Ingeborg Klingen

Head of Department/Head of Research

(+47) 930 92 211
ingeborg.klingen@nibio.no

Place
Ås H7

Visiting address
Høgskoleveien 7, 1433 Ås

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Abstract

We investigated the ability of the fungal entomopathogen Beauveria bassiana strain GHA to endophytically colonize sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and its impact on plant growth. We used foliar spray, stem injection, and soil drench inoculation methods. All three inoculation methods resulted in B. bassiana colonizing sugarcane tissues. Extent of fungal colonization differed significantly with inoculation method (χ2 = 20.112, d. f. = 2, p < 0.001), and stem injection showed the highest colonization level followed by foliar spray and root drench. Extent of fungal colonization differed significantly with plant part (χ2 = 33.072, d. f. = 5, p < 0.001); stem injection resulted in B. bassiana colonization of the stem and to some extent leaves; foliar spray resulted in colonization of leaves and to some extent, the stem; and soil drench resulted in colonization of roots and to some extent the stem. Irrespective of inoculation method, B. bassiana colonization was 2.8 times lower at 14–16 d post inoculation (DPI) than at 7–10 DPI (p = 0.020). Spraying leaves and drenching the soil with B. bassiana significantly (p = 0.01) enhanced numbers of sett roots. This study demonstrates for the first time that B. bassiana can endophytically colonize sugarcane plants and enhance the root sett and it provides a starting point for exploring the use of this fungus as an endophyte in management of sugarcane pests.

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Abstract

Neozygites floridana is a pathogenic fungus and natural enemy of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), which is an important polyphagous plant pest. The aim of this study was to reveal and predict what combination of temperature, relative humidity (RH), and time that enables and promotes primary conidia production and capilliconidia formation in N. floridana (Brazilian isolate ESALQ 1420), in both a detached leaf assay mimicking climatic conditions in the leaf boundary layer and in a semi-field experiment. In the detached leaf assay, a significant number of conidia were produced at 90% RH but the highest total number of primary conidia and proportion of capilliconidia was found at 95 and 100% RH at 25 °C. Positive temperature and RH effects were observed and conidia production was highest in the 8 to 12 h interval. The semi-field experiment showed that for a >90% probability of N. floridana sporulation, a minimum of 6 h with RH >90% and 10 h with temperatures >21 °C, or 6 h with temperatures >21 °C and 15 h with RH >90% was needed. Our study identified suitable conditions for primary- and capilliconidia production in this Brazilian N. floridana isolate. This information provides an important base for building models of a Decision Support System (DSS) where this natural enemy may be used as a tool in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and a base for developing in vivo production systems of N. floridana.

Abstract

The plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium langsethiae produces the highly potent mycotoxins HT-2 and T-2. Since these toxins are frequently detected at high levels in oat grain lots, they pose a considerable risk for food and feed safety in Norway, as well as in other north European countries. To reduce the risk of HT-2/T- 2-contaminated grain lots to enter the food and feed chain, it is important to identify factors that influence F. langsethiae infection and mycotoxin development in oats. However, the epidemiology of F. langsethiae is unclear. A three-year survey was performed to reveal more of the life cycle of F. langsethiae and its interactions with oats, other Fusarium species, as well as insects, mites and weeds. We searched for inoculum sources by quantifying the amount of F. langsethiae DNA in crop residues, weeds, and soil sampled from a selection of oat-fields. To be able to define the onset of infection, we analysed the amount of F. langsethiae DNA in oat plant material sampled at selected growth stages (between booting and maturation), as well as the amount of F. langsethiae DNA and HT-2 and T-2 toxins in the mature grain. We also studied the presence of possible insect- and mite vectors sampled at the selected growth stages using Berlese funnel traps. The different types of materials were also analysed for the presence F. graminearum DNA, the most important deoxynivalenol producer observed in Norwegian cereals, and which presence has shown a striking lack of correlation with the presence of F. langsethiae in oat. Results show that F. langsethiae DNA may occur in the oat plant already before heading and flowering. Some F. langsethiae DNA was observed in crop residues and weeds, though at relatively low levels. No Fusarium DNA was detected in soil samples. Of the arthropods that were associated with the collected oat plants, aphids and thrips species were dominating. Further details will be given at the meeting.

