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Lecture – Biological pest management using volatiles, floral field edges and insect hotels in Norwegian Christmast tree production
Gunda Thöming, Anette Sundbye
Academic – Authorization of microbial plant protection products in the Scandinavian countries: A comparative analysis
Valborg Kvakkestad, Anette Sundbye, Roma Gwynn, ...
AuthorsValborg Kvakkestad Anette Sundbye Roma Gwynn Ingeborg Klingen
The EU has developed a Directive on Sustainable Use of Chemical Pesticides (2009/128/EC) (SUD) that aims to enhance the use of non-chemical alternatives to pesticides like microbial plant protection products (PPP). The number of authorized microbial PPP for plant protection has increased globally during the last decade. There is, however, variation between different countries. Sweden and Denmark have for example each authorized 20 microbial PPP while Norway has only authorized four microbial PPP. Norway has also received significantly fewer applications for authorization of microbial PPP than the other Scandinavian countries. We explore possible explanations for the observed differences. Our results show that that the regulations in the three countries had similar requirements for the authorisation of microbial PPP. The size of the market is somewhat smaller in Norway than in Sweden and Denmark, and could therefore explain some of the differences. We suggest, however, that the most important explanation is implementation differences in terms of different decisions made in the authorization process. By comparing the authorization process for three microbial PPP in the Scandinavian countries, we found that Norway used more time for the product authorization decisions. Norway assess the same types of microbial PPP more restrictively with respect to environmental aspects and especially human health risks.
Report – Predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on wild blackberry in Norway - Results from a search for Amblyseius andersoni in August 2016
Nina Trandem, Karin Westrum, Anette Sundbye, ...
AuthorsNina Trandem Karin Westrum Anette Sundbye Pedro I. Martin João Gilberto J. De Moraes
The predatory mite Amblyseius andersoni (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is wanted as a new biocontrol product in Norwegian horticulture. The species was never found by Torgeir Edland, who surveyed the Norwegian fauna of phytoseiids for more than 20 years. Since A. andersoni has been found on blackberry in both Sweden and Denmark, we did a specific search for it in wild blackberry (Rubus tomentosus, sensu lato) in 2016. Almost 1500 potential phytoseiids were found on about 550 blackberry leaves collected near Sandefjord, Grimstad, Fredrikstad, and Ås. More than a third of these were examined at the Laboratory of Acarology (University of São Paulo, Brazil). Amblyseius andersoni was not found, but at least 10 other species of Phytoseiidae, all previously reported from Norway, were present. Thus, our survey supports earlier ones, indicating that A. andersoni is not naturally occurring in Norway. We conclude with some suggestions for an extended search.
Lecture – Authorization of microbial biopesticides in the Scandinavian countries: a comparative analysis
Valborg Kvakkestad, Anette Sundbye, Roma Gwynn
Lecture – Need for clarification of minor use definitions/applications
Kirsten Tørresen, Anette Sundbye
Lecture – Strategies to increase the approval and use of alternatives to chemical pesticides in Europe and Norway. Presentation
R. Gwynn, Anette Sundbye
Lecture – Guidance document on work-sharing in the Northern Zone. An update necessary regarding efficacy
Kirsten Tørresen, Anette Sundbye
The agro-ecosystems (e.g. cropping system (tunnel/ greenhouse/ open field, etc.), plant species, cultivar, soil management (fertilization, pH, soil cover, etc.)) has an impact on pests (insects, mites, snails, nematodes, plant diseases and weeds) and the control strategies used. Biological control agents (BCA) can serve as alternatives or as supplements to chemical pesticides. They can reduce the need for chemical treatments and thus the risk of non-target effects to humans and the environment from pesticide use. Further, the use of BCA might help to reduce the risk of pesticide resistance development. The Regulation and use of BCA differs significantly between different European countries, especially for the macroorganisms (insects, mites and nematodes). Norway has its own regulation for macroorganisms, while regulation of microorganisms (fungi, bacteria, viruses and protozoa) is almost the same as for chemical pesticides, and is comparable to the EU regulations. There is a wide range of biological control products available on the international market, and access to these products would benefit Norwegian growers. Norway has, however, a very limited selection of registered biological control products. A new Norwegian project titled “Increasing the use of biological control agents of plant pests” is financed by the Norwegian Ministry of Agriculture and Food. In this project we try to identify the bottlenecks and propose solutions to promote the registration and increase the use of BCA in Norway. A survey has been conducted where experts and agricultural advisors on different cropping systems were asked to prioritize which BCA (products) on the European market should be promoted and registered in Norway (initially against pest insects and mites). Preliminary results from this project will be presented.
Pest and disease management in organic greenhouse production in Norway Anette Sundbye1, Nina Svae Johansen2, Arne Stensvand3 1, 2, 3 Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research (Bioforsk) - Plant Health and Plant Protection, Email1: firstname.lastname@example.org Development of organic farming and marketing of organic products is a political priority in Norway, and the major goal is that 15% of the food production and consumption in year 2020 should be organic. This also relates to vegetables in greenhouses. The demand for organic vegetables is increasing and the consumers are increasingly more conscious of how their food is produced. Norwegian growers who choose to convert to organic cultivation have major challenges when it comes to marketing and keeping a stable production. However, guidance by the Norwegian agricultural extension service on organic production of cucumber has been successful (project “Organic cultivation of greenhouse vegetables and herbs” 2010-2012). Also growers of tomatoes, lettuce and herbs are in good progress in converting to organic production. According to current Norwegian regulations, the organic greenhouse production should mainly be based on natural light. The need for and use of artificial light should be documented and can only be used in certain periods of the cultivation time. The main goal of the project “Environmentally friendly development of Norwegian greenhouse industry (2009-2012)” is to reduce energy consumption in plant production. This is practiced by maximizing the utilization of natural radiation and manipulating the light with different greenhouse covering, shading materials and LED based lamps with specific wavelength spectrum. The effect of light quality on powdery mildew and pests is also studied. Experiments have shown that illumination with red or UV-B light some minutes a day can reduce powdery mildew significantly. Blue sticky traps equipped with low intensity LEDs have the potential to increase thrips catches on sticky traps, and lamps with repellent wavelengths may be used to confuse whiteflies in their host finding. Only a limited number of biological control agents (BCA) are currently registered in Norway. On the international market, a wide range of commercially products of BCA is available. Access to these products would benefit the Norwegian organic production. In order to increase the availability and use of BCA in Norway, two projects have been funded by the Ministry of Food and Agriculture. In the new project “Increasing the use of biological control agents of plant pests” (2012) bottlenecks will be identified and solution will be proposed to promote the registration and increase the use of BCA in Norway. The other project “Extension in greenhouse biological control” (2006-2012) has increased the implementation of biological control and IPM in Norwegian commercial greenhouses.