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We investigated the ability of the fungal entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana strain GHA to endophytically colonize sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and its impact on plant growth. We used foliar spray, stem injection, and soil drench inoculation methods. All three inoculation methods resulted in B. bassiana colonizing sugarcane tissues. Extent of fungal colonization differed significantly with inoculation method (χ2 = 20.112, d. f. = 2, p < 0.001), and stem injection showed the highest colonization level followed by foliar spray and root drench. Extent of fungal colonization differed significantly with plant part (χ2 = 33.072, d. f. = 5, p < 0.001); stem injection resulted in B. bassiana colonization of the stem and to some extent leaves; foliar spray resulted in colonization of leaves and to some extent, the stem; and soil drench resulted in colonization of roots and to some extent the stem. Irrespective of inoculation method, B. bassiana colonization was 2.8 times lower at 14–16 d post inoculation (DPI) than at 7–10 DPI (p = 0.020). Spraying leaves and drenching the soil with B. bassiana significantly (p = 0.01) enhanced numbers of sett roots. This study demonstrates for the first time that B. bassiana can endophytically colonize sugarcane plants and enhance the root sett and it provides a starting point for exploring the use of this fungus as an endophyte in management of sugarcane pests.

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Mulching of soil beds of strawberry fields is usually done with polyethylene film in southern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. This material is relatively expensive and difficult to discard after use. In some countries, mulching is done with the use of organic material that could have an advantage over the use of plastic for its easier degradation after use, and for favoring edaphic beneficial organisms. Predatory mites (especially Gamasina, Mesostigmata) may be abundant in the soil and could conceivably move to the soil surface and onto the short-growing strawberry plants at night, helping in the control or pest arthropods. The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is considered an important strawberry pest in that region, where the fungus Neozygites floridana (Weiser and Muma) has been found to infect it. Different mulching types could affect the incidence of this pathogen. Dehydrated coffee husk and pulp (DCHP) is a byproduct readily available in southern Minas Gerais, where could be used as organic mulching in strawberry beds. The temporary contact of that material with the soil of a patch of natural vegetation could facilitate its colonization by edaphic predatory mites helpful in the control of strawberry pests. The objective of this work was to study the effect of mulching type on the population dynamics of the two-spotted spider mite, associate mites and N. floridana, in a greenhouse and in the field. The use of DCHP increased the number of edaphic Gamasina on strawberry plants—Proctolaelaps pygmaeus (Müller) (Melicharidae) and Blattisocius dentriticus (Berlese) (Blattisociidae) were observed on strawberry leaflets, mainly in nocturnal samplings, indicating their possible daily migration from soil to plants. Lower levels of two-spotted spider mite occurred on plants from pots or soil beds mulched with DCHP instead of polyethylene film, possibly because of the slightly higher levels of mites of the family Phytoseiidae and infection by N. floridana. Adding DCHP onto the floor of natural vegetation did not result in higher diversity or levels of gamasine mites on DCHP. Complementary studies should be conducted to find ways to increase diversity and density of those organisms in strawberry beds, in an attempt to improve biological control of strawberry pests. The decision to use DCHP for mulching should also take into account other factors such as strawberry yield, costs and efficiency of weed management, to be evaluated in subsequent studies.

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Neozygites floridana is a pathogenic fungus and natural enemy of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), which is an important polyphagous plant pest. The aim of this study was to reveal and predict what combination of temperature, relative humidity (RH), and time that enables and promotes primary conidia production and capilliconidia formation in N. floridana (Brazilian isolate ESALQ 1420), in both a detached leaf assay mimicking climatic conditions in the leaf boundary layer and in a semi-field experiment. In the detached leaf assay, a significant number of conidia were produced at 90% RH but the highest total number of primary conidia and proportion of capilliconidia was found at 95 and 100% RH at 25 °C. Positive temperature and RH effects were observed and conidia production was highest in the 8 to 12 h interval. The semi-field experiment showed that for a >90% probability of N. floridana sporulation, a minimum of 6 h with RH >90% and 10 h with temperatures >21 °C, or 6 h with temperatures >21 °C and 15 h with RH >90% was needed. Our study identified suitable conditions for primary- and capilliconidia production in this Brazilian N. floridana isolate. This information provides an important base for building models of a Decision Support System (DSS) where this natural enemy may be used as a tool in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and a base for developing in vivo production systems of N. floridana.

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The plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium langsethiae produces the highly potent mycotoxins HT-2 and T-2. Since these toxins are frequently detected at high levels in oat grain lots, they pose a considerable risk for food and feed safety in Norway, as well as in other north European countries. To reduce the risk of HT-2/T- 2-contaminated grain lots to enter the food and feed chain, it is important to identify factors that influence F. langsethiae infection and mycotoxin development in oats. However, the epidemiology of F. langsethiae is unclear. A three-year survey was performed to reveal more of the life cycle of F. langsethiae and its interactions with oats, other Fusarium species, as well as insects, mites and weeds. We searched for inoculum sources by quantifying the amount of F. langsethiae DNA in crop residues, weeds, and soil sampled from a selection of oat-fields. To be able to define the onset of infection, we analysed the amount of F. langsethiae DNA in oat plant material sampled at selected growth stages (between booting and maturation), as well as the amount of F. langsethiae DNA and HT-2 and T-2 toxins in the mature grain. We also studied the presence of possible insect- and mite vectors sampled at the selected growth stages using Berlese funnel traps. The different types of materials were also analysed for the presence F. graminearum DNA, the most important deoxynivalenol producer observed in Norwegian cereals, and which presence has shown a striking lack of correlation with the presence of F. langsethiae in oat. Results show that F. langsethiae DNA may occur in the oat plant already before heading and flowering. Some F. langsethiae DNA was observed in crop residues and weeds, though at relatively low levels. No Fusarium DNA was detected in soil samples. Of the arthropods that were associated with the collected oat plants, aphids and thrips species were dominating. Further details will be given at the meeting.

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the natural occurrence of Beauveria spp. in soil, from infections in the stink bug Piezodorus guildinii, an important pest of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and as endophytes in bean plant tissue. Twelve conventional and 12 organic common bean fields in the Villa Clara province, Cuba were sampled from September 2014 to April 2015. One hundred and fifty Beauveria isolates were obtained from soil samples, bean plant parts and stink bugs. The overall frequency of occurrence of Beauveria isolates in conventional fields (8.4%) was significantly lower than that in organic fields (23.6%). Beauveria were also obtained significantly more frequently from bean roots in organic fields (15.0%) compared to bean roots in conventional fields (3.3%). DNA sequencing of the intergenic Bloc region was performed for Beauveria species identification. All isolates where characterized as Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin, and clustered with isolates of neotropical origin previously described as AFNEO_1. The Cuban B. bassiana isolates formed five clusters in the phylogeny. Isolates of two clusters originated from all four locations, organic and conventional fields, as well as soil, plants and stink bugs. Organic fields contained isolates of all five clusters while conventional fields only harbored isolates of the two most frequent ones. Mating type PCR assays revealed that mating type distribution was skewed, with MAT1/MAT2 proportion of 146/4, indicating limited potential for recombination. The present study is the first to report of B. bassiana as a naturally occurring endophyte in common bean. Further, it shows that B. bassiana occurs naturally in diverse environments of common bean fields, and constitutes a potential reservoir of natural enemies against pest insects particularly in organic fields.

