Poster – A case-study of SYNOPS WEB Application and evaluation using pesticide concentrations from a Norwegian catchment
Anto Raja Dominic, Ole Martin Eklo, Marianne Stenrød, ...
Academic – A comparison of nonlinear mixed models and response to selection of tick-infestation on lambs
Panya Sae-Lim, Lise Grøva, Ingrid Olesen, ...
Tick-borne fever (TBF) is stated as one of the main disease challenges in Norwegian sheep farming during the grazing season. TBF is caused by the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum that is transmitted by the tick Ixodes ricinus. A sustainable strategy to control tick-infestation is to breed for genetically robust animals. In order to use selection to genetically improve traits we need reliable estimates of genetic parameters. The standard procedures for estimating variance components assume a Gaussian distribution of the data. However, tick-count data is a discrete variable and, thus, standard procedures using linear models may not be appropriate. Thus, the objectives of this study were twofold: 1) to compare four alternative non-linear models: Poisson, negative binomial, zero-inflated Poisson and zero-inflated negative binomial based on their goodness of fit for quantifying genetic variation, as well as heritability for tick-count and 2) to investigate potential response to selection against tick-count based on truncation selection given the estimated genetic parameters from the best fit model. Our results showed that zero-inflated Poisson was the most parsimonious model for the analysis of tick count data. The resulting estimates of variance components and high heritability (0.32) led us to conclude that genetic determinism is relevant on tick count. A reduction of the breeding values for tick-count by one sire-dam genetic standard deviation on the liability scale will reduce the number of tick counts below an average of 1. An appropriate breeding scheme could control tick-count and, as a consequence, probably reduce TBF in sheep.
Academic – A Conifer UDP-Sugar Dependent Glycosyltransferase Contributes to Acetophenone Metabolism and Defense against Insects
Melissa Magerøy, Sharon Jancsik, Macaire Man Saint Yuen, ...
Acetophenones are phenolic compounds involved in the resistance of white spruce (Picea glauca) against spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferiana), a major forest pest in North America. The acetophenones pungenol and piceol commonly accumulate in spruce foliage in the form of the corresponding glycosides, pungenin and picein. These glycosides appear to be inactive against the insect but can be cleaved by a spruce b-glucosidase, PgbGLU-1, which releases the active aglycons. The reverse glycosylation reaction was hypothesized to involve a family 1 UDP-sugar dependent glycosyltransferase (UGT) to facilitate acetophenone accumulation in the plant. Metabolite and transcriptome profiling over a developmental time course of white spruce bud burst and shoot growth revealed two UGTs, PgUGT5 and PgUGT5b, that glycosylate pungenol. Recombinant PgUGT5b enzyme produced mostly pungenin, while PgUGT5 produced mostly isopungenin. Both UGTs also were active in vitro on select flavonoids. However, the context of transcript and metabolite accumulation did not support a biological role in flavonoid metabolism but correlated with the formation of pungenin in growing shoots. Transcript levels of PgUGT5b were higher than those of PgUGT5 in needles across different genotypes of white spruce. These results support a role of PgUGT5b in the biosynthesis of the glycosylated acetophenone pungenin in white spruce.
Academic – A dynamic energy-based model to analyze sublethal effects of chronic gamma irradiation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
Catherine Lecomte-Pradines, Turid Hertel-Aas, Claire Coutris, ...
Understanding how toxic contaminants affect wildlife species at various levels of biological organization (subcellular, histological, physiological, organism, and population levels) is a major research goal in both ecotoxicology and radioecology. A mechanistic understanding of the links between different observed perturbations is necessary to predict the consequences for survival, growth, and reproduction, which are critical for population dynamics. In this context, experimental and modeling studies were conducted using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. A chronic exposure to external gamma radiation was conducted under controlled conditions. Results showed that somatic growth and reproduction were reduced with increasing dose rate. Modeling was used to investigate whether radiation effects might be assessed using a mechanistic model based upon the dynamic energy budget (DEB) theory. A DEB theory in toxicology (DEB-tox), specially adapted to the case of gamma radiation, was developed. Modelling results demonstrated the suitability of DEB-tox for the analysis of radiotoxicity and suggested that external gamma radiation predominantly induced a direct reduction in reproductive capacity in C. elegans and produced an increase in costs for growth and maturation, resulting in a delay in growth and spawning observed at the highest tested dose rate.
