Til dokument

Sammendrag

Most horticultural crops are attacked by more than one insect pest. As broad-spectrum chemical control options are becoming increasingly restricted, there is a need to develop novel control methods. Semiochemical attrac- tants are available for three important horticultural pests, strawberry blossom weevil, Anthonomus rubi Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), European tarnished plant bug, Lygus rugulipennis Poppius (Hemiptera: Miridae) and raspberry beetle, Byturus tomentosus deGeer (Coleoptera: Byturidae). Traps targeting more than one pest species would be more practical and economical for both monitoring and mass trapping than traps for single-species. In this study we aimed to (1) improve the effectiveness of existing traps for insect pests in strawberry and raspberry crops by increasing catches of each species, and (2) test if attractants for two unrelated pest species could be combined to capture both in the same trap without decreasing the total catches. Field tests were carried out in four European countries and different combinations of semiochemicals were compared. A volatile from straw- berry flowers, 1,4 dimethoxybenzene (DMB), increased the attractiveness of the aggregation pheromone to both sexes of A. rubi. The host-plant volatile, phenylacetaldehyde (PAA), increased the attraction of female L. rugu- lipennis to the sex pheromone, and, in strawberry, there was some evidence that adding DMB increased catches further. Traps baited with the aggregation pheromone of A. rubi, DMB, the sex pheromone of L. rugulipennis and PAA attracted both target species to the same trap with no significant difference in catches compared to those single-species traps. In raspberry, catches in traps baited with a combination of A. rubi aggregation pheromone, DMB and the commercially available lure for B. tomentosus, based on raspberry flower volatiles, were similar to those in single-species traps. In both crops the efficiency of the traps still needs improvement, but the multi- species traps are adequate for monitoring and should not lead to confusion for the user as the target species are easy to distinguish from each other.

Sammendrag

Sommeren 2017 ble det samlet 100 bladprøver fra norske jordbærfelt plantet i perioden 2015-2017 med importert plantemateriale, for å lete etter liten jordbærbladlus (Chaetosiphon fragaefolii). Denne bladlusarten er på grunn av sin rolle som virusvektor forbudt å introdusere og spre i Norge. Den er ikke tidligere funnet på jordbær i Norge. Den ble heller ikke funnet i denne undersøkelsen, der til sammen 10 000 blader ble undersøkt.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Strawberry blossom weevil (SBW), Anthonomus rubi Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and European tarnished plant bug (ETB), Lygus rugulipennis Poppius (Hetereoptera: Miridae), cause significant damage to strawberry and raspberry crops. Using the SBW aggregation pheromone and ETB sex pheromone we optimized and tested a single trap for both species. A series of field experiments in crops and seminatural habitats in five European countries tested capture of the target pests and the ability to avoid captures of beneficial arthropods. A Unitrap containing a trapping agent of water and detergent and with a cross vane was more efficient at capturing both species compared to traps which incorporated glue as a trapping agent. Adding a green cross vane deterred attraction of non-pest species such as bees, but did not compromise catches of the target pests. The trap caught higher numbers of ETB and SBW if deployed at ground level and although a cross vane was not important for catches of ETB it was needed for significant captures of SBW. The potential for mass trapping SBWand ETB simultaneously in soft fruit crops is discussed including potential improvements to make this more effective and economic to deploy.

Sammendrag

I 2016 er det utført 6 forsøk med 8 kjemiske skadedyrmidler, 2 biologiske skadedyrmidler, 2 feromonpreparater og 5 vekstregulerende preparater. Effekten er undersøkt mot kålmøll i kål,bladlus i erter, ulike viklerarter i eple, vanlig pæresuger i pære, og for vekstregulering i sommerblomster. Preparatene hadde varierende virkning og det vurderes om forsøkene skal videreføres. Det er også et pågående forsøk mot gransnutebille i skogplanteskole fra 2015 som avsluttes og rapporteres i 2017.

Sammendrag

Aphids in cereals are an important problem in Europe. Entomopathogenic fungi in the Phylum Entomophthoromycota are among their natural enemies. Under certain conditions, they can cause epizootic events and control pest aphid populations. This epizootic development is affected by many abiotic and biotic factors such as aphid species and their host plant (including weeds within the crop), fungal species and isolates, and temperature. Studies from Denmark, UK, Slovakia and suggest that the genus Pandora is the most prevalent fungal pathogen of the English grain aphid (Sitobion avenae). Which fungal species that is the most prevalent in populations of the other important aphid species in cereals in Europe, the Bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi), is less clear. We chose, however, to use Pandora to assess the biological control potential of Entomophthoromycota against aphids in cereals and to produce data that might be used in a pest-warning model incorporating the effect of this natural enemy. This was done by conducting laboratory studies on the virulence of two Pandora isolates (collected in the same field) on R. padi and Myzus persicae at three temperatures (12, 15 and 18◦C). M. persicae is a polyphagous aphid that may be present on weeds. It can be an alternative host for Pandora and hence might also affect the epidemic development of Pandora in aphids that are cereal pests. Our preliminary results show that R. padi is more resistant to the tested Pandora isolates than M. persicae. The two Pandora isolates had different virulence in the two aphid species tested. The temperature did not influence the virulence.

