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In temperate forests, red wood ants (Formica aquilonia) are considered ecosystem engineers affecting ecosystem properties and functions. Possible effects of F. aquilonia ants on species communities of invertebrates and plants were studied in the pine-dominated Geitaknottane forest reserve, Norway. Species richness of carabids, lichens and epiphytes (tree-living lichens and bryophytes) was negatively affected by ant mound density. Species of all groups, except for lichens and snails, were affected either positively or negatively by ant presence. Food availability and interference competition are plausible explanations of decreased species richness and negative species associations in carabids; while collecting, foraging and changed chemical environment may explain decreased species richness in lichens and epiphytes. Thirteen out of 15 plant and invertebrate species were weakly associated with ant mound density. Associations of only two species (Carabus violaceus and Drusilla canaliculata) were negative, while Pella humeralis and Agroeca proxima were associated positively and very strongly with ant mounds. Positive associations with ants of those invertebrates may be a response to excessive abundance of food and chemical mimicry.

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Skogens helsetilstand påvirkes i stor grad av klima og værforhold, enten direkte ved tørke, frost og vind, eller indirekte ved at klimaet påvirker omfanget av soppsykdommer og insektangrep. Klimaendringene og den forventede økningen i klimarelaterte skogskader gir store utfordringer for forvaltningen av framtidas skogressurser. Det samme gjør invaderende skadegjørere, både allerede etablerte arter og nye som kan komme til Norge som følge av økt handel og import. Eksempler på begge er omtalt i denne rapporten som presenterer resultater fra skogskadeovervåkingen i Norge i 2016........

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Herbivory by insects and mites on physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) seedlings was investigated and compared with irrigation in the semi-arid Sahelian Niger, utilizing a randomized complete block design experiment. Three water treatment protocols were applied and the types of damage were recorded. Less than 5% of the seedlings died during the 10-month trial period with sap suckers causing the most damage on the surviving plants. Plants with high production of biomass and leaf cover (foliage) were most strongly positively correlated with irrigation and were also the plants that endured the highest degree of herbivory. The low dieback may indicate that defence mechanisms counteract seedling herbivory and that drought-stressed plants invest more in their defence mechanism system than vital plants.

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I jakten på nye insekter gasser forskerne norske eiketrær slik at insektene faller døde om på bakken. På denne måten fant de 17 nye arter for vitenskapen, åtte nye arter for Norden og 57 nye arter for Norge.

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The collapse of the Soviet Union in the Central Asian countries has led to enormous challenges for them ensuring a sustainable environment. Weak economies, weak institutions and lack of environmental sciences expertise were important reasons for the Norwegian support to the environmental sector in this region. The State Forest Service of the Kyrgyz Republic and the Norwegian Forestry Group initiated the TEMP project, later renamed TEMP-CA, in the Kyrgyz Republic in 2004. TEMP-activities in the Republic of Tajikistan were included in 2007 and in the Republic of Uzbekistan from 2008. In 2008, as a spin-off of TEMP-CA, the Ahangaran Forest Damage Project was initiated realizing that the Juniper forests surrounding the town of Angren were under environmental constrain, possibly due to massive industrial activities....

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The pinewood nematode (PWN) is one of the worst tree-killing exotic pests in East-Asian countries. The first European record of establishment in Portugal in 1999 triggered extensive surveys and contingency plans for eradication in European countries, including immediate removal of large areas of conifer host trees. Using Norway as an example, we applied a simulation model to evaluate the chance of successful eradication of a hypothetical introduction by the current contingency plan in a northern area where wilting symptoms are not expected to occur. Despite a highly variable spread of nematode infestations in space and time, the probability of successful eradication in 20 years was consistently low (mean 0.035, SE 0.02). The low success did not change significantly by varying the biological parameters in sensitivity analyses (SA), probably due to the late detection of infestations by the survey (mean 14.3 years). SA revealed a strong influence of management parameters. However, a high probability of eradication required unrealistic measures: achieving an eradication probability of 0.99 in 20 years required 10,000 survey samples per year and a host tree removal radius of 8,000 m around each detection point.