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Despite global deforestation some regions, such as Europe, are currently experiencing rapid reforestation. Some of this is unintended woodland encroachment onto farmland as a result of reduced livestock pasture management. Our aim was to determine the likely impacts of this on exposure to ticks and tickborne disease risk for sheep in Norway, a country experiencing ecosystem changes through rapid woodland encroachment as well as increases in abundance and distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks and tick-borne disease incidence. We conducted surveys of I. ricinus ticks on ground vegetation using cloth lure transects and counts of ticks biting lambs on spring pastures, where lambs are exposed to infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of tick-borne fever in livestock. Pastures had higher densities of I. ricinus ticks on the ground vegetation and more ticks biting lambs if there was more tree cover in or adjacent to pastures. Importantly, there was a close correlation between questing tick density on pastures and counts of ticks biting lambs on the same pasture, indicating that cloth lure transects are a good proxy of risk to livestock of tick exposure and tick-borne disease. These findings can inform policy on environmental tick control measures such as habitat management, choice of livestock grazing area and off-host application of tick control agents.

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Fields experiments were conducted during two growing seasons (2010–2011 and 2012–2013) at three seeding dates to identify stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) species and to determine their seasonal population density fluctuation and damage caused to three common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars “Ica Pijao,” “Cubacueto 25–9,” and “Chévere.” Stink bug species observed were Nezara viridula (L.), Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), Chinavia rolstoni (Rolston), Chinavia marginatum (Palisot de Beauvois), and Euschistus sp. The most prevalent species was N. viridula in both seasons. The largest number of stink bugs was found in beans seeded at the first (mid September) and third (beginning of January) seeding dates. Population peaked at BBCH 75 with 1.75, 0.43, and 1.25 stink bugs/10 plants in 2010–2011 and with 2.67, 0.45, and 1.3 stink bugs/10 plants in 2012–2013 in the fields seeded the first, second, and third seeding dates, respectively. The lowest numbers of stink bugs were found in beans seeded at the second (mid November) seeding date. A significant negative correlation between relative humidity and number of stink bugs was found in 2010–2011, and a similar tendency was observed in 2012–2013. The highest seed and pod damage levels occurred in cv. “Chévere” and the lowest in cv. “ICA Pijao” during both seasons. Results suggest that cv. “ICA Pijao” and the second (mid November) seeding date is the best choice to reduce stink bug damage.

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Researchers in plant pathology and entomology often study the interaction between a host plant and its pathogen or an insect pest separately. Although studying single pathogen or insect interactions with a host plant is critical to understand the basic infection processes and to model each disease or pest attack separately, this is an extreme simplification of nature’s complexity, where multiple pests and pathogens often appear in parallel and interact with each other and their host plant. Effective management of pests and diseases require understanding of the complex interaction beteween diseases and pests on the host. Under natural conditions, wheat plants are subjected to attack by several insects and pathogens simultaneously or sequentially. The Bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi) and the necrotrophic pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum (syn. Stagonospora nodorum) the causal agent of Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB) are economically important pests of wheat in Norway. Since they colonize a common host, they may interact directly through competition for resources or indirectly by affecting the host response either positively (induced resistance) or negatively (induced susceptibility or biopredisposition). The effect of aphid infestation on P. nodorum infection and development of the disease could be an important factor in predicting SNB epidemics. However, studies on this multitrophic interactions are scarce. We conducted controlled greenhouse experiments to study the effect of aphid infestation on subsequent SNB development. The wheat cultivar ‘Bjarne’ was treated as follows:1) Aphid infested + insecticide sprayed + P. nodorum inoculated; 2) Insecticide sprayed + P. nodorum inoculated; 3) Water sprayed + P. nodorum inoculated; 4) Control plants (without aphid, insecticide or P. nodorum). When plants were at ca. BBCH 37, 18 adult female aphids (R. padi) were released per pot (treatment 1). Aphid inoculated plants were kept in an insect proof cage in a greenhouse compartment at 20°C, 70% RH, and 16 h photoperiod. Plants for the other treatments were kept in separate insect proof cages in the same greenhouse. Ten days after aphid release, plants infested with aphids (treatment 1) were sprayed with the insecticide BISCAYA (a.i. thiacloprid) at recommended concentration to remove aphids. Plants in treatment 2 and 3 were sprayed with the insecticide and water, respectively. Twenty-four hours after application of the insecticide or water, plants in treatment 1, 2, and 3 were inoculated with P. nodorum spore suspension (106 spores ml-1). The experiment included three replicates and was repeated two times. SNB incidence and severity were recorded. SNB incidence and severity were significantly higher on aphid infested plants than on non-infested plants (P < 0.05). Ten days after P. nodorum inoculation, disease severity were about 3-fold higher on aphid infested plants (treatment 1) than on non-infested plants (treatment 2 and 3). Plants in the blank control (treatment 4) were free of aphids and showed no symptoms of SNB . Infestation of wheat plants by the bird cherry-oat aphid prior to fungal inoculation enhanced the severity of SNB. P. nodorum is a necrotrophic pathogen that lives on nutrients from disintegrated plant cells. The increase in severity of SNB on aphid infested plants could be due to the increased number of dead or dying cells around the aphids feeding sites. However, whether aphids activity induced local or systemic susceptbility to plants is not yet known and needs to be studied further.

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In this chapter we will focus on the tick Ixodes ricinus, with its main geographical distribution in Europe. It is known to transmit a variety of pathogens, among them Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis. Tick population control is one of the measures to reduce the incidence of tick-borne diseases. Due to non-target effects of chemical acaricides, acquired resistance against chemical acaricides and increased regulations, there is a demand for sustainable control measures that may be used in integrated vector management (IVM) of ticks. This chapter describes and evaluates the present knowledge on biological control of I. ricinus as an alternative to the use of chemical acaricides. Biological control makes use of living organisms (e.g. fungi, bacteria, nematodes, invertebrate predators, parasitoids) to suppress a pest population. The natural occurrence of these organisms in I. ricinus and the use of these organisms as biological control agents against I. ricinus are reviewed. Entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria and Metarhizium spp.) are the most commonly used biocontrol agents against ticks. A variety of nematode species are also shown to be effective against different tick species, but the knowledge on the operational use of invertebrate predators and parasitoids to control ticks is limited. We conclude that there are several candidates for the biological control of ticks, but that the knowledge on the natural occurrence and efficacy of these to control I. ricinus populations is very limited. There is, therefore, a need of more studies on naturally occurring enemies of I. ricinus to be able to suggest possible biocontrol candidates. These candidates should be tested in controlled laboratory and field studies with the aim to develop elegant, precise and effective biocontrol strategies for the control of I. ricinus that may be used alone or in combination with other control strategies in IVM.

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Aphids in cereals are an important problem in Europe. Entomopathogenic fungi in the Phylum Entomophthoromycota are among their natural enemies. Under certain conditions, they can cause epizootic events and control pest aphid populations. This epizootic development is affected by many abiotic and biotic factors such as aphid species and their host plant (including weeds within the crop), fungal species and isolates, and temperature. Studies from Denmark, UK, Slovakia and suggest that the genus Pandora is the most prevalent fungal pathogen of the English grain aphid (Sitobion avenae). Which fungal species that is the most prevalent in populations of the other important aphid species in cereals in Europe, the Bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi), is less clear. We chose, however, to use Pandora to assess the biological control potential of Entomophthoromycota against aphids in cereals and to produce data that might be used in a pest-warning model incorporating the effect of this natural enemy. This was done by conducting laboratory studies on the virulence of two Pandora isolates (collected in the same field) on R. padi and Myzus persicae at three temperatures (12, 15 and 18◦C). M. persicae is a polyphagous aphid that may be present on weeds. It can be an alternative host for Pandora and hence might also affect the epidemic development of Pandora in aphids that are cereal pests. Our preliminary results show that R. padi is more resistant to the tested Pandora isolates than M. persicae. The two Pandora isolates had different virulence in the two aphid species tested. The temperature did not influence the virulence.