Sammendrag

The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is a serious pest of numerous crops worldwide. Sustainable management solutions for T. urticae include predators and entomopathogens. Neozygites floridana is a naturally occurring obligate fungal pathogen of T. urticae and can cause declines in T. urticae populations. The purpose of this study was to determine whether releasing the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis into T. urticae populations has the potential to increase transmission of N. floridana and accelerate the development of an epizootic. This is the first study quantifying the effect of P. persimilis on transmission of N. floridana to T. urticae in a controlled microcosm study. Our results show that introducing P. persimilis into T. urticae, populations increased the proportion of T. urticae infected with N. floridana. By the final sampling occasion, the number of T. urticae in the treatment with both the predator and the pathogen had declined to zero in both experiments, while in the fungus-only treatment T. urticae populations still persisted. We suggest that releasing P. persimilis into crops in which N. floridana is naturally present has the potential to improve spider mite control more than through predation alone.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Introducing the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis into two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, populations significantly increased the proportion of T. urticae infected with the spider mite pathogen Neozygites floridana in one of two experiments. By the final sampling occasion, the number of T. urticae in the treatment with both the predator and the pathogen had declined to zero in both experiments, while in the fungus-only treatment T. urticae populations still persisted (20–40 T. urticae/subsample). Releasing P. persimilis into crops in which N. floridana is naturally present has the potential to improve spider mite control more than through predation alone.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

In the absence of effective control measures, the strawberry blossom weevil (Anthonomus rubi) (SBW) and the raspberry beetle (Byturus tomentosus) (RB) cause large (10 - >80%) losses in yield and quality in organically grown raspberry. Attractive lures for both pests were combined into a single multitrap for the economical management of both of these pests at the same time. This is one of the first approaches to pest management of non-lepidopteran insect pests of horticultural crops using semiochemicals in the EU, and probably the first to target multiple species from different insect orders. The aim is to develop optimized lures and cost-effective trap designs for mass trapping and to determine the optimum density and spatial and temporal patterns of deployment of the traps for controlling these pests by mass trapping. The combination between an aggregation pheromone that attracts Anthonomus rubi and a raspberry flower volatile that attracts Byturus tomentosus seems to be the best combination.

Sammendrag

BACKGROUND: To grow remontant strawberries at high latitudes in autumn is challenging because of short days and low light levels. Nevertheless, current day and night temperatures in Norwegian coastal areas up to 63 degrees N are normally sufficient for growth and fruit development till early October, and even higher temperatures can be expected in the future according to climatic scenarios, with potential to prolong the growing season. However, light would be a minimum factor. It is therefore of interest to examine the effects of providing supplemental light when photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) falls below critical level for development of high fruit quality. OBJECTIVE: To examine effects on fruit yield parameters, fruit tension, Brix° and arthropod numbers, in order to investigate the potential of LED lighting using diodes giving red and blue light, as a means to prolong the growing season at northern latitudes. METHOD: In this two-year study remontant strawberry cvs ‘Everest’ and ‘Rondo’ were grown in high polytunnels. Two LED lighting levels (LED100 and LED300) were applied from 7 Pm to 7 AM, whenever light intensity fell below 400 μmol m−2 s−1 from first week of September, and compared to ambient light (control). The LED300 was peaking at wavelengths of 460 nm and 660 nm, respectively blue and red, and the relation between blue and red light was 1 : 8; LED100 delivered similar wavelengths but the blue to red relation was 2 : 8. Fruit yield, soluble solids (Brix°), fruit firmness, temperature (°C), dew point (°C), and PAR light (μmol m−2 s−1) were recorded. The experimental design was block with four replications. The lamps were hung with the light source 40 cm above top of canopy, giving a PAR radiation at top of canopy of LED100 and LED300 of respectively 900 and 258 μmol m−2 s−1. RESULTS: LED improved fruit yield and quality, but more at 900 than at 258 μmol m−2 s−1. However, highest light level was probably beyond the saturation point for photosynthesis, at least in early morning and late evening and the last three weeks of the harvesting season, because of low temperatures. Some fruit yield was not harvested because of too low temperatures to achieve ripen fruits after mid-October. Arthropods were sampled from ‘Rondo’ leaves 2–3 times per season, and aphids, spider mites and predatory mites (introduced) were the most numerous groups. LED significantly decreased the number of spider mites in the autumn. CONCLUSIONS: LED lighting has potential as light source growing remontant strawberries in high polytunnels, when PAR radiation is below 400 μmol m−2 s−1. However, to benefit fully of the light it would be necessary to grow the plants in winter tunnels and add heating. That would increase the yields significantly compared with our results.

Sammendrag

Forsøksresultatene som presenteres i denne rapporten er biologisk godkjenningsprøving av skadedyrmidler utført på oppdrag fra Mattilsynet i 2012. Inkludert i rapporten er også forsøk eller egne forsøksledd som grupperes som biologisk utviklingsprøving. Forsøkene er utført etter GEP-kvalitet1 hvis ikke annet er nevnt. Dette innebærer at det er utarbeidet skriftlige prosedyrer for nesten alle arbeidsprosesser. Disse prosedyrene, kalt standardforskrifter (SF’er), er samlet i en kvalitetshåndbok. Denne er delt ut til alle personer som arbeider med utprøving av plantevernmidler. De samme personene har også vært med på et endagskurs i GEP-arbeid.