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Denne rapporten sammenfatter det meste av den informasjon som er tilgjengelig om påvirkninger fra veganlegg og vegtrafikk på biologisk mangfold på karplanter, epifyttiske moser og lav, og virvelløse dyr som kan relateres til norske forhold. Undersøkelser på vilt og fugl er ikke tatt med her; heller ikke undersøkelser som omhandler bruk av salt. Den dekker litteratur som daterer seg tilbake til 1930 og har hentet informasjon både fra vitenskapelige artikler og oppdragsrapporter. […]

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Arthropods were collected by fogging the canopy of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris selected from a 2 km2 boreal forest area in Sigdal, Norway with the overall purpose to examine whether there were faunal differences in the representation of arthropods among mature and old trees, and specifically for this paper, the biting midges (Ceratopogonidae). Target trees were chosen as pairs, one mature (70-110 years) and one old (250 years or older) tree from six different stands. All knock-down treatments were performed in June and July 1999, before dawn and after a dry and windless night. Knocked-down arthropods were collected in plastic funnels placed systematically on the ground. Funnels remained in place for circa one hour after treatment. Among the 61 species records new to Norway, the most frequently encountered taxon of invertebrates was Diptera, and the family of biting midges, Ceratopogonidae, comprised 30 of 61 (49%) of all new records, compared with the overall species numbers showing 40 biting midges of 193 recorded species (21%). Among the Ceratopogonidae new to Norway, two species new to science and two first records from Europe were found. Coleman rarefaction curves were constructed by running 500 iterations without replacements using EstimateS and showed that there were significantly more new records of Diptera in old trees in comparison with mature trees. A similar pattern of significance (by comparing standard deviations estimated by EstimateS) was found for Diptera when Ceratopogonidae was excluded. New species records of Ceratopogonidae were more common in old trees than in mature trees, although not significantly so. No predominance of new records in old trees was found for arthropods other than Diptera. Old trees are rare and may provide a variety of resources (e.g. resting sites, places to over-winter, hiding places, sites for oviposition, larval habitat, etc.) that are rarely found in younger trees. Thus, the high number of new species records probably result from studying a whole arthropod taxon (Diptera) in a part of a forest ecosystem (canopies) with a suite of microhabitats (old pine trees) that in combination has been poorly investigated earlier.

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The detection in 1999 of the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in Portugal triggered survey activities in many European countries. With the assumption that PWN would reach frequency 10 times lower than the native B. mucronatus and the requirement of a 95 % confidence limit suggested 2 995 samples to be required for a safe statement on the absence of PWN from the territory surveyed. Samples were taken from 10 circular areas with 50 km diameter erected from a point of import of risk materials. In the period 2000-2006 3 165 wood samples, 2 880 from Pinus sylvestris, 279 from Picea abies and 6 from unknown wood, were collected from 446 logging sites, in 84 municipalities and 13 counties. Of the total material 85 % of the samples came from cutting wastes, timber or lying trees. Wood showing signs of insect activity (incl. Monochamus) formed 73 % of the total material. Nematodes were recorded in 85 % of the samples. The order Rhabditida was most frequent, followed by the orders Aphelenchida, Tylenchida and Dorylaimida. Rhabditid nematodes were equally frequent in pine and spruce, while Aphelenchida (Aphelenchus, Aphelenchoides, Cryptaphelenchus, Seinura and Bursaphelenchus) and Tylenchida (Filenchus, Lelenchus, Ditylenchus, Deladenus and Nothotylenchus) tended to be more common in pinewood. Aphelenchoides was the most common genus. The genus Bursaphelenchus occurred in 1 % of the samples. B. mucronatus was detected in 0,3 % of the samples and most often in cutting waste of pine. The pine wood nematode (PWN), B. xylophilus, was not detected in this survey. The unexpected low natural occurrence of B. mucronatus indicates that the number of potential niches for PWN also is lower than expected, and hence it will be necessary to continue this surveillance program to reach 10 000 samples. The present zone sites in central and south-eastern Norway will be supplemented with 1-2 zone sites in southwestern region of the country. In the future these zone sites will function as permanent observation areas. Care will also be taken to collect all samples from detached wood with signs of Monochamus activity.

