (both at 2% CO2) at either 1°C or 3°C in small research units; controls were kept in the same ventilated rooms at the two temperatures (ambient air). The fruit were removed from storage after four or six months and assessed for fruit decay immediately afterwards and after two weeks at 20°C. Fruit quality parameters were recorded at the end of storage. On a three-year average, fruit stored in CA was less ripe at the end of storage. After both four and six months storage, CA reduced total decay (physiological disorders and fungal decay) by on average 70% and 45%, respectively, compared to storage in ambient air. Senescent breakdown was lower after CA storage for four months, but not after six months and not after simulated shelf life. Soft scald was lower when stored in CA both after cold storage at 1°C and simulated shelf life. After storage at 3°C there was lower incidence of soft scald when stored in CA after four months, but not after six months. For fungal fruit decay in general, there was no effect of low oxygen, however, 2% O2 gave slightly less bitter rot (Colletotrichum acutatum) than 1% O2 and significantly less than ambient air after simulated shelf life. Averaged over all oxygen levels, 1°C gave significantly less bitter rot than 3°C. It may be concluded that use of CA for storage of ‘Aroma’ is a good way of reducing development of physiological disorders. However, development of bitter rot seemed to be more influenced by temperature and storage time than by low O2.

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Sammendrag

Disease-suppressive effects of nighttime applications of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) were investigated at two irradiance levels (1.6 or 0.8 W/m2) in strawberry and rosemary plants inoculated with Podosphaera aphanis or Golovinomyces biocellatus, respectively. Plants were exposed to each irradiance level every third night for either 9 or 18 min, every night for either 3 or 6 min, or three times every night for either 1 or 2 min. Thus, over time, all plants received the same cumulative dose of UV-B, and severity of powdery mildew was reduced by 90 to 99% compared with untreated controls in both crops. Use of polished aluminum lamp reflectors and UV-B reflective surfaces on greenhouse benches significantly increased treatment efficacy. An automated apparatus consisting of an adjustable boom with directed airflow was used to move UV-B lamps over greenhouse benches at 25 or 50 cm/min. Directed airflow moved leaves on the subtending plants to better expose upper and lower surfaces to UV-B but directed airflow actually decreased the efficacy of UV-B treatments, possibly by dispersing conidia from lesions before they were exposed to a lethal dose of UV-B. Results indicate broad applicability of nighttime applications of UV-B to suppress powdery mildews, and that cumulative UV-B dose is an overriding factor determining efficacy. Finally, enhanced suppression on shaded or obscured tissues is more likely to be affected by reflective bench surfaces than through attempts to physically manipulate the foliage.

Sammendrag

Forsøksresultatene som presenteres i denne rapporten er biologisk godkjenningsprøving av soppmidler utført på oppdrag fra Mattilsynet i 2014. Inkludert i rapporten er også forsøk eller egne forsøksledd som grupperes som biologisk utviklingsprøving. Forsøkene er utført etter GEP-kvalitet1 hvis ikke annet er nevnt. Dette innebærer at det er utarbeidet skriftlige prosedyrer for nesten alle arbeidsprosesser. Disse prosedyrene, kalt standardforskrifter (SF’er), er samlet i en kvalitetshåndbok. Denne er delt ut til alle personer som arbeider med utprøving av plantevernmidler. De samme personene har også vært med på et endagskurs i GEP-arbeid.

Sammendrag

In 2008, an epidemic caused by a new Neonectria sp. was discovered on white fir (Abies concolor) in several counties in southern Norway [1]. Later the pathogen was also found on other fir species in Norway and Denmark [2]. Typical symptoms and signs were dead shoots, flagging (dead branches), canker wounds, heavy resin flow, and occasionally red fruiting bodies (perithecia). Pathogenicity tests on several Abies spp. proved the fungus to be very aggressive, which corresponds well with observations of mortality of white fir and subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa) from different age classes under field conditions. Sequencing of the internal transcribed regions (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA showed that this Neonectria sp. was most similar to N. ditissima (only 5 bp different from isolates in the GenBank), a common pathogen worldwide on broad leaf trees. The ITS sequences were very different (> 20 bp) from N. fuckeliana, a well-known fungus on Norway spruce in Scandinavia and other parts of the world, especially in the northern hemisphere. In 2011, the new Neonectria species was found on diseased trees in a Danish nordmann fir (Abies nordmanniana) seed orchard. Resin flow was seen from mature cones, and tests revealed that the seeds were infected by the Neonectria sp.

Sammendrag

I Bergen, Haugesund, Stavanger og Larvik har vi funne typiske Phytophthora-symptom på bøk (Fagus sylvatica). Ordet Phytophthora tyder planteøydeleggjar (phyto =plante, phthora=øydeleggjar) og skadeorganismar i denne slekta kan ta livet av store tre på relativt kort tid. På verdsbasis spreier Phytophthora-artar seg stadig til nye lokalitetar og vertplanter. Dette skuldast i stor grad internasjonal handel med planter. Det fins over 100 ulike Phytophthora-artar, og mange av dei er svært aggressive og har eit vidt vertplantespekter. Generelt trivest dei best i fuktig jord og vatn, men dei har også tjukkvegga sporar (oosporar) som kan overleva i årevis i jord under ugunstige tilhøve for patogenet. Så langt har vi isolert P. cambivora og P. plurivora frå bøk i Noreg. Begge artane er kjende som skadegjerarar på bøk i parkar og skogplantasjar i mange land i Europa og USA og vert sett på som ein stor trus¬sel mot naturområde.