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This contribution demonstrates an example of experimental automatic image analysis to detect spores prepared on microscope slides derived from trapping. The application is to monitor aerial spore counts of the entomopathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis which may serve as a biological control agent for aphids. Automatic detection of such spores can therefore play a role in plant protection. The present approach for such detection is a modification of traditional manual microscopy of prepared slides, where autonomous image recording precedes computerised image analysis. The purpose of the present image analysis is to support human visual inspection of imagery data – not to replace it. The workflow has three components: • Preparation of slides for microscopy. • Image recording. • Computerised image processing where the initial part is, as usual, segmentation depending on the actual data product. Then comes identification of blobs, calculation of principal axes of blobs, symmetry operations and projection on a three parameter egg shape space.

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Tick-borne diseases, such as anaplasmosis and babesiosis, are of major concern for Norwegian sheep farmers. Ticks can be controlled on and off the host, usually with the long-term, high-rotation use of chemicals. Fungal pathogens, predatory mites and ants are thought to be important tick killers in nature. However, the prevalence and diversity of predatory mites in tick habitats has barely been evaluated. It is known that most soil mite species of the cohort Gamasina (order Mesostigmata) are predators. Until now, 220 mesostigmatid species have been reported from Norway, most of them belonging to the Gamasina. One of the first recommended steps in a biological control program involves the determination of the fauna in the pest habitat. The objective of this study was to determine the groups of gamasines co-occurring with I. ricinus in sheep grazing areas in Isfjorden and Tingvoll in Western Norway. A total of 2,900 gamasines of 12 families was collected. The most numerous families were Parasitidae (46.9%) and Veigaiidae (25.7%), whereas the most diverse families were Laelapidae, Macrochelidae, Parasitidae and Zerconidae. Our results showed that the tick density was significantly related only to locality, elevation and rainfall. Differences in the prevailing environmental conditions resulted in more outstanding differences between Gamasina abundances than diversities. Based on our present knowledge of the potential of different gamasine groups as biological control agents, the results suggested that laelapid mites should be among the priority groups to be further evaluated for their role in the natural control of I. ricinus in Norway.

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The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is a serious pest of numerous crops worldwide. Sustainable management solutions for T. urticae include predators and entomopathogens. Neozygites floridana is a naturally occurring obligate fungal pathogen of T. urticae and can cause declines in T. urticae populations. The purpose of this study was to determine whether releasing the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis into T. urticae populations has the potential to increase transmission of N. floridana and accelerate the development of an epizootic. This is the first study quantifying the effect of P. persimilis on transmission of N. floridana to T. urticae in a controlled microcosm study. Our results show that introducing P. persimilis into T. urticae, populations increased the proportion of T. urticae infected with N. floridana. By the final sampling occasion, the number of T. urticae in the treatment with both the predator and the pathogen had declined to zero in both experiments, while in the fungus-only treatment T. urticae populations still persisted. We suggest that releasing P. persimilis into crops in which N. floridana is naturally present has the potential to improve spider mite control more than through predation alone.

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A controlled climatic chamber microcosm experiment was conducted to examine how light affects the hourly sporulation pattern of the beneficial mite pathogenic fungus Neozygites floridana during a 24 h cyclus over a period of eight consecutive days. This was done by inoculating two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) with N. floridana and placing them on strawberry plants for death and sporulation. Spore (primary conidia) discharge was observed by using a spore trap. Two light regimes were tested: Plant growth light of 150 μmol m−2 s−1 for 12 h supplied by high pressure sodium lamps (HPS), followed by either; (i) 4 h of 50 μmol m−2 s−1 light with similar HPS lamps followed by 8 h darkness (full HPS light + reduced HPS light + darkness) or (ii) 4 h of 50 μmol m−2 s−1 red light followed by 8 h darkness (full HPS light + red light + darkness). A clear difference in hourly primary conidia discharge pattern between the two different light treatments was seen and a significant interaction effect between light treatment and hour in day during the 24 h cycle was observed. The primary conidia discharge peak for treatment (ii) that included red light was mainly reached within the red light hours (19:00–23:00) and the dark hours (23:00–07:00). The primary conidia discharge peak for treatment (i) with HPS light only was mainly reached within the dark hours (23:00–07:00).

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Introducing the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis into two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, populations significantly increased the proportion of T. urticae infected with the spider mite pathogen Neozygites floridana in one of two experiments. By the final sampling occasion, the number of T. urticae in the treatment with both the predator and the pathogen had declined to zero in both experiments, while in the fungus-only treatment T. urticae populations still persisted (20–40 T. urticae/subsample). Releasing P. persimilis into crops in which N. floridana is naturally present has the potential to improve spider mite control more than through predation alone.

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of conventional versus organic common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production on natural occurrence of Beauveria spp. as entophytes in bean plant tissue, from soil and as infections in stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an important pest of bean in Cuba. Twenty-four organic and conventionally managed bean fields were sampled from September 2014 to April 2015 and Beauveria spp. were isolated and DNA extracted. PCR amplification of the intergenic Bloc region was performed for the identification of Beauveria species. Eighty-seven isolates were obtained from the soil samples by using the Galleria mellonella baiting technique. Further, 45 isolates were obtained from endophytic tissues of bean plant parts and 18 isolates were acquired from stink bugs. Only Beauveria bassiana was identified by DNA sequencing in this material. B. bassiana was more prevalent in soil, plant and stink bugs sampled from organic fields (41% soil, 22% plant, 9% bugs) compared to conventional fields (17% soil, 8% plant, 2% bugs). All plant parts were colonized by B. bassiana, but a significantly higher occurrence of this fungus was found in roots (9%) compared to stems (6%), leaves (4%) and pods (2%) in organic fields. In conventional fields there was a significantly higher occurrence of B. bassiana acquired from root (4%) and stem (3%) compared to leaves (1%) and pods (1%). Mating type PCR assays revealed that each of the isolates carried single mating types, with frequencies of 146/150 (MAT1) and 4/150 (MAT2), indicating limited potential for recombination. Our findings show that B. bassiana occur naturally as endophytes in bean fields in Cuba and contribute to a better ecological understanding of B. bassiana in agriculture.

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Background. The beneficial fungus Neozygites floridana kills the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae, which is a serious polyphagous plant pest worldwide. Outbreaks of spider mites in strawberry and soybean have been associated with pesticide applications. Pesticides may affect N. floridana and consequently the natural control of T. urticae. N. floridana is a fungus difficult to grow in artificial media, and for this reason, very few studies have been conducted with this fungus, especially regarding the impact of pesticides. The aim of this study was to conduct a laboratory experiment to evaluate the effect of pesticides used in strawberry and soybean crops on N. floridana. Results. Among the pesticides used in strawberry, the fungicides sulfur and cyprodinil + fludioxonil completely inhibited both the sporulation and conidial germination of N. floridana. The fungicide fluazinam affected N. floridana drastically. The application of the fungicide tebuconazole and the insecticides fenpropathrin and abamectin resulted in a less pronounced negative effect on N. floridana. Except for epoxiconazole and cyproconazole, all tested fungicides used in soybean resulted in a complete inhibition of N. floridana. Among the three insecticides used in soybean, lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin resulted in a significant inhibition of N. floridana. Conclusion. The insecticides/ acaricides abamectin and lambda-cyhalothrin at half concentrations and fenpropathrin and permethrin and the fungicide tebuconazole at the recommended concentrations resulted in the lowest impact on N. floridana. The fungicides with the active ingredients sulfur, cyprodinil + fludioxonil, azoxystrobin, azoxystrobin + cyproconazole, trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole and pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole negatively affected N. floridana. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry