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Results from a literature review on pinewood ecology, silviculture, genetics, aspects of history and forest resources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in western Norway are presented. The pinewoods cover 40 per cent of the forested land, 0.31 million ha. During the last 75 years, the area has increased by 17 per cent and the growing stock has risen from 10 to 34 million m3. The impact of man in previous times was very marked, and has had a significant influence on the present forest conditions. The pronounced climatic gradients mixed with the topographic variation - from the coastal plains via the fjord systems to the high mountains - is reflected in rather steep gradients in the pine forest vegetation. Various floristic elements can be distinguished, from oceanic via the suboceanic in the outer islands to the thermophytic, boreonemoral and boreal elements in the inner fjord districts and valleys. The introduction of spruce (Picea spp.) plantations on 10-15 per cent of former native pine forests has not negatively affected the bird fauna at the landscape scale. Although not particular species rich, the pine forests harbour species usually not found in other forest types. So far, most work in the field of silviculture and forest ecology in the pinewoods of West Norway has been in the form of case studies. Implications of the results for forestry in the region are briefly discussed.

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In this study, forest treated with different strengths of selective cutting (2570 % of volume removed) was remeasured after twelve years in 2005. At each of the sixteen 0.2 ha plots, including four repeats of each treatment, all trees larger than dbh 2.5 cm were calipered. We investigated growth, changes in stand structure, tree age, tree damage and crown condition.The diameter distribution displayed a reverse J-curve at all plots both before and after the cuttings. Twelve years later the curve is only slightly changed. Increment cores from 300 trees were taken to analyse annual growth reactions in different diameter classes. Most trees reacted with increased growth from the second or third year after the cutting.This improved growth accelerated the following six or seven years with 20-80% increase. Both small and large trees reacted, including severely suppressed trees. The initial crown volume and crown vitality after cutting is essential for the increased growth since several years are necessary to build up a larger and better crown. The relationship between increased growth and reduced volume per hectare indicates less competition between trees regarding nutrients and light after the cutting.

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In this survey of 2002, 600 samples were collected from 83 forest blocks in the counties Akershus, Buskerud, Oppland and Østfold. The sampling activity involved 16 municipallities situated mainly within the three zone sites A, B, and C. Samples from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) formed 89%, while samples of Norway spruce (Picea abies) made up 10% of the total sample volume. Timber and forest debris were the most common objects sampled. Sixty-five percent of the pine samples and 81% of the spruce samples showed signs of Monochamus activity. Nematodes were common and occurred in 94% of the samples analysed. Thirteen samples of pinewood were positive for the genus Bursaphelenchus. Bursaphelenchus mucronatus was recorded for the third time in Norway, and was detected in forest debris attacked by Monochamus at Bjørdalen in the municipality of Eidsberg in the county of Østfold. The pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was not detected in this survey.

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In this survey of 2003, 600 samples were collected from 96 forest blocks in the counties of Aust-Agder and Vest-Agder in southern Norway. The sampling activity involved 19 municipalities situated mainly within the two zone sites D and E close to Kristiansand and Arendal. Samples from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) formed 92%, while samples of Norway spruce (Picea abies) made up 8% of the total sample volume. Timber and forest debris was the most common objects sampled. Ninety-eight percent of the samples, regardless of tree species, showed signs of Monochamus activity. Nematodes were common and occurred in 90% of the samples analysed. Eight samples of pinewood were positive for the genus Bursaphelenchus. This genus did not occur in spruce. Bursaphelenchus mucronatus was detected in 6 samples of forest debris of pine attacked by Monochamus and collected in the county of Aust-Agder. In the municipality of Evje and Hornes B. mucronatus was detected at Skjerkelia and Sutestad. In the municipality of Froland the nematode was found in two samples from Budalsfjellet, and in one sample from Mjålandsvatn. In the municipality of Birkenes one sample from Vågsdalen contained B. mucronatus. This is the fourth report on the occurrence of B. mucronatus in Norway. The pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was not detected.