Sammendrag

Norsk juletreproduksjon har de siste årene hatt stor vekst, og det har spesielt blitt satset på edelgran (Abies spp.). Dette har ført til uforutsette sykdomsproblemer. Blant annet gjør soppen Sydowia polyspora, som også har vist seg å være frøoverført, stor skade. Vi har i den forbindelse forsøkt å finne effektive metoder for å eliminere frøsmitten samtidig som spireevnen opprettholdes.

Sammendrag

Forsøksresultatene som presenteres i denne rapporten er biologisk godkjenningsprøving av soppmidler utført på oppdrag fra Mattilsynet i 2012. Inkludert i rapporten er også forsøk eller egne forsøksledd som grupperes som biologisk utviklingsprøving. Forsøkene er utført etter GEP-kvalitet1 hvis ikke annet er nevnt. Dette innebærer at det er utarbeidet skriftlige prosedyrer for nesten alle arbeidsprosesser. Disse prosedyrene, kalt standardforskrifter (SF’er), er samlet i en kvalitetshåndbok. Denne er delt ut til alle personer som arbeider med utprøving av plantevernmidler. De samme personene har også vært med på et endagskurs i GEP-arbeid.

Sammendrag

Danmark vart det i vekstsesongen 2011 funne til dels store skadar på fjelledelgran på grunn av ein kreftsopp i slekta Neonectria. Soppen er truleg ein ny art og har tidlegare berre vore rapportert frå Noreg. Typiske symptom var visne greiner og sterk kvaeutflod. Nokre tre hadde dauda heilt ned. Smitteforsøk stadfesta at soppen var svært aggressiv.

Sammendrag

Tidlig på våren i 2012 ble det observert døde og døende trær av gråor i vannkanten langs Årungen i Ås kommune (Akershus). På stammene var det tjærefargede flekker, et symptom som gjerne forbindes med angrep av plantepatogene arter innen slekten Phytophthora. Fram til 1990-tallet var det ikke kjent at Phytophthora kunne angripe or, men i 1993 ble dette oppdaget i England, hvor tusenvis av oretrær har blitt ødelagt av denne sjukdomsorganismen. Det er en egen art, Phytophthora alni, som angriper or. Den er senere funnet i mange europeiske land og i Nord-Amerika. I august 2012 påviste vi P. alni for første gang i Norge på prøver fra gråor ved Årungen.

Sammendrag

Tidlig på våren i 2012 ble det observert døde og døende trær av gråor i vannkanten langs Årungen i Ås kommune (Akershus). På stammene var det tjærefargede flekker, et symptom som gjerne forbindes med angrep av plantepa¬togene arter innen slekten Phytophthora. Fram til 1990-tallet var det ikke kjent at Phytophthora kunne angripe or, men i 1993 ble dette oppdaget i England, hvor tusenvis av oretrær har blitt ødelagt av denne sjukdomsorganismen. Det er en egen art, Phytophthora alni, som angriper or. Den er senere funnet i mange europeiske land og i Nord-Amerika. I august 2012 påviste vi P. alni for første gang i Norge på prøver fra gråor ved Årungen.

Sammendrag

Internasjonal handel med plantemateriale spreier ulike skadeorganismar, noko som har store, negative konsekvensar for plantehelsa verda over. Spesielt hytophthora-artar har stort skadepotensiale og hadde difor hovudfokus i dette prosjektet. I fleire norske grøntanlegg har det vorte funne omfattande angrep av P. ramorum på rododendron , ein skadegjerar som har ført til epidemi ar på skog både i USA og England. I England er no om lag 3 million ar japanlerk (Larix kaempferi) felt på grunn av P. ramorum. I prosjektet Grøntanleggshygiene i 2011 fann vi P. ramorum i ei elv som renn gjennom Bryne sentrum og i ein bekk ved Gamlehaugen i Bergen. Vatn kan føra smitten med seg, så denne organismen er truleg spreidd langt utover grøntanlegg. Med eit klima langs vestlandskysten som liknar det ein har på vestkysten av England, kan vi ikkje utelukka at vi kan koma til å få epidemiske utbrot i skog-og naturområde også her i landet. I prosjektet fann vi også fleire andre Phytophthora-artar i vatn. I bøkeskogen i Larvik påviste vi angrep av P. cambivora, ein art som gjer stor skade på bøk mellom anna i Sverige. Vidare kartlegging og overvaking må difor ha høg prioritet framover.

Sammendrag

Sydowia polyspora is a pathogenic, seed borne fungus on conifers [1]. It is especially troublesome in the Christmas tree industry, where it causes current season needle necrosis (CSNN) on fir (Abies spp.). Needles get chlorotic spots or bands and in severe cases the entire needles turn necrotic and shed. The fungus also commonly kills current year shoots (Sclerophoma shoot dieback) on both fir and spruce (Picea spp.). The latter we proved on subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa) inoculated by S. polyspora from noble fir (Abies procera) seeds. Two conifer seed lots known from previous tests to contain a high percentage of S. polyspora were selected for a treatment experiment; alpine pine (Pinus mugo var. rotundata) and Noble fir. Both seed lots received the following five treatments; surface sterilized (10 sec. in 70 % ethanol plus 90 sec. in 0,5 % NaOCl), dipped in 15 % acidic acid, mixed with 0,36 gram Signum (boskalid and pyraklostrobin) per 100 gram seeds, mixed with 0,8 gram Mycostop (Streptomyces griseovirides) per 100 gram seeds, dipped in different concentrations of thyme oil (extracted from Thymus vulgaris), and control (no treatment). Based on the results we recommend Signum for conifer seed treatment. This fungicide controlled S. polyspora well and did not influence on the germination ability. Agricultural