Publications

NIBIOs employees contribute to several hundred scientific articles and research reports every year. You can browse or search in our collection which contains references and links to these publications as well as other research and dissemination activities. The collection is continously updated with new and historical material.

2021

To document

Abstract

Background: European canker, caused by Neonectria ditissima, is a disease of worldwide importance in apple production, yet knowledge about it is limited, highly regional and sometimes contradictory. This is an obstacle to successful disease management. Key aspects for Northern Europe are reviewed, based on research results from Northern Germany and Norway and on international literature data. Main topics: Trunk cankers developing on young trees within the frst 1–3 seasons of explanting can often be traced back to latent infections initiated in the nurseries. The most important nursery infection is a lateral canker on the main trunk of ‘knip’ trees, which are the standard tree type in Northern Europe. In strongly afected batches, up to 25% of trees have to be uprooted after the frst growing season due to such trunk cankers. The establishment and maintenance of healthy orchards requires clean nursery material, especially in the case of susceptible cultivars. In Northern Germany, infections within commercial orchards most often proceed through wounds caused by fruit picking or leaf fall in autumn, as shown by the appearance of cankers in the following spring and by the high efcacy of fungicide treatments at leaf fall. Ascospores, commonly thought to be relevant for long-distance spread of infections, are not released until the end of leaf fall even in wet autumn seasons in Northern Germany. Therefore, their role in the disease remains unclear. Strong nitrogen-induced vegetative growth favours apple canker. In feld trials conducted under conditions of current commercial practices, autumnal sprays with copper hydroxide or copper oxide were consistently more efcacious than copper oxychloride or captan in preventing new infections. Conclusions: Restricted fertilisation and other measures to curb excessive vegetative growth during the frst few years of an orchard, repeated canker pruning and well-timed treatments with efective fungicides in autumn are essential for IPM of apple canker. Nonetheless, canker remains capable of severely impairing the commercial success of susceptible cultivars in regions with wet climates even if all available measures are taken. This opens up long-term perspectives for the breeding of more resistant cultivars. Keywords: Ascospores, Canker pruning, Conidia, Copper hydroxide, Fertilisation, Fungicides, Latent infection, Neonectria ditissima, Nursery, Prohexadione calcium, Root pruning

Abstract

Many greenkeepers and authorities are concerned about the environmental risks resulting from pesticide use on golf courses. We studied leaching and surface runoff of fungicides and metabolites during two winter seasons after fall application of boscalid, pyraclostrobin, prothioconazole, trifloxystrobin and fludioxonil in field lysimeters at NIBIO Landvik, Norway. The applications were made on creeping bentgrass greens (5% slope) that had been established from seed or sod (26 mm mat) on USGA‐spec. root zones amended with Sphagnum peat or garden compost, both with 0.3‐0.4% organic carbon in the root zone. The proportions of the winter precipitation recovered as surface and drainage water varied from 3 and 91% in 2016‐17 to 33 and 55% in 2017‐18 due to differences in soil freezing, rainfall intensity and snow and ice cover. Detections of fungicides and their metabolites in drainage water were mostly within the Environmental Risk Limits (ERLs) for aquatic organisms. In contrast, concentrations in surface runoff exceeded ERLs by up to 1000 times. Greens established from sod usually had higher fungicide losses in surface runoff but lower losses in drainage water than greens established from seed. Presumably because of higher microbial activity and a higher pH that made prothioconazole‐desthio more polar, fungicide and metabolite losses in drainage water were usually higher from greens containing compost that from greens containing peat. Leaching of fungicides and metabolites occurred even from frozen greens. The results are discussed in a practical context aiming for reduced environmental risks from spraying fungicides against turfgrass winter diseases.

Abstract

In the Bramke valley (western Harz mountains, North Germany), three forested headwater catchments have been monitored since decades. A broad range of observables relevant to forestry, hydrology, hydrochemistry and ecosystem research allows to compare different approaches to environmental monitoring; each of them has its own set of relevant observables. The basic temporal resolution is daily for hydrometeorology and bi-weekly for streamwater chemistry; standing biomass of the Norway spruce stands is measured every couple of years. Tree growth (site index) has changed between and within rotation periods (of up to 129 years); changes in soil nutrient pools are typical variables used to explain this nonstationary forest growth when the spatial-temporal scales match. In hydrology, transport mechanisms of water and solutes through catchment soils are used to model and predict runoff and its chemistry. Given the homogeneity of the area in terms of geology, soils and topography as well as climate, differences between the catchments in the Bramke valley are mostly related to forestry variables. The catchments exhibit long-term changes and spatial gradients related to atmospheric deposition, management and changing climate. After providing a short multivariate summary of the dataset, we present several nonlinear metrics suitable to detect and quantify subtle changes and to describe different behavior, both between different variables from the same catchment, as well as for the same variable across catchments. Soil water potential and solution chemistry are further links between forestry and hydrology. However, at Lange Bramke, similar to other catchment studies, the evaluation of these data sets has not converged to a consistent, realistic model at the catchment scale. We hypothesize that this lack of model integration is due to theoretical rather than technical limits. A possible representation of these limits might be phrased in a category theory approach. How to cite: Hauhs, M., Meesenburg, H., and Lange, H.: Long-term monitoring of vegetation and hydrology in headwater catchments and the difficulties to embrace data-oriented and process-oriented approaches, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-7684, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-7684, 2021.