Kirsten Tørresen

Research Scientist

(+47) 971 80 114
kirsten.torresen@nibio.no

Place
Ås H7

Visiting address
Høgskoleveien 7, 1433 Ås

To document

Abstract

Seed biology is important for emergence in the field and for future weed infestations. This chapter focuses on seed biology, germination, dormancy and efforts in predicting weed emergence from seeds from a European perspective. It presents a brief overview of population dynamics in time and space, the factors influencing the dynamics and how population dynamics can be modelled. Emergence from the seed-bank starts with germination, pre-emergence growth and finally emergence. In addition to seeds, vegetatively propagated material is briefly mentioned. Dormancy influences under what conditions that germination can occur and regulates timing of germination. Population dynamics are important for understanding the whole system and are often based on the life-cycle of weeds: seed-bank, seedlings, adult plants, seed production and dispersal. Challenges in modelling emergence and population dynamics are large, due to differences between and within populations of species, variability in species response and there being many weed species in the same field with contrasting characteristics.

Abstract

Four field trials (spring wheat and oats) were conducted (one on clay soil, one on loam soil and two on silt soil) for three years in important cereal growing districts, to investigate the influence of tillage regimes (ploughing versus reduced tillage in either autumn or spring) and straw management (removed and retained) on plant residue amounts, weed populations, soil structural parameters and cereal yields. The effect of tillage on soil structure varied, mainly due to the short trial period. In general, the amount of small soil aggregates increased with tillage intensity. Reduced soil tillage, and in some cases spring ploughing, gave significantly higher aggregate stability than autumn ploughing, thus providing protection against erosion. However, decreasing tillage intensity increased the amounts of weeds, particularly of Poa annua on silt soil. Straw treatment only slightly affected yields, while effects of tillage varied between both year and location. Reduced tillage, compared to ploughing, gave only small yield differences on loam soil, while it was superior on clay soil and inferior on silt soil. Our results suggest that shallow spring ploughing is a good alternative to autumn ploughing, since it gave comparable yields, better protection against erosion and was nearly as effective against weeds.

Abstract

With the Directive 2009/128/EC on sustainable use of pesticides, reductions in herbicide use is a European target. The aim of this study was to compare the fi eld-specifi c herbicide use resulting from simulated integrated weed management (IWM) with farmer’s actual use. Two IWM tools applicable for cereals were explored: VIPS – a web-based decision support system, and DAT sensor – a precision farming technology for patch spraying. VIPS (adaptation of Danish “Crop Protection Online”) optimizes herbicide – and dose to weed species densityand growth stage (including ALS-herbicide resistant populations), temperature, expected yield, cereal species- and growth stage. Weeds were surveyed (0.25 m2, n=23-31) prior to post-emergence spraying in spring 2013 (six fi elds) and 2014 (eight fi elds). DAT sensor enables automatic patch spraying of annual weeds within cereals. It consists of an RGB camera and custom-made image analysis. DAT sensor acquired more than 900 images (0.06 m2) per fi eld. Threshold for simulated patch spraying was relative weed cover (weed cover/ total vegetation cover) = 0.042. Treatment frequency index (TFI, actual dose/maximum approved dose summed for all herbicides) was calculated. Without resistance strategy, average TFI for VIPS was higher for winter wheat (0.96) than for spring cereals (0.38). Spring cereal fi elds with resistance strategies gave an average TFI of 1.45. Corresponding TFI for farmer’s applications were 1.40, 0.90 and 1.26, respectively. For one fi eld wherein both tools were explored in 2013 and 2014, TFI values for VIPS were 1.86 and 1.50 due to resistant Stellaria media, while TFI for farmer’s sprayings were around 1.00. DAT sensor simulated herbicide savings of 69% and 99%, corresponding to TFI values of 0.58 and 0.01, respectively. As measured by TFI, DAT sensor showed a higher potential in herbicide savings than VIPS. VIPS is available without costs to end-users today, while DAT sensor represents a future tool.