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We fogged trees in two pine dominated forests in Norway with a synthetic pyrethroid in order to compare the canopy-dwelling fauna of arthropods between costal (Kvam) and boreal (Sigdal) sites and between old (250-330 years) and mature (60-120 years) trees at Sigdal. Almost 30,000 specimens were assigned to 510 species; only 93 species were present at both sites. Species diversity, as established by rarefaction, was similar in old and mature trees. However, the number of species new to Norway (including nine species new to science) was significantly higher in the old trees. We suggest that the scarcity of old trees, habitat heterogeneity and structural differences between old and mature trees may explain these patterns. Productivity and topographic position at the site of growth explained the between-tree variation in species occurrence for the more abundant species, which were mainly Collembola and Oribatida. Species diversity was similar at the boreal and coastal sites, but there were clear differences in species composition

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In 2001, a zone site C, was established as a circular areas with 50 km radius and centred in Greåker close to Sarpsborg in South-eastern Norway. Zone site C is complementary to the similar zone sites A and B established in 2000. From June 2001 to December 2002, 601 wood samples were collected from 66 forest blocks, all situated within the 3 existing zone sites A, B and C. The sampling was carried out in the provinces Akershus, Buskerud, Vestfold and Østfold, but was concentrated to the South-eastern region, where 399 samples were taken from 45 forest blocks in the province of Østfold. Samples from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) formed 96% of the collected material, while Norway spruce (Picea abies) was a minor fraction. Lying trees and various kinds of detached wood formed the main part of the objects sampled. The frequency of objects showing signs of attack by wood boring insects was 44%. Some samples were also taken in Porsgrunn in the province of Telemark from a consignment of spruce imported from Russia. Nematodes were often more common in samples from objects with signs of insect activity. In four samples, all from lying pine trees, nematodes belonging to the genus Bursaphelenchus were detected. Bursaphelenchus mucronatus was recorded for the second time in Norway, and occurred in a lying pine tree attacked by Monochamus at Ombudstvedt in the municipality of Våler in the province of Østfold. The pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was not detected, nor in forests or in 5 samples from spruce imported from Russia

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Two zone sites, i.e. two circular areas with 50 km radius, were established in southern Norway. The zone sites were centred in Tofte (the location of a major pulp mill) and in Drammen (the site of a major timber yard). From June to October 2000, 66 forest blocks were visited, 65 of which were situated within the zone site areas. Samples were collected from 40 forest blocks, especially from wood attacked by wood boring insects. At 34 forest blocks, trees of Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris, or Norway spruce Picea abies were provided as trap-logs for Monochamus spp. This material will be sampled in the survey of 2001. Some samples were also taken from a wood chip pile and from imported wood material. The total number of wood samples analysed for nematodes were 275. Out of these, 214 samples were collected from forest trees, stumps, timber and logging wastes of P. sylvestris and P. abies. Three samples contained nematodes belonging to the genus Bursaphelenchus, but the Pine Wood Nematode (PWN), B. xylophilus, was not detected. Similarly, this nematode was not detected in the 10 samples of wood chips, or in the 25 samples of imported lumber or in the 26 samples of imported solid wood packing material. In order reach the minimal number of 3000 samples within reasonable time, the number of samples for the next survey season of 2001 needs to be increased drastically. To achieve this, the sampling will continue within the existing zone sites, and be extended into new zone sites to be established in 2001.

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The beetle fauna of 299 sporocarps of the bracket fungus Fomitopsis pinicola in a 200 ha spruce forest in southeastern Norway was investigated in relation to sporocarp, tree and forest variables. The sporocarps contained 36 species of beetles, of which six species are on the Norwegian Red List. Of 12,373 individual beetles collected, 91 % were Cis glabratus. Plots of species accumulation curves suggested that there may be more than 60 beetle species present in F. pinicola in the area, but that probably all the specialist Ciidae were found. The major factor influencing beetle diversity turned out to be the level of dead wood at and in the vicinity of the sampling site, with a higher number of species per unit volume of sporocarps in areas with high levels of dead wood. There were also significantly more red-listed species in those areas. Analysing the species occurrence with stepwise logistic regression, we show preferential habitat selection of the six most abundant species of Ciidae. Conservation of beetles associated with bracket fungi using amount of dead wood as a surrogate measurement is discussed.