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the natural occurrence of Beauveria spp. in soil, from infections in the stink bug Piezodorus guildinii, an important pest of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and as endophytes in bean plant tissue. Twelve conventional and 12 organic common bean fields in the Villa Clara province, Cuba were sampled from September 2014 to April 2015. One hundred and fifty Beauveria isolates were obtained from soil samples, bean plant parts and stink bugs. The overall frequency of occurrence of Beauveria isolates in conventional fields (8.4%) was significantly lower than that in organic fields (23.6%). Beauveria were also obtained significantly more frequently from bean roots in organic fields (15.0%) compared to bean roots in conventional fields (3.3%). DNA sequencing of the intergenic Bloc region was performed for Beauveria species identification. All isolates where characterized as Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin, and clustered with isolates of neotropical origin previously described as AFNEO_1. The Cuban B. bassiana isolates formed five clusters in the phylogeny. Isolates of two clusters originated from all four locations, organic and conventional fields, as well as soil, plants and stink bugs. Organic fields contained isolates of all five clusters while conventional fields only harbored isolates of the two most frequent ones. Mating type PCR assays revealed that mating type distribution was skewed, with MAT1/MAT2 proportion of 146/4, indicating limited potential for recombination. The present study is the first to report of B. bassiana as a naturally occurring endophyte in common bean. Further, it shows that B. bassiana occurs naturally in diverse environments of common bean fields, and constitutes a potential reservoir of natural enemies against pest insects particularly in organic fields.

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Abstract

Despite global deforestation some regions, such as Europe, are currently experiencing rapid reforestation. Some of this is unintended woodland encroachment onto farmland as a result of reduced livestock pasture management. Our aim was to determine the likely impacts of this on exposure to ticks and tickborne disease risk for sheep in Norway, a country experiencing ecosystem changes through rapid woodland encroachment as well as increases in abundance and distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks and tick-borne disease incidence. We conducted surveys of I. ricinus ticks on ground vegetation using cloth lure transects and counts of ticks biting lambs on spring pastures, where lambs are exposed to infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of tick-borne fever in livestock. Pastures had higher densities of I. ricinus ticks on the ground vegetation and more ticks biting lambs if there was more tree cover in or adjacent to pastures. Importantly, there was a close correlation between questing tick density on pastures and counts of ticks biting lambs on the same pasture, indicating that cloth lure transects are a good proxy of risk to livestock of tick exposure and tick-borne disease. These findings can inform policy on environmental tick control measures such as habitat management, choice of livestock grazing area and off-host application of tick control agents.

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Abstract

Fields experiments were conducted during two growing seasons (2010–2011 and 2012–2013) at three seeding dates to identify stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) species and to determine their seasonal population density fluctuation and damage caused to three common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars “Ica Pijao,” “Cubacueto 25–9,” and “Chévere.” Stink bug species observed were Nezara viridula (L.), Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood), Chinavia rolstoni (Rolston), Chinavia marginatum (Palisot de Beauvois), and Euschistus sp. The most prevalent species was N. viridula in both seasons. The largest number of stink bugs was found in beans seeded at the first (mid September) and third (beginning of January) seeding dates. Population peaked at BBCH 75 with 1.75, 0.43, and 1.25 stink bugs/10 plants in 2010–2011 and with 2.67, 0.45, and 1.3 stink bugs/10 plants in 2012–2013 in the fields seeded the first, second, and third seeding dates, respectively. The lowest numbers of stink bugs were found in beans seeded at the second (mid November) seeding date. A significant negative correlation between relative humidity and number of stink bugs was found in 2010–2011, and a similar tendency was observed in 2012–2013. The highest seed and pod damage levels occurred in cv. “Chévere” and the lowest in cv. “ICA Pijao” during both seasons. Results suggest that cv. “ICA Pijao” and the second (mid November) seeding date is the best choice to reduce stink bug damage.