Abstract

In Europe there is an on-going process on implementing regulations aimed at reducing pollution from agricultural production systems, i.e. the Water Framework Directive and the Framework Directive for Sustainable Use of Pesticides. At the same time, there is an increasing focus on food security possibly leading to continued intensification of agricultural production with increased use of external inputs, such as pesticides and fertilizers. Application of sustainable production systems can only be achieved if they balance conflicting environmental and economic effects. In Norway, cereal production is of large importance for food security and reduction of soil and phosphorus losses, as well as pesticide use and leaching/runoff in the cereal production are of special concern. Therefore, we need to determine the most sustainable and effective strategies to reduce loss of top soil, phosphorus and pesticides while maintaining cereal yields. A three-year research project, STRAPP, is addressing these concerns. A catchment area dominated by cereal production is our common research arena within STRAPP. Since 1992 a database (JOVA) with data for soil erosion, nutrient and pesticide leaching/runoff (i.e. concentrations in stream water), yield, and agricultural management practices (fertilization, use of pesticides, soil tillage and rotations) has been established for this catchment allowing us to compare a unique diversity in cropping strategies in a defined location. An important part of STRAPP focuses on developing ‘best plant protection strategies’ for cereal fields in the study area, based on field inventories (manual and sensor based) of weeds and common diseases, available forecast systems, and pesticide leaching risk maps. The results of field studies during the growing seasons of 2013 and 2014 will be presented, with a focus on possible integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for weeds and fungal diseases in cereal production. We will also present the project concept and methods for coupling optimized plant protection strategies to (i) modelling of phosphorus and pesticide leaching/runoff, as well as soil loss, and (ii) farm-economic impacts and adaptations. Further, methods for balancing the conflicting environmental and economic effects of the above practices, and the evaluation of instruments for increased adoption of desirable management practices will be outlined.

Abstract

P>Autumn growth of weeds (i) provides an opportunity for mechanical and chemical control in autumn and (ii) can be important for weed survival and infestation in the following spring. Growth characteristics of Elytrigia repens, Cirsium arvense and Sonchus arvensis in autumn were studied in 2004 and 2005, on plants of different origins and developmental stages (planted at various times from May to August). The plants were grown outdoors in large pots and were assessed during September and October each year. The study showed that (i) all species grew in autumn, but growth ceased and the species withered at different times; S. arvensis first, followed by C. arvense and then E. repens and (ii) less developed (i.e. younger) plants grew later in the autumn. This was demonstrated by leaf area development and biomass distribution during autumn. Older plants had a greater total biomass with relatively more rhizomes or creeping roots than younger plants. In young plants of C. arvense and S. arvensis, the biomass of creeping roots increased during autumn. The total biomass, however, changed little during autumn. These growth patterns indicate that E. repens will be the easiest, S. arvensis the most difficult and C. arvense in between, regarding control of these species in autumn.

Abstract

The control of Alopecurus geniculatus, Poa annua and Poa trivialis using iodosulfuron (Hussar/Hussar OD) was investigated in field experiments in the seed harvest year in timothy (Phleum pratense), and in the sowing year and seed harvest year in smooth meadow-grass (Poa pratensis) and red fescue (Festuca rubra). Iodosulfuron (10 g a.i. ha-1) usually had good effect on Poa trivialis and Alopecurus geniculatus. As for Poa annua the effect on seed contamination was better than on weed coverage in the field. Early application improved weed control in the seed harvest years, and iodosulfuron was shown to perform well at low temperatures. The herbicide often delayed timothy development, but caused seed yield reduction only in two out of eight experiments, both with moist soil at treatment. The visual damage increased with increasing rates and use of additives (alcoholetoxylate or rape oil). A questionnaire investigation among timothy growers in 2004 showed that farmers using Hussar had 43% lower contamination of P. trivialis in cleaned seed yield and 20% lower yield than the farmers not using Hussar. In some trials in timothy and smooth meadow-grass, the new formulation Hussar OD gave slightly more damage than the old formulation Hussar. While well-established timothy crops seem to tolerate some visual damage without seed yield reduction, the risk of yield reduction in first year crops can usually be avoided by splitting the application into 5 g a.i. ha-1 at 14 days intervals. In smooth meadow-grass and red fescue established without cover crop, repeated applications of 5 g a.i. ha-1 in the sowing year resulted in better control of P. annua and significant seed yield improvements compared to application only in the seed harvest year. Both Hussar and Hussar OD have off-label approvals for members of the Norwegian Seed Growers Association.