Academic – A financial cost-benefit analysis of eradicating virulent footrot
Leif Jarle Asheim, Petter Hopp, Gry Marysol Grøneng, ...
Academic – A geometrical model to predict the spatial expansion of sorghum halepense in maize fields [Ein geometrisches Modell zur Vorhersage der raumlichen Ausbreitung von Sorghum Halepense in Maisfelder]
Dionisio Andújar, Xavier Rodriguez, Victor Rueda Ayala, ...
Academic – A Mixed Methods Approach Towards Mapping and Economic Valuation of the Divici-Pojejena Wetland Ecosystem Services in Romania
Lampros Lamprinakis, Divina Gracia P. Rodriguez, Anne Prestvik, ...
Mapping and valuating ecosystem services has gained increasing attention over the last years and remains high in the research agenda. In this paper, a mixed methods approach is used to valuate ecosystem services provided by the Divici-Pojejena wetland in Romania. A qualitative part relied on focus group discussions and interviews to identify key stakeholders and the ecosystem services provided by the wetland site. The benefit transfer (BT) method was used for the monetary valuation of the identified ecosystem services that the wetland provides. Bird watching opportunities, water quality, and flood prevention services are among the highest valued services, while the amenity services are the least valued among all wetland services.
Poster – A Nordic regional approach for crop wild relative (CWR) conservation
Anna Palmé, Heli Fitzgerald, Jens Weibull, ...
The Nordic project “Ecosystem services: Genetic resources and crop wild relatives” was initiated with the long-term aim to assure conservation and sustainable use of the wild genetic resources associated with future food security. There is an increasing threat to crop wild relatives (CWRs) in nature and actions are therefore needed to safeguard these important resources. The Nordic project has resulted in two stakeholder workshops (Stockholm 2015, Vilnius 2016), a common homepage dedicated to Nordic CWR (www.nordgen.org/cwr), policy recommendations on CWR conservation and use and the first common Nordic conservation approach for CWRs. During the project, a common CWR checklist was created and prioritized. The most important crop wild relatives of the region, related to food and forage crops, were selected with use and value criteria. The in situ conservation planning identified potential complementary conservation sites for the priority species. These sites would conserve a maximum number of target taxa and their intraspecific variation by using ecogeographic land characteristic map categories of the region as a proxy for the adaptive scenarios of the priority taxa populations. The potential conservation sites are found in all the five countries (Denmark, Iceland, Finland, Norway and Sweden) across the Nordic region. Since the Nordic countries share many species and habitats across the region, the goal is that joint conservation planning on the Nordic level should make national conservation activities more efficient. The project is funded by Nordic Council of Ministers.
Lecture – A Norwegian Map of Ecosystem Services (no-mess) – Visualising multiple services to improve land use planning
Wenche Dramstad, Wendy Fjellstad, Christian Pedersen, ...
No abstract has been registered
Academic – A novel chimeric Hepatitis B virus S/preS1 antigen produced in mammalian and plant cells elicits stronger humoral and cellular immune response than the standard vaccine-constituent, S protein
Mihaela-Olivia Dobrica, Catalin Lazar, Lisa Paruch, ...
Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection leads to severe liver pathogenesis associated with significant morbidity and mortality. As no curable medication is yet available, vaccination remains the most costeffective approach to limit HBV spreading and control the infection. Although safe and efficient, the standard vaccine based on production of the small (S) envelope protein in yeast fails to elicit an effective immune response in about 10% of vaccinated individuals, which are at risk of infection. One strategy to address this issue is the development of more immunogenic antigens. Here we describe a novel HBV antigen obtained by combining relevant immunogenic determinants of S and large (L) envelope proteins. Our approach was based on the insertion of residues 21-47 of the preS1 domain of the L protein (nomenclature according to genotype D), involved in virus attachment to hepatocytes, within the external antigenic loop of S. The resulting S/preS121-47 chimera was successfully produced in HEK293T and Nicotiana benthamiana plants, as a more economical recombinant protein production platform. Comparative biochemical, functional and electron microscopy analysis indicated assembly of the novel antigen into subviral particles in mammalian and plant cells. Importantly, these particles preserve both S- and preS1-specific epitopes and elicit significantly stronger humoral and cellular immune responses than the S protein, in both expression systems used. Our data promote this antigen as a promising vaccine candidate to overcome poor responsiveness to the conventional, S protein-based, HBV vaccine.