Abstract

Researchers in plant pathology and entomology often study the interaction between a host plant and its pathogen or an insect pest separately. Although studying single pathogen or insect interactions with a host plant is critical to understand the basic infection processes and to model each disease or pest attack separately, this is an extreme simplification of nature’s complexity, where multiple pests and pathogens often appear in parallel and interact with each other and their host plant. Effective management of pests and diseases require understanding of the complex interaction beteween diseases and pests on the host. Under natural conditions, wheat plants are subjected to attack by several insects and pathogens simultaneously or sequentially. The Bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi) and the necrotrophic pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum (syn. Stagonospora nodorum) the causal agent of Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB) are economically important pests of wheat in Norway. Since they colonize a common host, they may interact directly through competition for resources or indirectly by affecting the host response either positively (induced resistance) or negatively (induced susceptibility or biopredisposition). The effect of aphid infestation on P. nodorum infection and development of the disease could be an important factor in predicting SNB epidemics. However, studies on this multitrophic interactions are scarce. We conducted controlled greenhouse experiments to study the effect of aphid infestation on subsequent SNB development. The wheat cultivar ‘Bjarne’ was treated as follows:1) Aphid infested + insecticide sprayed + P. nodorum inoculated; 2) Insecticide sprayed + P. nodorum inoculated; 3) Water sprayed + P. nodorum inoculated; 4) Control plants (without aphid, insecticide or P. nodorum). When plants were at ca. BBCH 37, 18 adult female aphids (R. padi) were released per pot (treatment 1). Aphid inoculated plants were kept in an insect proof cage in a greenhouse compartment at 20°C, 70% RH, and 16 h photoperiod. Plants for the other treatments were kept in separate insect proof cages in the same greenhouse. Ten days after aphid release, plants infested with aphids (treatment 1) were sprayed with the insecticide BISCAYA (a.i. thiacloprid) at recommended concentration to remove aphids. Plants in treatment 2 and 3 were sprayed with the insecticide and water, respectively. Twenty-four hours after application of the insecticide or water, plants in treatment 1, 2, and 3 were inoculated with P. nodorum spore suspension (106 spores ml-1). The experiment included three replicates and was repeated two times. SNB incidence and severity were recorded. SNB incidence and severity were significantly higher on aphid infested plants than on non-infested plants (P < 0.05). Ten days after P. nodorum inoculation, disease severity were about 3-fold higher on aphid infested plants (treatment 1) than on non-infested plants (treatment 2 and 3). Plants in the blank control (treatment 4) were free of aphids and showed no symptoms of SNB . Infestation of wheat plants by the bird cherry-oat aphid prior to fungal inoculation enhanced the severity of SNB. P. nodorum is a necrotrophic pathogen that lives on nutrients from disintegrated plant cells. The increase in severity of SNB on aphid infested plants could be due to the increased number of dead or dying cells around the aphids feeding sites. However, whether aphids activity induced local or systemic susceptbility to plants is not yet known and needs to be studied further.

