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Includes, inter alia: a list of the recorded hosts (conifers and broadleaved species) and localities of G. podocarpi in E. Africa; data on the relation of late-instar larval density to degree of defoliation; and natural control, especially by a virus disease and laboratory tests of three insecticides against late-instar larvae.


Reviews records of the occurrence of terminal dieback in P. sylvestris in Norway from 1863, and describes the symptoms and distribution of damage occurring in 1963. Sample trees ca. 0.5-2.0 m. high from 50 localities in which damage had occurred, and meteorological records for these areas, were studied. In view of the apparent connexion with summer frosts, special attention was paid to the development of annual rings and the occurrence of frost rings in the late wood. Results indicated that for every summer in which damage occurred there had been a short growing season with very low mean temperatures, and this had generally been preceded by a favourable summer in the previous year. These conditions appear to lead to insufficient development of the shoots, which do not acquire their normal frost hardiness. Such predisposed shoots may be injured by frost during the following dormant period or, as probably happened in 1963, by unfavourable early spring weather.