Publications

NIBIOs employees contribute to several hundred scientific articles and research reports every year. You can browse or search in our collection which contains references and links to these publications as well as other research and dissemination activities. The collection is continously updated with new and historical material.

2020

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Abstract

Land-sea riverine carbon transfer (LSRCT) is one of the key processes in the global carbon cycle. Although natural factors (e.g. climate, soil) influence LSRCT, human water management strategies have also been identified as a critical component. However, few systematic approaches quantifying the contribution of coupled natural and anthropogenic factors on LSRCT have been published. This study presents an integrated framework coupling hydrological modeling, field sampling and stable isotope analysis for the quantitative assessment of the impact of human water management practices (e.g. irrigation, dam construction) on LSRCT under different hydrological conditions. By applying this approach to the case study of the Nandu River, China, we find that carbon (C) concentrations originating from different land-uses (e.g. forest, cropland) are relatively stable and outlet C variations are mainly dominated by controlled runoff volumes rather than by input C concentrations. These results indicate that human water management practices are responsible for a reduction of ∼60% of riverine C at seasonal timescales, with an even greater reduction during drought conditions. Annual C discharges have been significantly reduced (e.g. 77 ± 5% in 2015 and 39 ± 11% in 2016) due to changes in human water extraction coupled with climate variation. In addition, isotope analysis also shows that C fluxes influenced by human activities (e.g. agriculture, aquaculture) could contribute the dominant particulate organic carbon under typical climatic conditions, as well as drought conditions. This research demonstrates the substantial effect that human water management practices have on the seasonal and annual fluxes of LSRCT, especially in such small basins. This work also shows the applicability of this integrated approach, using multiple tools to quantify the contribution of coupled anthropogenic and natural factors on LSRCT, and the general framework is believed to be feasible with limited modifications for larger basins in future research.

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Abstract

Global economic value of agriculture production resulting from animal pollination services has been estimated to be $235–$577 billion. This estimate is based on quantification of crops that are available at the global markets, and mainly originates from countries with precise information about quantities of agriculture production, exports, and imports. In contrast, knowledge about the contribution of pollinators to household food and income in small-scale farming at local and regional scales is still lacking, especially for developing countries where the availability of agricultural statistics is limited. Although the global decline in pollinator diversity and abundance has received much attention, relatively little effort has been directed towards understanding the role of pollinators in small-scale farming systems, which feed a substantial part of the world’s population. Here, we have assessed how local farmers in northern Tanzania depend on insect-pollinated crops for household food and income, and to what extent farmers are aware of the importance of insect pollinators and how they can conserve them. Our results show that local farmers in northern Tanzania derived their food and income from a wide range of crop plants, and that 67% of these crops depend on animal pollination to a moderate to essential degree. We also found that watermelon—for which pollination by insects is essential for yield—on average contributed nearly 25% of household income, and that watermelons were grown by 63% of the farmers. Our findings indicate that local farmers can increase their yields from animal pollinated crops by adopting more pollinator-friendly farming practices. Yet, we found that local farmers’ awareness of pollinators, and the ecosystem service they provide, was extremely low, and intentional actions to conserve or manage them were generally lacking. We therefore urge agriculture authorities in Tanzania to act to ensure that local farmers become aware of insect pollinators and their important role in agriculture production.

Abstract

Denne rapporten er en litteratursammenstilling over tap av suspendert stoff, fosfor og nitrogen fra arealer med hhv. jordbruk og skog/utmark. I tillegg er det gjort en vurdering av tilsvarende tap i perioden der nydyrking gjennomføres. I de norske studiene som er gjennomgått er gjennomsnittlige tap av nitrogen 17 ganger høyere fra jordbruk enn fra skog. Tilsvarende er fosfortap 56 ganger høyere og tap av suspendert stoff 106 ganger høyere fra jordbruk enn fra skog.

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Abstract

This article presents input data and procedures used to estimate costs of producing grass-clover silages under Norwegian farming conditions. Data of yield, botanical composition and forage quality of the grass crop were derived from a field experiment comparing a three-cut system, harvested at early crop maturity stages producing highly digestible forages, and a two-cut system returning higher herbage yields of medium digestibility. Secondary data on prices of specific inputs were also provided. The data presented here can be used by advisors and farmers as a decision support tool for assessing and comparing costs of different ways of producing silage. Cost estimates of home-grown forages are also needed in bioeconomic evaluations of grassland production and utilization by researchers. The data presented is related to the research article entitled: “Technical and economic performance of alternative feeds in dairy and pig production” [1].