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Abstract

In this chapter we will focus on the tick Ixodes ricinus, with its main geographical distribution in Europe. It is known to transmit a variety of pathogens, among them Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis. Tick population control is one of the measures to reduce the incidence of tick-borne diseases. Due to non-target effects of chemical acaricides, acquired resistance against chemical acaricides and increased regulations, there is a demand for sustainable control measures that may be used in integrated vector management (IVM) of ticks. This chapter describes and evaluates the present knowledge on biological control of I. ricinus as an alternative to the use of chemical acaricides. Biological control makes use of living organisms (e.g. fungi, bacteria, nematodes, invertebrate predators, parasitoids) to suppress a pest population. The natural occurrence of these organisms in I. ricinus and the use of these organisms as biological control agents against I. ricinus are reviewed. Entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria and Metarhizium spp.) are the most commonly used biocontrol agents against ticks. A variety of nematode species are also shown to be effective against different tick species, but the knowledge on the operational use of invertebrate predators and parasitoids to control ticks is limited. We conclude that there are several candidates for the biological control of ticks, but that the knowledge on the natural occurrence and efficacy of these to control I. ricinus populations is very limited. There is, therefore, a need of more studies on naturally occurring enemies of I. ricinus to be able to suggest possible biocontrol candidates. These candidates should be tested in controlled laboratory and field studies with the aim to develop elegant, precise and effective biocontrol strategies for the control of I. ricinus that may be used alone or in combination with other control strategies in IVM.

Abstract

Aphids in cereals are an important problem in Europe. Entomopathogenic fungi in the Phylum Entomophthoromycota are among their natural enemies. Under certain conditions, they can cause epizootic events and control pest aphid populations. This epizootic development is affected by many abiotic and biotic factors such as aphid species and their host plant (including weeds within the crop), fungal species and isolates, and temperature. Studies from Denmark, UK, Slovakia and suggest that the genus Pandora is the most prevalent fungal pathogen of the English grain aphid (Sitobion avenae). Which fungal species that is the most prevalent in populations of the other important aphid species in cereals in Europe, the Bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi), is less clear. We chose, however, to use Pandora to assess the biological control potential of Entomophthoromycota against aphids in cereals and to produce data that might be used in a pest-warning model incorporating the effect of this natural enemy. This was done by conducting laboratory studies on the virulence of two Pandora isolates (collected in the same field) on R. padi and Myzus persicae at three temperatures (12, 15 and 18◦C). M. persicae is a polyphagous aphid that may be present on weeds. It can be an alternative host for Pandora and hence might also affect the epidemic development of Pandora in aphids that are cereal pests. Our preliminary results show that R. padi is more resistant to the tested Pandora isolates than M. persicae. The two Pandora isolates had different virulence in the two aphid species tested. The temperature did not influence the virulence.

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Abstract

This contribution demonstrates an example of experimental automatic image analysis to detect spores prepared on microscope slides derived from trapping. The application is to monitor aerial spore counts of the entomopathogenic fungus Pandora neoaphidis which may serve as a biological control agent for aphids. Automatic detection of such spores can therefore play a role in plant protection. The present approach for such detection is a modification of traditional manual microscopy of prepared slides, where autonomous image recording precedes computerised image analysis. The purpose of the present image analysis is to support human visual inspection of imagery data – not to replace it. The workflow has three components: • Preparation of slides for microscopy. • Image recording. • Computerised image processing where the initial part is, as usual, segmentation depending on the actual data product. Then comes identification of blobs, calculation of principal axes of blobs, symmetry operations and projection on a three parameter egg shape space.

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Abstract

Tick-borne diseases, such as anaplasmosis and babesiosis, are of major concern for Norwegian sheep farmers. Ticks can be controlled on and off the host, usually with the long-term, high-rotation use of chemicals. Fungal pathogens, predatory mites and ants are thought to be important tick killers in nature. However, the prevalence and diversity of predatory mites in tick habitats has barely been evaluated. It is known that most soil mite species of the cohort Gamasina (order Mesostigmata) are predators. Until now, 220 mesostigmatid species have been reported from Norway, most of them belonging to the Gamasina. One of the first recommended steps in a biological control program involves the determination of the fauna in the pest habitat. The objective of this study was to determine the groups of gamasines co-occurring with I. ricinus in sheep grazing areas in Isfjorden and Tingvoll in Western Norway. A total of 2,900 gamasines of 12 families was collected. The most numerous families were Parasitidae (46.9%) and Veigaiidae (25.7%), whereas the most diverse families were Laelapidae, Macrochelidae, Parasitidae and Zerconidae. Our results showed that the tick density was significantly related only to locality, elevation and rainfall. Differences in the prevailing environmental conditions resulted in more outstanding differences between Gamasina abundances than diversities. Based on our present knowledge of the potential of different gamasine groups as biological control agents, the results suggested that laelapid mites should be among the priority groups to be further evaluated for their role in the natural control of I. ricinus in Norway.