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The plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium langsethiae produces the highly potent mycotoxins HT-2 and T-2. Since these toxins are frequently detected at high levels in oat grain lots, they pose a considerable risk for food and feed safety in Norway, as well as in other north European countries. To reduce the risk of HT-2/T- 2-contaminated grain lots to enter the food and feed chain, it is important to identify factors that influence F. langsethiae infection and mycotoxin development in oats. However, the epidemiology of F. langsethiae is unclear. A three-year survey was performed to reveal more of the life cycle of F. langsethiae and its interactions with oats, other Fusarium species, as well as insects, mites and weeds. We searched for inoculum sources by quantifying the amount of F. langsethiae DNA in weeds, crop residues, and soil, sampled from a predetermined selection of oat-fields. To be able to define the onset of infection, we analysed the amount of F. langsethiae DNA in oat plant material sampled at selected growth stages (between booting and maturation), as well as the amount of F. langsethiae DNA and HT-2 and T-2 toxins in the mature grain. We also studied the presence of possible insect- and mite vectors sampled at the selected growth stages using Berlese funnel traps. All the different types of materials were also analysed for the presence F. graminearum DNA, the most important deoxynivalenol producer observed in Norwegian cereals, and which presence has shown a striking lack of correlation with the presence F. langsethiae in oat. Preliminary results show that F. langsethiae DNA may occur in the oat plant before heading and flowering. Some F. langsethiae DNA was observed in crop residues and weeds, though at relatively low levels. More results from this work will be presented at the meeting.

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The plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium langsethiae produces the highly potent mycotoxins HT-2 and T-2. Since these toxins are frequently detected at high levels in oat grain lots, they pose a considerable risk for food and feed safety in Norway, as well as in other north European countries. To reduce the risk of HT-2/T- 2-contaminated grain lots to enter the food and feed chain, it is important to identify factors that influence F. langsethiae infection and mycotoxin development in oats. However, the epidemiology of F. langsethiae is unclear. A three-year survey was performed to reveal more of the life cycle of F. langsethiae and its interactions with oats, other Fusarium species, as well as insects, mites and weeds. We searched for inoculum sources by quantifying the amount of F. langsethiae DNA in weeds, crop residues, and soil, sampled from a predetermined selection of oat-fields. To be able to define the onset of infection, we analysed the amount of F. langsethiae DNA in oat plant material sampled at selected growth stages (between booting and maturation), as well as the amount of F. langsethiae DNA and HT-2 and T-2 toxins in the mature grain. We also studied the presence of possible insect- and mite vectors sampled at the selected growth stages using Berlese funnel traps. All the different types of materials were also analysed for the presence F. graminearum DNA, the most important deoxynivalenol producer observed in Norwegian cereals, and which presence has shown a striking lack of correlation with the presence F. langsethiae in oat. Preliminary results show that F. langsethiae DNA may occur in the oat plant before heading and flowering. Some F. langsethiae DNA was observed in crop residues and weeds, though at relatively low levels. More results from this work will be presented at the meeting.

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Bladlusoverført virus er et problem i potet i Norge. Hvert år er det settepotetpartier i den sertifiserte avlen som ikke kan godkjennes fordi innholdet av PVY/PVA er for høye. For høyt virusinnhold i potetprodusentenes egen oppformering er også et problem. For årene 2008, 2009, 2010 og 2011 har det blitt sendt inn virusprøver til NAK (Nederland) fra egne oppformerte settepoteter hos potetdyrkerne. Resultatene viste høye innhold av både PVA og PVY. Dette kan fort gi store avlingstap. I Norge har vi ikke god nok kunnskap om hvilke lusarter som herjer i potetåkre. Med bakgrunn i problemstillingen skissert over ønsket Norsk Landbruksrådgiving at Bioforsk Plantehelse skulle opparbeider seg mer kunnskap om følgende: Hvilke bladlusarter er det i norske potetåkre? Prosjekt: Kartlegging av bladlusarter i potetåkre. Hvor aktive er de i overføring av virus? Hvilken skade gjør disse bladlusartene i potetåkre i Norge? Prosjekt: Forsøk i potetåker med bladlusproblemer. Hvordan kan lus i potet overvåkes, for dermed å sette inn riktig tiltak til rett tid, slik at skader ikke oppstår i avlinga. For eksempel få til en ”indeks” (terskel) som ut fra bladluspopulasjonen angir når riset skal fjernes for å redusere virusmengden i settepotetene. Prosjekt: Vurderes når kartlegging og resultater fra forsøk er ”på plass”

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The use of Chinese cabbage as a trap crop where insect pathogenic fungi may prolifereate has been tested in a series of push-pull strategy experiments both in the laboratory and in the field. The pest species studied are the cabbage- and turnip root fly (Delia radicum and D. floralis). In a dual choice laboratory experiment, both healthy and Entomophthora muscae inoculated D. floralis were tested for choice of plant for oviposition. The choices were 1) Broccoli against Broccoli 2) Chinese cabbage against Broccoli 3) Broccoli against Broccoli under sown with clover 4) Chinese cabbage against Broccoli under sown with clover. In a semi-field pilot study with Broccoli and Chinese cabbage the choice between main - and trap crop for healthy and inoculated flies, as well as fungal transmission between flies over time, was studied. A pilot field study has also been performed to investigate the overall effect of using Chinese cabbage as a trap crop as well as studying the spatial distribution of Delia eggs in a cabbage field. The results from the dual choice experiment and both pilot studies indicates that using Chinese cabbage as a trap crop is a promising strategy for the management of D. radicum and D. floralis, both as a oviposition attractant and as a trap crop where insect pathogenic fungi may proliferate and kill the adult flies.  

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Strawberry production in high plastic tunnels is becoming popular for the advantages of extended production and reduced disease problems. However, this production system creates favorable conditions for several pests, including the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) and for some diseases, of which powdery mildew (Podosphaera aphanis) is the most important. Preliminary laboratory experiments were conducted to study: (1) the preference of T. urticae to mildew infected vs. healthy strawberry leaves, and (2) the impact of powdery mildew on T. urticae egg production and predation of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. Five days after the mite release, the total number of T. urticae eggs and nymphs found on healthy leaf discs were two times higher than on leaf discs with powdery mildew, predatory mites or both. In the preference experiment, a significant number of T. urticae moved to healthy strawberry leaf discs and settled there for the whole period of the experiment. The results indicated that T. urticae did not thrive on strawberry leaves heavily infested with powdery mildew, and that powdery mildew seemed to reduce the predation efficiency of P. persimilis. Therefore, it may be economical and efficient to control powdery mildew before releasing P. persimilis to control the spider mites.  

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  The mite-pathogenic fungus Neozygites floridana and N. tanajoae are important natural enemies of spider mites and are good candidates for microbial control. To be able to succeed in using Neozygites for the microbial control of spider mites we need to understand the factors that affect a Neozygites epidemic development. Studies have therefore been conducted with Brazilian and Norwegian isolates of these fungi to reveal the effect of abiotic (temperature, rainfall, humidity, light, pesticides) and biotic factors (host plant, presence of predators) on the fungal performance and epizootic development in cassava green mite, tomato red spider mite and twospotted spider mite populations. For Brazilian isolates, rainfalls do not seem to have an apparent impact on disease progression. Microclimatic humidity seems, however, to be a critical factor. When placed on microscope slides, these two fungi only sporulate at RH≥95%, while   N. floridana-killed cadavers of the twospotted spider mite placed within the boundary layer of the abaxial side of a leaf sporulated also at 90% RH. The temperature optimum of Brazilian and Norwegian isolates varies and Brazilian isolates can sporulate at temperatures as low as 13°C but the highest production of capilliconidia occurs at 21-25°C. A Norwegian N. floridana isolate tested produces the highest numbers of primary conidia at 13°C and 18°C while 23°C resulted in a lower production. Our studies also show that performance of different N. floridana isolates may vary with light duration and intensity. In integrated pest management systems, Neozygites needs to be compatible with chemical pesticides. Our studies show, however, that several fungicides affect N. floridana negatively. Our studies have also shown that performance of Neozygites vary with host plants.    

