Publications

NIBIOs employees contribute to several hundred scientific articles and research reports every year. You can browse or search in our collection which contains references and links to these publications as well as other research and dissemination activities. The collection is continously updated with new and historical material.

2020

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Abstract

Meat demand is likely influenced by the birth cohort and age of the individual. In this study, we examine the demand for beef, pork, poultry, and other meat in the United States using the 1984–2012 Consumer Expenditure Survey and the almost ideal demand system with the incorporation of age, period, and cohort (APC) effects. We find that the model with APC effects performs better than the models without APC effects. The results indicate that cohorts born in earlier time periods are expected to purchase significantly less poultry compared to cohorts born in later time periods, when they are measured at the same age. Over the life cycle, purchase of poultry is expected to increase with age while the opposite is true for red meat. We also find that the own‐price elasticity for beef is highest among the products examined, while the own‐price elasticity for other meat is lowest and the inclusion of APC effects increases the absolute value of the own‐price elasticities for beef, pork, and poultry, but reduces the own‐price elasticity for other meat. Our forecasts indicate that the aggregate poultry purchase will continue to increase until 2022, while the aggregate purchase of red meat will slightly increase until 2017, but will either decrease or stay at same level from year 2017 to 2022.

Abstract

The commercial cultivation of marine macroalgae is a young and rapidly growing industry sector in Norway. Although it is currently limited to a few brown macroalgae, other species such as the green marine macroalga Ulva fenestrata (formerly Ulva lactuca) has also a high potential for an industrial biomass production, for example to be used for the food marked. However, this process is strongly affected by the presence of marine diatoms transported along with the seawater into the cultivation system of U. fenestrata. These diatoms not only proliferate in the water tanks, they also colonise the green macroalgal biomass with many brown spots, which reduces its value for the food marked significantly. This presentation shows the results of a project that studied the use of germanium dioxide (GeO2) as a known growth inhibitor of diatoms to control their contamination during the biomass production process of U. fenestrata. First, the co-occurring diatom was morphologically identified as Fragilaria sp. using light microscopy. Thereafter, a dose-response experiment was conducted to reveal the concentrations of GeO2, resulting in an effective growth inhibition of Fragilaria sp. Based on this knowledge, the impact of different GeO2 concentrations was studied on how the photophysiolgy (photosynthetic characteristics, pigment patterns) and growth of U. fenestrata are affected in both small-scale (2 L) and large-scale (100 L) cultivation systems. An effective control of the proliferation of Fragilaria sp. during the cultivation process of U. fenestrata may result in the production a high-quality biomass with a high value for the food marked.

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Abstract

Dollar spot was officially documented in Scandinavia in 2013 and the spread and damage from this disease has increased during last years. In summer 2017, on the golf greens with red fescue (Vallda GC, Sweden) and with the mixture of red fescue, colonial bentgrass and annual bluegrass (Roskilde GC, Denmark) rolling 2 times per week reduced dollar spot 61% and 37% and rolling 4 times per week reduced dollar spot 95% and 54%, respectively. Thus, rolling 3-4 times per week can be recommended on golf greens with dollar spot pressure. In the experiment 2018 dollar spot was reduced 24% with increase in nitrogen from 150 to 240 kg ha-1 yr-1 on creeping bentgrass/annual bluegrass golf green (Kävlinge GK, Sweden). However, the increased N-rate lead to a higher degree Microdochium patch from 14% to 30%.

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Abstract

In order to predict the effects of climate change on the global carbon cycle, it is crucial to understand the environmental factors that affect soil carbon storage in grasslands. In the present study, we attempted to explain the relationships between the distribution of soil carbon storage with climate, soil types, soil properties and topographical factors across different types of grasslands with different grazing regimes. We measured soil organic carbon in 92 locations at different soil depth increments, from 0 to 100 cm in southwestern China. Among soil types, brown earth soils (Luvisols) had the highest carbon storage with 19.5 ± 2.5 kg m−2, while chernozem soils had the lowest with 6.8 ± 1.2 kg m−2. Mean annual temperature and precipitation, exerted a significant, but, contrasting effects on soil carbon storage. Soil carbon storage increased as mean annual temperature decreased and as mean annual precipitation increased. Across different grassland types, the mean carbon storage for the top 100 cm varied from 7.6 ± 1.3 kg m−2 for temperate desert to 17.3 ± 2.9 kg m−2 for alpine meadow. Grazing/cutting regimes significantly affected soil carbon storage with lowest value (7.9 ± 1.5 kg m−2) recorded for cutting grass, while seasonal (11.4 ± 1.3 kg m−2) and year-long (12.2 ± 1.9 kg m−2) grazing increased carbon storage. The highest carbon storage was found in the completely ungrazed areas (16.7 ± 2.9 kg m−2). Climatic factors, along with soil types and topographical factors, controlled soil carbon density along a soil depth in grasslands. Environmental factors alone explained about 60% of the total variation in soil carbon storage. The actual depth-wise distribution of soil carbon contents was significantly influenced by the grazing intensity and topographical factors. Overall, policy-makers should focus on reducing the grazing intensity and land conversion for the sustainable management of grasslands and C sequestration.

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Abstract

This study aims to understand the environmental factors, focusing on rain and fungal infection, affecting the assembly of glutenin polymers during grain maturation. Spring wheat was grown in the field and grains were sampled from 50% grain moisture until maturity. Grain moisture content, protein content, size of glutenin polymers, the presence of proteases, and the amount of DNA from common wheat pathogenic fungi were analysed. Rain influenced the rate of grain desiccation that occurred parallel to the rate of glutenin polymer assembly. Rapid desiccation contributed to faster glutenin polymer assembly than gradual desiccation. Severe reduction in the glutenin polymer size coincided with increased grain moisture due to rain. Furthermore, increased fungal DNA followed by presence of gluten-degrading proteases was observed in the grain after humid conditions. The presence of gluten-degrading proteases was presumably involved in reducing the size of glutenin polymers in grain. Our study gave new insight into how environmental conditions could be associated with the assembly of glutenin polymers during grain maturation. The results suggest that rain and/or fungal proteases play an important role in reducing the molecular size of glutenin polymers.

Abstract

Research activities in the field of wood protection in the marine environment in Europe have been limited and do not yet satisfy the need for new approaches to the problem of biodegradation of Wood in seawater. Alternatives to creosote treatment were tested in the marine environment in Moss harbour. Most of the treated products showed high potential as a successful treatment in this use class in the short-term, such as acetylation of wood, treatment with sorbitol and citric acid and encapsulation of wood poles with a plastic envelope. Long-term studies need to determine the service life of these products.