Abstract

The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is a serious pest of numerous crops worldwide. Sustainable management solutions for T. urticae include predators and entomopathogens. Neozygites floridana is a naturally occurring obligate fungal pathogen of T. urticae and can cause declines in T. urticae populations. The purpose of this study was to determine whether releasing the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis into T. urticae populations has the potential to increase transmission of N. floridana and accelerate the development of an epizootic. This is the first study quantifying the effect of P. persimilis on transmission of N. floridana to T. urticae in a controlled microcosm study. Our results show that introducing P. persimilis into T. urticae, populations increased the proportion of T. urticae infected with N. floridana. By the final sampling occasion, the number of T. urticae in the treatment with both the predator and the pathogen had declined to zero in both experiments, while in the fungus-only treatment T. urticae populations still persisted. We suggest that releasing P. persimilis into crops in which N. floridana is naturally present has the potential to improve spider mite control more than through predation alone.

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Abstract

A controlled climatic chamber microcosm experiment was conducted to examine how light affects the hourly sporulation pattern of the beneficial mite pathogenic fungus Neozygites floridana during a 24 h cyclus over a period of eight consecutive days. This was done by inoculating two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) with N. floridana and placing them on strawberry plants for death and sporulation. Spore (primary conidia) discharge was observed by using a spore trap. Two light regimes were tested: Plant growth light of 150 μmol m−2 s−1 for 12 h supplied by high pressure sodium lamps (HPS), followed by either; (i) 4 h of 50 μmol m−2 s−1 light with similar HPS lamps followed by 8 h darkness (full HPS light + reduced HPS light + darkness) or (ii) 4 h of 50 μmol m−2 s−1 red light followed by 8 h darkness (full HPS light + red light + darkness). A clear difference in hourly primary conidia discharge pattern between the two different light treatments was seen and a significant interaction effect between light treatment and hour in day during the 24 h cycle was observed. The primary conidia discharge peak for treatment (ii) that included red light was mainly reached within the red light hours (19:00–23:00) and the dark hours (23:00–07:00). The primary conidia discharge peak for treatment (i) with HPS light only was mainly reached within the dark hours (23:00–07:00).

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Abstract

Introducing the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis into two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, populations significantly increased the proportion of T. urticae infected with the spider mite pathogen Neozygites floridana in one of two experiments. By the final sampling occasion, the number of T. urticae in the treatment with both the predator and the pathogen had declined to zero in both experiments, while in the fungus-only treatment T. urticae populations still persisted (20–40 T. urticae/subsample). Releasing P. persimilis into crops in which N. floridana is naturally present has the potential to improve spider mite control more than through predation alone.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of conventional versus organic common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) production on natural occurrence of Beauveria spp. as entophytes in bean plant tissue, from soil and as infections in stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an important pest of bean in Cuba. Twenty-four organic and conventionally managed bean fields were sampled from September 2014 to April 2015 and Beauveria spp. were isolated and DNA extracted. PCR amplification of the intergenic Bloc region was performed for the identification of Beauveria species. Eighty-seven isolates were obtained from the soil samples by using the Galleria mellonella baiting technique. Further, 45 isolates were obtained from endophytic tissues of bean plant parts and 18 isolates were acquired from stink bugs. Only Beauveria bassiana was identified by DNA sequencing in this material. B. bassiana was more prevalent in soil, plant and stink bugs sampled from organic fields (41% soil, 22% plant, 9% bugs) compared to conventional fields (17% soil, 8% plant, 2% bugs). All plant parts were colonized by B. bassiana, but a significantly higher occurrence of this fungus was found in roots (9%) compared to stems (6%), leaves (4%) and pods (2%) in organic fields. In conventional fields there was a significantly higher occurrence of B. bassiana acquired from root (4%) and stem (3%) compared to leaves (1%) and pods (1%). Mating type PCR assays revealed that each of the isolates carried single mating types, with frequencies of 146/150 (MAT1) and 4/150 (MAT2), indicating limited potential for recombination. Our findings show that B. bassiana occur naturally as endophytes in bean fields in Cuba and contribute to a better ecological understanding of B. bassiana in agriculture.