Sammendrag

Hvilke insekter og midd kan dukke opp i planter av slekten Rubus? Hvilke er nyttige og hvilke kan gjøre skade? På disse nettsidene har vi samlet informasjon fra faglitteratur og prosjektarbeid. Oversikten dekker bringebær og bjørnebær på friland, i tunnel og i veksthus. For andre bærkulturer, se Plantevernleksikonet. Vi legger vekt på tidlig oppdagelse og alternative tiltak, og å skille mellom skadelige og nyttige småkryp. Økologiske dyrkere kan ikke bruke syntetiske skadedyrmidler, og heller ikke konvensjonelle dyrkere bør regne med at det finnes et effektivt godkjent plantevernmiddel for alle skadedyr som kan dukke opp, spesielt ikke for perioden mellom blomstringsstart og høsteslutt. Sidene er skrevet for yrkesdyrkere, men vil også være nyttige for hobbydyrkere som har spørsmål om skadedyr i bringebær eller bjørnebær.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Sorten Glen Ample dominerer nå norsk bringebærdyrking, også den økologiske. Denne sorten har mange gode egenskaper under norske forhold, men er dessverre spesielt utsatt for store angrep av bringebærbladmidd (Phyllocoptes gracilis) som svekker plantene og går utover bærkvaliteten. Heldigvis fi nnes det økologiske tiltak mot denne skadegjøreren.

Sammendrag

Det hender at det er mark i eplene. Som oftest er det larven til rognebærmøll som er på ferde. Rognebærmøll er en liten sommerfugl som har fått navnet sitt fordi den har rogn som vertplante. I enkelte år er det lite bær på rogna og møllet må ta til takke med eple, som er nødproviant. Til våren 2010 ventes det svak blomstring hos rogn og det kan bli angrep i eple, i alle fall på Vestlandet. Situasjonen for Østlandet er litt annerledes. Prognoser om ventet fare for angrep av rognebærmøll i eple kan ikke lages før rogna blomstrer, vanligvis i slutten av mai, og da vil nøyaktige varsel bli sendt ut.

Sammendrag

Resistens eller nedsatt følsomhet mot kjemiske skadedyrmidler er funnet hos flere skadedyrarter i bl.a. oljevekster, jordbær, potet og prydplanter i veksthus. Dette fører til bekjempelsesproblemer, økt sprøyting og risiko for resistens mot nye midler.

Sammendrag

Teger er viktige skadedyr i både eple og pære i Norge. I økologisk pæredyrking kan opp mot 40 % av avlinga gå ut grunna tegeskade. Mange av tegeartane som gjer skade i frukt har fleire vertsplanter, og fleire vert rekna som både skade- og nyttedyr. Sprøyting med redusert dose av Lebaycid (fention) har vore tilrådd mot teger i norsk kjernefruktproduksjon. Frå 2005 er dette plantevernmiddelet ikkje lenger lov å nytte i fruktproduksjon i Norge. I dette arbeidet har vi undersøkt effekten av slått av undervegetasjon som eit førebyggjande tiltak mot skade av teger. I tillegg har vi undersøkt ulike kjemiske og biologiske sprøytemiddel sin effekt på teger og skade av desse.a

ef-20120812-142429

Division of Biotechnology and Plant Health

ECRUSLI: Bekjemping av hønsehirse i korn, potet og grønnsaker


Hønsehirse (Echinochloa crus-galli) er en ugrasart som er et økende problem i Norge. Ugresset har spredd seg de seinere årene fra områder nær Oslofjorden og har etablert fra Aust-Agder i sør til Hedmark i nord. Godt tilpassa biotyper i Østfold og Vestfold konkurrerer i dag godt i vårkorn og kan gi store avlingstap. Avlingstapet i mindre konkurransedyktige kulturer som grønnsaker vil være mye høyere enn i korn. Rådgivere og bønder hevder at de har problemer med å kontrollere hønsehirse selv med effektive plantevernmidler tilgjengelige. I motsetning til Norge, er hønsehirse ikke ansett som et stort problem i vårkorn i andre nordiske land.

Aktiv Sist oppdatert: 01.11.2017
Slutt: feb 2020
Start: mars 2017
SMARTCROP-2-1600-2

Division of Biotechnology and Plant Health

SMARTCROP

Innovative approaches and technologies for Integrated Pest Management to increase sustainable food production.
Norway has implemented EU´s Directive on sustainable use of pesticides (2009/128/EC) which promotes the use of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and alternative approaches or techniques (IPM tools) to minimize pesticide use. There is a lack, however, of proven and practical IPM tools for farmers to use, as well as a relevant policy for a successful implementation of IPM. In SMARTCROP we aim to meet these challenges. The project is divided into 5 Work Packages (WPs) as presented below.

Aktiv Sist oppdatert: 14.08.2017
Slutt: des 2018
Start: jan 2015