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Oppsummering av resultater fra prosjekt "Kontroll av snutebiller i produksjon av jordbær ved hjelp av planteduftstoffer og andre alternative metoder" (2006-2011).

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The two spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is known to overwinter as hibernating females, and these partly inactive females may harbour Neozygites floridana. N. floridana is a fungal natural enemy of spider mites. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate whether N. floridana may be present inside living hibernating females of T. urticae throughout the winter season, and if so, in what prevalence and what stage of its fungal life cycle. Hibernating T. urticae females were investigated for the presence of fungal structures throughout one winter (October 12, 2006 to February 19, 2007) in field-grown strawberries in a cold climate in Norway (min. ambient temp -15.3oC). The study confirmed that N. floridana survived the winter as a semilatent hyphal body infection, protected inside live hibernating females. The beneficial fungus N. floridana is therefore ready to develop and sporulate as soon as climatic conditions permits, resulting in early season infection of T. urticae. An early-season infection of N. floridana that may result in the control of T. urticae in strawberries is important, since T. urticae is known to cause reductions in strawberry yield at much lower population levels in early season than in late season. For N. floridana to control T. urticae populations early in the spring, factors important for sporulation and dissemination of the fungus needs to be favoured. The adapted use of pesticides, especially fungicides might therefore be very important at this time of the year.  

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In this review, we provide an overview of the role of glucosinolates and other phytochemical compounds present in the Brassicaceae in relation to plant protection and human health. Current knowledge of the factors that influence phytochemical content and profile in the Brassicaceae is also summarized and multi-factorial approaches are briefly discussed. Variation in agronomic conditions (plant species, cultivar, developmental stage, plant organ, plant competition, fertilization, pH), season, climatic factors, water availability, light (intensity, quality, duration) and CO2 are known to significantly affect content and profile of phytochemicals. Phytochemicals such as the glucosinolates and leaf surface waxes play an important role in interactions with pests and pathogens. Factors that affect production of phytochemicals are important when designing plant protection strategies that exploit these compounds to minimize crop damage caused by plant pests and pathogens. Brassicaceous plants are consumed increasingly for possible health benefits, for example, glucosinolate-derived effects on degenerative diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, factors influencing phytochemical content and profile in the production of brassicaceous plants are worth considering both for plant and human health. Even though it is known that factors that influence phytochemical content and profile may interact, studies of plant compounds were, until recently, restricted by methods allowing only a reductionistic approach. It is now possible to design multi-factorial experiments that simulate their combined effects. This will provide important information to ecologists, plant breeders and agronomists.

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Potensiell avlingsreduksjon pga ugras, skadedyr og plantesykdommer ligger på hhv 34%, 18% og 16%. En så stor potensiell tapspost krever godt plantevern. Hvilke skadegjørere vi vil få et økt problem med og hvilke som vil bli redusert pga endret klima, er det viktig å få en oversikt over slik at tilpassede planteverntiltak kan utvikles. Klimatilpasningskompetansen til rådgiving og bønder må bygges opp gradvis. Forskningen må starte nå.

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In a series of tritrophic-level interaction experiments, the effect of selected host plants of the spider mites, Tetranychus evansi and Tetranychus urticae, on Neozygites floridana was studied by evaluating the attachment of capilliconidia, presence of hyphal bodies in the infected mites, mortality from fungal infection, mummification and sporulation from fungus-killed mite cadavers. Host plants tested for T. evansi were tomato, cherry tomato, eggplant, nightshade, and pepper while host plants tested for T. urticae were strawberry, jack bean, cotton and Gerbera. Oviposition rate of the mites on each plant was determined to infer host plant suitability while host-switching determined antibiosis effect on fungal activity. T. evansi had a high oviposition on eggplant, tomato and nightshade but not on cherry tomato and pepper. T. urticae on jack bean resulted in a higher oviposition than on strawberry, cotton and Gerbera. Attachment of capilliconidia to the T. evansi body, presence of hyphal bodies in infected T. evansi and mortality from fungal infection were significantly higher on pepper, nightshade and tomato. The highest level of T. evansi mummification was observed on tomato. T. evansi cadavers from tomato and eggplant produced more primary conidia than those from cherry tomato, nightshade and pepper. Switching N. floridana infected T. evansi from one of five Solanaceous host plants to tomato had no prominent effect on N. floridana performance. For T. urticae, strawberry and jack bean provided the best N. floridana performance when considering all measured parameters. Strawberry also had the highest primary conidia production. This study shows that performance of N. floridana can vary with host plants and may be an important factor for the development of N. floridana epizootics.

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Organic fields are often assumed to have less pests and more beneficials than conventionally managed fields. We monitored 12 Norwegian strawberry fields, six organic and six conventional, by sampling leaves two times per year in 2002-2003. Young folded leaflets were visually inspected for eggs and adult females of strawberry mite (Phytonemus pallidus fragariae), and mature leaves were used for extraction of mobile stages of two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae). The spider mites were examined for infection of the mite-pathogenic fungus Neozygites floridana. Predatory mites (Phytoseiidae) were recorded on both leaf types, and the females mounted and identified. Soil was also sampled from each field, to study the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic nematodes. All samples were taken 0-13 metres from the border vegetation. Both pest mites tended to be more abundant in conventional than in organic fields, while the number of phytoseiid mites was very low in both growing systems. Nevertheless, three phytoseiid species were recorded for the first time in Norway: Amblyseius rademacheri Dosse, Neoseiulus kodryensis (Kolodochka) and Neoseiulus reductus (Wainstein). N. floridana infection found in T. urticae females varied from 0-19%, and was higher in 2002 than in 2003. The fungus was recorded at least once in all 12 fields, and there was no consistent difference between the two growing systems. In 2002 there was a significant negative correlation between % T. urticae with N. floridana hyphal bodies found in the first sampling and the number of T. urticae present in the second sampling about four weeks later. Beneficial nematodes (mostly Steinernema) tended to occur in more of the organic than in the conventional soil samples. To sum up, both pests (T. urticae and P. pallidus) and one of the beneficial groups (entomopathogenic nematodes) seemed to conform to the expected difference between organic and conventional fields. There are many possible mechanisms related to the differences in pesticide and fertilization regimes that could lead to such a pattern. For the two remaining beneficials (N. floridana and Phytoseiidae) we could not find a consistent correlation between abundance and growing system.  

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A successful push-pull strategy needs to include means to kill pest insects in order to control and reduce the pest population. The use of Chinese cabbage as a trap crop where insect pathogenic fungi may proliferate has been tested in a series of push-pull strategy experiments both in the laboratory, in semi-field and field. In this work, the aim is to develop a push-pull-kill strategy in which the transmission of the entomopathogenic fungi Entomophthora muscae is facilitated with the aim to reduce the population of cabbage- and turnip root flies (Delia radicum and Delia floralis). In the lab experiment, Chinese cabbage proved to be more attractive compared to Broccoli and Broccoli undersown with red clover, for oviposition of both healthy and E. muscae infected D. floralis females. Infected flies also died and sporulated on or near the Chinese cabbage. This pattern was also evident in a preliminary field study in which sporulating Delia spp. cadavers were found on Chinese cabbage only. These results indicate that Chinese cabbage may be used as a trap crop for D. floralis oviposition, but it may also be a sink where healthy flies become infected through contact with sporulating cadavers. This summer, we tested the strategy in larger scale and under more natural conditions in a semi-field study. Healthy D. floralis were released in cages with Broccoli and Chinese cabbage plants, with or without the presence of E. muscae infected D. radicum. Our hypothesis were that 1) D. floralis released in cages with infected flies will be infected, and die and sporulate on or near the Chinese cabbage, 2) Fewer eggs will be laid by D. floralis in cages with infection compared to control cages, 3) More D. floralis eggs will be laid on Chinese cabbage compared to Broccoli. The results from the semi field study strenghtens our previous results which showed that using Chinese cabbage as a trap crop is a promising strategy for the management of D. floralis and D. radicum, both as an oviposition attractant and as a source for fungal transmission between flies.