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Abstract

Background. The beneficial fungus Neozygites floridana kills the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae, which is a serious polyphagous plant pest worldwide. Outbreaks of spider mites in strawberry and soybean have been associated with pesticide applications. Pesticides may affect N. floridana and consequently the natural control of T. urticae. N. floridana is a fungus difficult to grow in artificial media, and for this reason, very few studies have been conducted with this fungus, especially regarding the impact of pesticides. The aim of this study was to conduct a laboratory experiment to evaluate the effect of pesticides used in strawberry and soybean crops on N. floridana. Results. Among the pesticides used in strawberry, the fungicides sulfur and cyprodinil + fludioxonil completely inhibited both the sporulation and conidial germination of N. floridana. The fungicide fluazinam affected N. floridana drastically. The application of the fungicide tebuconazole and the insecticides fenpropathrin and abamectin resulted in a less pronounced negative effect on N. floridana. Except for epoxiconazole and cyproconazole, all tested fungicides used in soybean resulted in a complete inhibition of N. floridana. Among the three insecticides used in soybean, lambda-cyhalothrin and deltamethrin resulted in a significant inhibition of N. floridana. Conclusion. The insecticides/ acaricides abamectin and lambda-cyhalothrin at half concentrations and fenpropathrin and permethrin and the fungicide tebuconazole at the recommended concentrations resulted in the lowest impact on N. floridana. The fungicides with the active ingredients sulfur, cyprodinil + fludioxonil, azoxystrobin, azoxystrobin + cyproconazole, trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole and pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole negatively affected N. floridana. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry

Abstract

The plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium langsethiae produces the highly potent mycotoxins HT-2 and T-2. Since these toxins are frequently detected at high levels in oat grain lots, they pose a considerable risk for food and feed safety in Norway, as well as in other north European countries. To reduce the risk of HT-2/T- 2-contaminated grain lots to enter the food and feed chain, it is important to identify factors that influence F. langsethiae infection and mycotoxin development in oats. However, the epidemiology of F. langsethiae is unclear. A three-year survey was performed to reveal more of the life cycle of F. langsethiae and its interactions with oats, other Fusarium species, as well as insects, mites and weeds. We searched for inoculum sources by quantifying the amount of F. langsethiae DNA in weeds, crop residues, and soil, sampled from a predetermined selection of oat-fields. To be able to define the onset of infection, we analysed the amount of F. langsethiae DNA in oat plant material sampled at selected growth stages (between booting and maturation), as well as the amount of F. langsethiae DNA and HT-2 and T-2 toxins in the mature grain. We also studied the presence of possible insect- and mite vectors sampled at the selected growth stages using Berlese funnel traps. All the different types of materials were also analysed for the presence F. graminearum DNA, the most important deoxynivalenol producer observed in Norwegian cereals, and which presence has shown a striking lack of correlation with the presence F. langsethiae in oat. Preliminary results show that F. langsethiae DNA may occur in the oat plant before heading and flowering. Some F. langsethiae DNA was observed in crop residues and weeds, though at relatively low levels. More results from this work will be presented at the meeting.