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Abstract

Protected Areas (PAs) in Tanzania had been established originally for the goal of habitat, landscape and biodiversity conservation. However, human activities such as agricultural expansion and wood harvesting pose challenges to the conservation objectives. We monitored a decade of deforestation within 708 PAs and their unprotected buffer areas, analyzed deforestation by PA management regimes, and assessed connectivity among PAs. Data came from a Landsat based wall-to-wall forest to non-forest change map for the period 2002–2013, developed for the definition of Tanzania’s National Forest Reference Emissions Level (FREL). Deforestation data were extracted in a series of concentric bands that allow pairwise comparison and correlation analysis between the inside of PAs and the external buffer areas. Half of the PAs exhibit either no deforestation or significantly less deforestation than the unprotected buffer areas. A small proportion (10%; n = 71) are responsible for more than 90% of the total deforestation; but these few PAs represent more than 75% of the total area under protection. While about half of the PAs are connected to one or more other PAs, the remaining half, most of which are Forest Reserves, are isolated. Furthermore, deforestation inside isolated PAs is significantly correlated with deforestation in the unprotected buffer areas, suggesting pressure from land use outside PAs. Management regimes varied in reducing deforestation inside PA territories, but differences in protection status within a management regime are also large. Deforestation as percentages of land area and forested areas of PAs was largest for Forest Reserves and Game Controlled areas, while most National Parks, Nature Reserves and Forest Plantations generally retained large proportions of their forest cover. Areas of immediate management concern include the few PAs with a disproportionately large contribution to the total deforestation, and the sizeable number of PAs being isolated. Future protection should account for landscapes outside protected areas, engage local communities and establish new PAs or corridors such as village-managed forest areas.

Abstract

The study aimed to extend the static concepts of multiproduct technical efficiency and determinants into a dynamic setting within the input distance function framework. The existing literature in performance analysis of the dairy farms in Norway based on static modelling and thus ignores the inter-temporal nature of production decisions. The empirical application focused on the farm-level analysis of the Norwegian dairy sector for 2000- 2018. The dynamic efficiency allows analysing the performance of dairy farms in regards of inter-temporal optimization of the investment behaviour. The analysis shows that the static model efficiency study in the previous studies underestimate the performance of the dairy farms. The marginal effects experience positively correlated with dairy farm technical efficiency whereas copped subsidy and asset debt ratio negatively correlated to the performance of the dairy farm.

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to examine the economic performance of crop-producing farms accounting for unobserved heterogeneity,environmental variables, and regions. The empirical analysis was based on a translog cost function and unbalanced farm-level panel data for 1991–2013 from the 455 crop-producing farms with 3,885 observations (1,004observations from the central region and 2,881 observations from the eastern region). We found that the mean minimum costs were about 93% and 92% of the actual costs for crop farms in the central and eastern regions, respectively.The marginal effects of crop rotation, land tenure, off-farm activity, direct government support, and experience were positively associated with crop farm economic performance. The marginal contribution of these variables on economic performance increased in the years 2000–2013 compared with the years 1991–1999 in both regions.

Abstract

Remediation using nanoparticles depends on proper documentation of safety aspects, one of which is their ecotoxicology. Ecotoxicology of nanoparticles has some special features: while traditional ecotoxicology aims at measuring possible negative effects of more or less soluble chemicals or dissolved elements, nanoecotoxicology aims at measuring the toxicity of particles, and its main focus is on effects that are unique to nano-sized particles, as compared to larger particles or solutes. One of the main challenges when testing the ecotoxicity of nanoparticles lies in maintaining stable and reproducible exposure conditions, and adapt these to selected test organisms and endpoints. Another challenge is to use test media that are relevant to the matrices to be treated. Testing of nanoparticles used for remediation, particularly red-ox-active Fe-based nanoparticles, should also make sure to exclude confounding effects of altered red-ox potential which are not nanoparticle-specific. Yet another unique aspect of nanoparticles used for remediation is considerations of ageing of nanoparticles in soil or water, leading to reduced toxicity over field-relevant time scales. This review discusses these and other aspects of how to design and interpret appropriate tests and use these in hazard descriptions for subsequent risk assessments.