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Forsøksresultatene som presenteres i denne rapporten er biologisk godkjenningsprøving av skadedyrmidler på oppdrag fra Mattilsynet i 2010. I tillegg er det forsøk eller egne forsøksledd som grupperes som biologisk utviklingsprøving. Utviklingsprøvingen er finansiert av Bioforsk, importører/tilvirkere av plantevernmidler, produsentgrupper eller av Landbruks- og matdepartementet. Forsøkene er utført etter GEP-kvalitet, hvis ikke annet er nevnt. Enheter i Norsk Landbruksrådgiving (tidl. forsøksringene) gjør en stor egeninnsats i disse forsøkene. For eventuelle restanalyseforsøk, er kjemiske analyser utført av Fagseksjon Pesticidkjemi ved Bioforsk Plantehelse.

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The co-occurrence of powdery mildew, Podosphaera aphanis, and the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, on strawberry plants requires a strategic use of fungicides to control powdery mildew without harming predatory mites and other beneficial organisms. Sulfur has been used for two centuries to manage powdery mildew and is the only fungicide approved for use in organic strawberry production in Norway. However, there are contrasting reports in the literature about the effect of sulfur on predatory mites and two-spotted spider mite from field studies. Controlled laboratory experiments were therefore conducted on strawberry leaf disks to study the main as well as the interacting effects of sulfur on P. aphanis, T. urticae and the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis. The following seven treatment combinations: 1) Sulfur + P. aphanis 2) Sulfur + T. urticae 3) Sulfur + P. persimilis 4) Sulfur + P.aphanis + P.persimilis 5) Sulfur + P.aphanis + T.urticae 6) Sulfur + P. Persimilis + T.urticae 7) Sulfur + P.aphanis + P.persimilis + T.urticae and seven parallel treatment combinations with water instead of sulfur (control) were used. Leaf disks were dipped in a sulfur (Thiovit Jet) solution or water and inoculated with P. aphanis after the sulfur/ water had dried on the leaf surface. In treatments with mites, five female T. urticae and one female P. persimilis were added per leaf disk.  Preliminary analysis of the results showed that only the predatory mite and sulfur significantly (P ≤ 0.05) affected egg production and mortality of T. urticae. In the treatment that combined sulfur + P. aphanis + P. persimilis + T. urticae a significantly reduction in T. urticae egg production was seen.   However, there was no significant effect on egg production and mortality of T. urticae in the three-way or two-way interactions of sulfur, powdery mildew and predatory mite. There was no significant effect of sulfur on mortality of P. persimilis, and sulfur did not seem to affect the efficiency of this predatory mite. Powdery mildew did not affect T. urticae probably because the mildew was not well developed due to inoculation at the same time as the mites were added. In another experiment, however, mites were released on leaf disks that had well developed powdery mildew, and here a negative effect of the mildew on T. urticae egg production was clearly seen.

Sammendrag

Organic fields are often assumed to have fewer pests and more beneficials than conventionally managed fields. We monitored 12 Norwegian strawberry fields, 6 organic and 6 conventional fields, by sampling leaves twice a year in 2002 and 2003. Young folded leaflets were visually inspected for eggs and adult females of strawberry mite (Phytonemus pallidus fragariae), and mature leaves were used for extraction of mobile stages of two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae). The spider mites were examined for infection of the mite-pathogenic fungus Neozygites floridana. Predatory mites (Phytoseiidae) were recorded on both leaf types, and the females mounted and identified. We also sampled leaves from selected plants in the boundary vegetation of most fields to look for sources of T. urticae, phytoseiids and N. floridana. Soil was sampled from each field, to study the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic nematodes. All samples were taken 0-13 metres from the border vegetation. Both pest mites tended to be more abundant in conventional than in organic fields, while the number of phytoseiid mites was very low in both growing systems. Nevertheless, three phytoseiid species were recorded for the first time in Norway: Amblyseius rademacheri Dosse, Neoseiulus kodryensis (Kolodochka) and Neoseiulus reductus (Wainstein). N. floridana infection found in T. urticae females varied from 0-19%, and was higher in 2002 than in 2003. The fungus was recorded at least once in all 12 fields, and there was no consistent difference between the two growing systems. In 2002 there was a significant negative correlation between % T. urticae with N. floridana hyphal bodies found in the first sampling and the number of T. urticae present in the second sampling about 4 weeks later. Beneficial nematodes (mostly Steinernema) tended to occur in more of the organic than of the conventional soil samples. To sum up, both pests (T. urticae and P. pallidus) and one of the beneficial groups (entomopathogenic nematodes) seemed to conform to the expected difference between organic and conventional fields. There are many possible mechanisms related to the differences in pesticide and fertilization regimes that could lead to such a pattern. For the two remaining beneficials (N. floridana and Phytoseiidae) we could not find a consistent correlation between abundance and growing system.

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Varsling er viktig for å vite om det bør sprøytes mot bladlus i korn, men klima og de naturlige fiendene bør vi også ha kunnskap om for å kunne si noe om bladlusene faktisk blir et problem.

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Varsling er viktig for å vite om det bør sprøytes mot bladlus i korn, men klima og de naturlige fiendene bør vi også ha kunnskap om for kunne si noe om bladlusene faktisk blir et problem.

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In this study we aimed at understanding the mechanisms that affects an epidemic development of Neozygites floridana in a Tetranychus urticae population. This was done by comparing how many spores a cadaver infected with a N. floridana isolate could produce and at what distance and in which directions they could be thrown on a coverslip at temperatures relevant to the northern hemisphere (13, 18 and 23oC). The highest number of spores were produced at 13oC at a number of 1886. Numbers of spores thrown at 18oC and 23oC were 1733 and 1302 respectively. Temperature had a significant effect on sporulation. Most of the spores were thrown at a distance of 0-0.6 mm from the cadaver. Cadavers placed on the underside of a coverslip were able to throw spores back up on the coverslip surface. A whole plant bioassay was also conducted to reveal where on a plant T. urticae infected with N. floridana die and sporulate. Cadavers showed a different verical distribution on the cucumber plant compared to healthy spider mites. Most of the cadavers were located at the lower to the middle part of the plant, while healthy spider mites were more evenly distributed on the whole plant.  