Abstract

The plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium langsethiae produces the highly potent mycotoxins HT-2 and T-2. Since these toxins are frequently detected at high levels in oat grain lots, they pose a considerable risk for food and feed safety in Norway, as well as in other north European countries. To reduce the risk of HT-2/T- 2-contaminated grain lots to enter the food and feed chain, it is important to identify factors that influence F. langsethiae infection and mycotoxin development in oats. However, the epidemiology of F. langsethiae is unclear. A three-year survey was performed to reveal more of the life cycle of F. langsethiae and its interactions with oats, other Fusarium species, as well as insects, mites and weeds. We searched for inoculum sources by quantifying the amount of F. langsethiae DNA in weeds, crop residues, and soil, sampled from a predetermined selection of oat-fields. To be able to define the onset of infection, we analysed the amount of F. langsethiae DNA in oat plant material sampled at selected growth stages (between booting and maturation), as well as the amount of F. langsethiae DNA and HT-2 and T-2 toxins in the mature grain. We also studied the presence of possible insect- and mite vectors sampled at the selected growth stages using Berlese funnel traps. All the different types of materials were also analysed for the presence F. graminearum DNA, the most important deoxynivalenol producer observed in Norwegian cereals, and which presence has shown a striking lack of correlation with the presence F. langsethiae in oat. Preliminary results show that F. langsethiae DNA may occur in the oat plant before heading and flowering. Some F. langsethiae DNA was observed in crop residues and weeds, though at relatively low levels. More results from this work will be presented at the meeting.

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Abstract

Three unsprayed coffee farms (farm 1, 2 and 3) were studied for the natural occurrence of the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana in Hypothenemus hampei populations throughout the rainy season of 2004 (July-November) and 2005 (July-December). B. bassiana infections were found during most sampling dates in both years, on all three farms. The B. bassiana infection levels were higher in 2005 than in 2004 with mean prevalence of 12.1 % and 2.7%, respectively. No consistent significant differences in infection level between farms were found in any of the years. B. bassiana infection levels fluctuated widely throughout the season, and peaked at 13.5% on farm 3 in 2004 and at 44.0% on farm 1 in 2005. The H. hampei population was significantly higher in 2004 than in 2005, with 6.9% of the berries infested in 2004 and only 0.7% in 2005. In both years, the H. hampei infestation level was significantly higher on farm 2. No consistent significant differences in H. hampei infestation levels were found between sampling dates on any of the farms. H. hampei infestation levels fluctuated throughout both seasons, and peaked at 15.3% on farm 2 in 2004 and 2.2% on farm 2 in 2005. No consistent density dependent correlation between H. hampei infestation level and B. bassiana infection level was found. Correlations between climatic conditions and R bassiana or H. hampei were not found. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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Abstract

To evaluate overwintering strategies of the fungus Neozygites floridana, an important natural enemy of Tetranychus urticae, hibernating T. urticae females were investigated for the presence of fungal structures throughout one winter (October 12, 2006 to February 19, 2007) in field-grown strawberries in a cold climate in Norway ( min. ambient temp -15.3 degrees C). Neozygites floridana was present as hyphal bodies inside live, hibernating females in T. urticae populations throughout the sampling period. The lowest percentages of hibernating females with hyphal bodies were found at the two first dates of sampling at 5.5 and 0% on October 12 and 19, respectively. The prevalence then increased and peaked at 54.4% on January 14. Resting spores (immature) were also found in live hibernating females at some dates, but at lower prevalence than for hyphal bodies and predominantly only until November 8. Prevalence of resting spores in live hibernating females ranged from 2.5 to 13.8%. Total number of T. urticae was also recorded, and most mites of all four categories (nymphs, males, non-hibernating and hibernating females) were found at the first sampling date. At this date non-hibernating females were the most abundant. A sharp decrease in non-hibernating females, nymphs and males was, however, seen from mid-October to mid-November; also numbers of hibernating females decreased, but not as fast. The relative abundance of hibernating females compared to non-hibernating females increased from 32.2% at the first collection (October 12) to 97.7% at the last collection (February 2). This study confirms that N.floridana survives the winter as a semi-latent hyphal body infection, protected inside live hibernating females. It is therefore ready to develop and sporulate as soon as climatic conditions permit, resulting in early season infection of T. urticae.