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The vine weevil, Othiorynchus sulcatus, is a serious pest in strawberries and biological control methods are needed to combat this pest. Formulations of the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is registered for use against Otiorhynchus spp. in several countries but no fungal control agents are avilable for control of O. sulcatus in Norway. All developmental stages of Otiorhynchus spp. are susceptible to virulent insect pathogenic fungal species, but best control has been achieved against the larvae (Moorhouse et al. 1992). A number of studies have shown that M. anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana have good potential against Otiorhynchus spp. (Cross et al. 2001). In field grown strawberries, good control with Metarhizium has been reported when environmental conditions for the fungus are favourable (Oakley 1994). Temperatures in excess of 15oC are required for good control by most fungal isolates. Low temperature is therefore a major restricting factor for use of fungi outdoors (Gillespie et al. 1989, Soares et al. 1983). Isolates with low temperature optimums could therefore be well suited for field conditions in Northern Europe, where soil temperatures at the time when most larvae are found in the soil in autumn are 10-12oC. Norwegian M. anisopliae and B. bassiana isolates have shown promising results against O. sulcatus larvae at low temperatures in laboratory bioassays (Hjeljord & Klingen 2005). One of the Norwegian M. anisopliae isolates has also shown good competition with other soil fungi in laboratory experiments (Hjeljord & Meadow 2005). In addition to being cold tolerant, rhizosphere competence is important for fungal control agents that are used to control root feeding pests. "Rhizosphere competence" has been defined when considering biological control agents as "the ability of a microorganism, applied by seed treatment, to colonize the rhizosphere of developing roots" (Baker 1991). In this study we therefore aimed at testing the survival and rhizosphere competence of two different cold active Norwegian isolates (M. anisopliae isolate NCRI 250/02 and B. bassiana NCRI 12/96)  in a semi field experiment in Norway. These were compared with the commercially avilable M.  anisopliae isolate Ma43 originating from Austria (the isolate is also known to have many other names (Eilenberg 2008)). The study was conducted by estimating fungal concentrations in the bulk and rhizosphere soil surrounding the strawberry plant roots by counting colony forming unists (CFUs). The highest numbers of B. bassiana NCRI 12/96 CFUs were seen in the rhizosphere at 1.87x109 per liter soil 3 months after application. The highest numbers of M. anisopliae NCRI 250/02 CFUs were seen in the rhizosphere at 2.41x109 per liter soil 1 year after application. Numbers of CFUs for the M. ansiopliae Ma43 CFUs were generally lower than for the Norwegian isolates, but also for this isolate a higher fungal concentration was found in the rihzosphere soil than in the bulk soil.  References Cross, J.V. Easterbrook, M.A. Crook, A.M. Crook, D. Fitzgerald, J.D. Innocenzi. P.J. Jay. C.N. & Solomon, M.G. 2001: Review: Natural enemies and biocontrol of pests of strawberry in northern and central Europe. Biocontrol Science and Technology 11: 165-216.Baker, R. 1991: Induction of rhizosphere competence in the biological control fungus        Trichoderma. In: Keister, D. L. Cregan, P. B. (Eds.). The Rhizosphere and Plant Growth.      Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston and London, pp. 221-228. Eilenberg, J. 2008: The fascinating true story about the famous Metarhizium anisopliae isolate Ma43, alias ATCC 90448, alias BIPESCO 5, alias F52 alias...41st Annual Meeting of the Society for Invertebrate Pathology. P. 31.Gillespie, A.T. Moorhouse, E.R. & Sellers, E.K. 1989: Metarhizium anisopliae: a promising biological control agent for the black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus. Aspects of Applied Biology 22: 389-393. Hjeljord, L. & Klingen, I. 2005: Growth characteristics and virulence of insect pathogenic fungi at low temperatures. 38th Annual Meeting of the Society for Invertebrate Pathology. P. 30.Hjeljord, L. & Meadow, R. 2005: Virulence and sporulation of Metarhizium anisopliae in the presence of Trichoderma conidia on agar substrates and in soil bioassays on larvae of the black vine weevil. 38th Annual Meeting of the Society for Invertebrate Pathology. 7-11 August 2005. USA, Alaska, Anchorage. P 62.  Moorehouse, E.R. Charneley, A.K. & Gillespie, A.T. 1992: A review of the biology and control of the vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Annals of Applied Biology 121: 431-454. Oakley, J. 1994: Alternative methods to control vine weevil in strawberries. HDC Project News 28, 12. Horticultural Development Council, Petersfield. Soares, G.G. Jr Marchal, M. & Ferron, P. 1983: Susceptibility of Otiorhynchus sulcatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) larvae to Metarhizium anisopliae and Metrahizium flavoridae (Deuteromycotina, Hyphomycetes) at two different temperatures. Environmental Entomology 12: 1886-1890.   

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The vine weevil, Othiorynchus sulcatus, is a serious pest in strawberries in Norway and biological control methods are needed to combat this pest. In this study, the rhizosphere competence of two cold active Norwegian fungal isolates (Metarhizium anisopliae isolate NCRI 250/02 and Beauveria bassiana NCRI 12/96) and the well known Ma43 originating from Austria were tested. This was done by estimating fungal concentrations in the bulk and rhizosphere soil surrounding the strawberry plant roots by counting colony forming unists (CFUs). The highest numbers of B. bassiana NCRI 12/96 CFUs were seen in the rhizosphere at 1.87x109 per liter soil 3 months after application. The highest numbers of M. anisopliae NCRI 250/02 CFUs were seen in the rhizosphere at 2.41x109 per liter soil 1 year after application. Numbers of CFUs for the M. ansiopliae Ma43 CFUs were generally lower than for the Norwegian isolates, but also for this isolate a higher fungal concentration was found in the rihzosphere soil than in the bulk soil.  

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Neozygites floridana is a fungus in the order Entomophthorales that infects and kills the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae. The fungus is therefore of interest in the biological control of T. urticae. To obtain information that might help in the use of this fungus under practical conditions in strawberries and cucumbers we have tried to answer the following questions in a series of studies: 1) When, and at what infection levels does N. floridana occur in T. urticae populations in field grown strawberries in Norway? 2) How does N. floridana survive harsh climatic conditions (i.e winter) in Norway? 3) Where do N. floridana infected T. urticae move and sporulate on a plant? 4) How can N. floridana be inoculated in augmentative microbial control of T. urticae? Results show that the N. floridana infection level varies considerably throughout a season. T. urticae killed by N. floridana was found to sporulate surprisingly early in the season (first observation March 18) and infection early in the season is important for a good control of T. urticae. N. floridana was observed to over-winter as hyphal bodies in hibernating T. urticae females throughout the winter. Cadavers with resting spores were found from October to the end of January only. Cadavers then probably disintegrated, and resting spores were left on leaves, soil, etc. In a bioassay where a Norwegian N. floridana isolate was tested for numbers and distance of spores thrown at three different temperatures relevant to Norwegian conditions (13o, 18o, 23o C), results show that the highest numbers of spores (1886 and 1733 per cadaver) were thrown at 13o and 18o compared to 23o C (1302 per cadaver). Spores were thrown at the same distance (up to about 6 mm) at all three temperatures. These results show that the fungus may be a promising agent at temperatures relevant for strawberry production in countries located in Northern areas. Our attempt to inoculate N. floridana artificially in a strawberry field and also in greenhouse cucumbers has not been successful yet, but we are working to improve the methods in a new project titled "BERRYSYS -A system approach to biocontrol in organic and integrated strawberry production".   

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Mite damage is often considered a spray induced problem. We monitored 12 Norwegian strawberry fields, 6 organic and 6 conventional fields, by sampling leaves two times per year for two years. Young folded leaflets were visually inspected for eggs and adults of strawberry mite (Phytonemus pallidus) and completely unfolded leaves were used for extraction of mobile stages of two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychys urticae). The spider mites were examined for infection of the mite-pathogenic fungus Neozygites floridana. Predatory mites (Phytoseiidae) were recorded on both leaf types, and the females mounted and identified. We also sampled leaves from selected plants in the boundary vegetation of most fields, to look for sources of T. urticae, phytoseiids and N. floridana, and soil from each field, to study the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic nematodes. We will present the results on abundance and diversity of the organisms investigated, and discuss similarities and differences between organic and conventional fields.

Sammendrag

Mite damage is often considered a spray induced problem. We monitored 12 Norwegian strawberry fields, 6 organic and 6 conventional fields, by sampling leaves two times per year for two years. Young folded leaflets were visually inspected for eggs and adults of strawberry mite (Phytonemus pallidus) and completely unfolded leaves were used for extraction of mobile stages of two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychys urticae). The spider mites were examined for infection of the mite-pathogenic fungus Neozygites floridana. Predatory mites (Phytoseiidae) were recorded on both leaf types, and the females mounted and identified. We also sampled leaves from selected plants in the boundary vegetation of most fields, to look for sources of T. urticae, phytoseiids and N. floridana, and soil from each field, to study the natural occurrence of entomopathogenic nematodes. We will present the results on abundance and diversity of the organisms investigated, and discuss similarities and differences between organic and conventional fields.

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Sammendrag

Neozygites floridana is a fungus in the order Entomophthorales that is a natural enemy of several spider mite species including the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae. When conditions are right, this fungus may cause epizootics in spider mite populations and kill high numbers of mites. The fungus is therefore promising for biological control of T. urticae in strawberry and can be used in combination with other pest management strategies. Our previous studies have shown that N. floridana is compatible with other biocontrol methods such as predatory mites. Phytoseiulus longipes fed on fungus-infected T. urticae laid equal number of eggs to those fed on healthy prey. This indicates that the fungus does not affect this predatory mite negatively. In a choice experiment (hosts with and without N. floridana), P. longipes fed indiscriminately irrespective of the presence of the fungus. The compatibility of biological control methods with pesticides is of great importance for an integrated pest management system to work well. Some acaricides and fungicides have the potential to affect both beneficial fungi and predatory mites and careful selection of pesticides that are not harmful to these beneficial organisms can promote their biocontrol potential. Our studies have shown that the fungicides captan, mancozeb, tolylfluanid, fenhexamid, cyprodinil + fludioxonil affect N. floridana in a way that may be detrimental to the biocontrol potential of this beneficial fungus in the field. Use of resistant varieties is also important in integrated pest management because pests are known to be more vulnerable to pathogens if they feed on poor or resistant plants and our studies on effects of host plants of spider mites confirms this.

Sammendrag

Three unsprayed coffee farms (farm 1, 2 and 3) were studied for the natural occurrence of the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana in Hypothenemus hampei populations throughout the rainy season of 2004 (July-November) and 2005 (July-December). B. bassiana infections were found during most sampling dates in both years, on all three farms. The B. bassiana infection levels were higher in 2005 than in 2004 with mean prevalence of 12.1% and 2.7% respectively. No consistent significant differences in infection level between farms were found in any of the years. B. bassiana infection levels fluctuated widely throughout the season, and peaked at 13.5% on farm 3 in 2004 and at 44.0% on farm 1 in 2005. The H. hampei population was significantly higher in 2004 than in 2005, with 6.9% of the berries infested in 2004 and only 0.7% in 2005. In both years, the H. hampei infestation level was significantly higher on farm 2. No consistent significant differences in H. hampei infestation levels were found between sampling dates in any of the farms. H. hampei infestation levels fluctuated throughout both seasons, and peaked at 15.3% on farm 2 in 2004 and 2.2% on farm 2 in 2005. No consistent density dependent correlation between H. hampei infestation level and B. bassiana infection level was found. Correlation between climatic conditions and B. bassiana or H. hampei were not found.

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Three unsprayed coffee farms (farm 1, 2 and 3) were studied for the natural occurrence of the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana in Hypothenemus hampei populations throughout the rainy season of 2004 (July-November) and 2005 (July-December). B. bassiana infections were found during most sampling dates in both years, on all three farms. The B. bassiana infection levels were higher in 2005 than in 2004 with mean prevalence of 12.1 % and 2.7%, respectively. No consistent significant differences in infection level between farms were found in any of the years. B. bassiana infection levels fluctuated widely throughout the season, and peaked at 13.5% on farm 3 in 2004 and at 44.0% on farm 1 in 2005. The H. hampei population was significantly higher in 2004 than in 2005, with 6.9% of the berries infested in 2004 and only 0.7% in 2005. In both years, the H. hampei infestation level was significantly higher on farm 2. No consistent significant differences in H. hampei infestation levels were found between sampling dates on any of the farms. H. hampei infestation levels fluctuated throughout both seasons, and peaked at 15.3% on farm 2 in 2004 and 2.2% on farm 2 in 2005. No consistent density dependent correlation between H. hampei infestation level and B. bassiana infection level was found. Correlations between climatic conditions and R bassiana or H. hampei were not found. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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To evaluate overwintering strategies of the fungus Neozygites floridana, an important natural enemy of Tetranychus urticae, hibernating T. urticae females were investigated for the presence of fungal structures throughout one winter (October 12, 2006 to February 19, 2007) in field-grown strawberries in a cold climate in Norway ( min. ambient temp -15.3 degrees C). Neozygites floridana was present as hyphal bodies inside live, hibernating females in T. urticae populations throughout the sampling period. The lowest percentages of hibernating females with hyphal bodies were found at the two first dates of sampling at 5.5 and 0% on October 12 and 19, respectively. The prevalence then increased and peaked at 54.4% on January 14. Resting spores (immature) were also found in live hibernating females at some dates, but at lower prevalence than for hyphal bodies and predominantly only until November 8. Prevalence of resting spores in live hibernating females ranged from 2.5 to 13.8%. Total number of T. urticae was also recorded, and most mites of all four categories (nymphs, males, non-hibernating and hibernating females) were found at the first sampling date. At this date non-hibernating females were the most abundant. A sharp decrease in non-hibernating females, nymphs and males was, however, seen from mid-October to mid-November; also numbers of hibernating females decreased, but not as fast. The relative abundance of hibernating females compared to non-hibernating females increased from 32.2% at the first collection (October 12) to 97.7% at the last collection (February 2). This study confirms that N.floridana survives the winter as a semi-latent hyphal body infection, protected inside live hibernating females. It is therefore ready to develop and sporulate as soon as climatic conditions permit, resulting in early season infection of T. urticae.

Sammendrag

In a pilot field study conducted in an apple orchard in Hardanger (Western Norway) in two succesive years both Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were applied to apple trees just after hatching of mirid nymphs in spring. Both predatory, omnivorous and principally plant-pathogenic species of mirids were collected, and all groups of species were infected by B. bassiana or M. ansiopliae in treated plots. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae were also found on some individuals in non treated control plots the second year. M. anisopliae was more predominant in 2006, B. bassiana in 2007. Mirids were also observed for natural occurrence of parasitoids, and parasitoids were found both years.

Sammendrag

Four populations of pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus) was tested for susceptibility to lambda-cyhalotrin and tiacloprid in 2008. Resistance to pyrethroids was found in 2 populations from locations near Hamar, both in field tries and bioassays. One population from Vestfold has low resistance. The results was concistent with what was found in 2007. One population from Østfold had to high control mortality to draw any conclusion. These beetles were collected  very late in the season. Low resistance was found in the same district in 2007. One population from Hamar had lower susceptibility to tiacloprid than the other populations.

Sammendrag

Mulighetene for effektiv bekjempelse av rapsglansbiller er viktig for å gi god økonomi i oljevekstproduksjonen. Fordi det ikke har vært andre godkjente plantevernmidler på markedet, har billene i de siste 10 årene kun blitt bekjempet med pyretroider. Nå har denne ensidige bruken ført til at billene er blitt resistente i flere områder på Østlandet.

Sammendrag

Jorda er bosted for et utallig antall former for planter, dyr og mikrober. Disse varierer fra mikroskopiske encellede organismer til store gravende dyr. Tilsvarende som for overjordiske miljøer, er det godt definerte næringskjeder og konkurranse om overlevelse i jordmiljøet. Ulike samspill i jordøkosystemet kan både fremme og redusere forekomsten av skadedyr (insekter og midd) som er tilknyttet jord. Skadedyr tilknyttet jorda har derfor også naturlige fiender blant jordorganismene, men også skadedyr som bare tilfeldigvis kommer i kontakt med jorda, ved at de for eksempel ramler ned fra planta de lever på, kan bli spist av predatorer ("rovdyr") eller bli infisert av mikroorganismer som finnes på jorda.