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Academic – Harnessing data science to improve integrated management of invasive pest species across Africa: An application to Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
Ritter Atoundem Guimapi, Saliou Niassy, Bester Tawona Mudereri, ...
AuthorsRitter Atoundem Guimapi Saliou Niassy Bester Tawona Mudereri Elfatih M. Abdel-Rahman Ghislain T. Tepa-Yotto Sevgan Subramanian Samira A. Mohamed Karl Thunes Emily Kimathi Komi Mensah Agboka Manuele Tamò Jean Claude Rwaburindi Buyung Hadi Maged Elkahky May-Guri Sæthre Yeneneh Belayneh Sunday Ekesi Segenet Kelemu Henri E. Z. Tonnang
After five years of its first report on the African continent, Fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) is considered a major threat to maize, sorghum, and millet production in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite the rigorous work already conducted to reduce FAW prevalence, the dynamics and invasion mechanisms of FAW in Africa are still poorly understood. This study applied interdisciplinary tools, analytics, and algorithms on a FAW dataset with a spatial lens to provide insights and project the intensity of FAW infestation across Africa. The data collected between January 2018 and December 2020 in selected locations were matched with the monthly average data of the climatic and environmental variables. The multilevel analytics aimed to identify the key factors that influence the dynamics of spatial and temporal pest density and occurrence at a 2 km x 2 km grid resolution. The seasonal variations of the identified factors and dynamics were used to calibrate rule-based analytics employed to simulate the monthly densities and occurrence of the FAW for the years 2018, 2019, and 2020. Three FAW density level classes were inferred, i.e., low (0–10 FAW moth per trap), moderate (11–30 FAW moth per trap), and high (>30 FAW moth per trap). Results show that monthly density projections were sensitive to the type of FAW host vegetation and the seasonal variability of climatic factors. Moreover, the diversity in the climate patterns and cropping systems across the African sub-regions are considered the main drivers of FAW abundance and variation. An optimum overall accuracy of 53% was obtained across the three years and at a continental scale, however, a gradual increase in prediction accuracy was observed among the years, with 2020 predictions providing accuracies greater than 70%. Apart from the low amount of data in 2018 and 2019, the average level of accuracy obtained could also be explained by the non-inclusion of data related to certain key factors such as the influence of natural enemies (predators, parasitoids, and pathogens) into the analysis. Further detailed data on the occurrence and efficiency of FAW natural enemies in the region may help to complete the tri-trophic interactions between the host plants, pests, and beneficial organisms. Nevertheless, the tool developed in this study provides a framework for field monitoring of FAW in Africa that may be a basis for a future decision support system (DSS).
Academic – Seasonal Variations of Spodoptera frugiperda Host Plant Diversity and Parasitoid Complex in Southern and Central Benin
Jeannette K. Winsou, Ghislain T. Tepa-Yotto, Karl Thunes, ...
AuthorsJeannette K. Winsou Ghislain T. Tepa-Yotto Karl Thunes Richard Meadow Manuele Tamò May-Guri Sæthre
Fall armyworm (FAW) Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was recorded for the first time in 2016 attacking maize fields in central and west Africa. Soon after, several other regions and countries have reported the pest in almost the entire sub-Saharan Africa. In the present study, we assumed that (i) a variety of alternative plant species host FAW, especially during maize off-season, (ii) a wide range of local parasitoids have adapted to FAW and (iii) parasitoid species composition and abundance vary across seasons. During a two-year survey (from June 2018 to January 2020), parasitoids and alternative host plants were identified from maize and vegetable production sites, along streams and lowlands, on garbage dumps and old maize fields in southern and partly in the central part of Benin during both maize growing- and off-season. A total of eleven new host plant species were reported for the first time, including Cymbopogon citratus (de Candolle) Stapf (cultivated lemon grass), Bulbostylis coleotricha (A. Richard) Clarke and Pennisetum macrourum von Trinius (wild). The survey revealed seven parasitoid species belonging to four families, namely Platygastridae, Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, and Tachinidae associated with FAW on maize and alternative host plants. The most abundant parasitoid species across seasons was the egg parasitoid Telenomus remus (Nixon) (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae). These findings demonstrate FAW capability to be active during the maize off-season in the selected agro-ecologies and provide baseline information for classical and augmentative biocontrol efforts.
Academic – The effect of climate variability in the efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum against the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria
Samuel F. Kamga, Frank T. Ndjomatchoua, Ritter Atoundem Guimapi, ...
AuthorsSamuel F. Kamga Frank T. Ndjomatchoua Ritter Atoundem Guimapi Ingeborg Klingen Clément Tchawoua Anne-Grete Roer Hjelkrem Karl Thunes Francois M. Kakmeni
Despite substantial efforts to control locusts they remain periodically a major burden in Africa, causing severe yield loss and hence loss of food and income. Distribution maps indicating the value of the basic reproduction number R0 was used to identify areas where an insect pest can be controlled by a natural enemy. A dynamic process-based mathematical model integrating essential features of a natural enemy and its interaction with the pest is used to generate R0 risk maps for insect pest outbreaks, using desert locust and the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum (Synn. Metarhizium anisoliae var. acridum) as a case study. This approach provides a tool for evaluating the impact of climatic variables such as temperature and relative humidity and mapping spatial variability on the efficacy of M. acridum as a biocontrol agent against desert locust invasion in Africa. Applications of M. acridum against desert locust in a few selected African countries including Morocco, Kenya, Mali, and Mauritania through monthly spatial projection of R0 maps for the prevailing climatic condition are illustrated. By combining mathematical modeling with a geographic information system in a spatiotemporal projection as we do in this study, the field implementation of microbial control against locust in an integrated pest management system may be improved. Finally, the practical utility of this model provides insights that may improve the timing of pesticide application in a selected area where efficacy is highly expected.
Academic – Global Habitat Suitability of Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae): Key Parasitoids Considered for Its Biological Control
Ghislain T. Tepa-Yotto, Henri E. Z. Tonnang, Georg Goergen, ...
AuthorsGhislain T. Tepa-Yotto Henri E. Z. Tonnang Georg Goergen Sevgan Subramanian Emily Kimathi Elfatih M. Abdel-Rahman Daniel Flø Karl Thunes Komi K. M. Fiaboe Saliou Niassy Anani Bruce Samira A. Mohamed Manuele Tamò Sunday Ekesi May-Guri Sæthre
Simple Summary: The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda has now become a pest of global importance. Its introduction and detection in Africa in 2016, and subsequent introduction and spread into Asia and Australia, has put several millions of food producers and maize farmers at risk. Not all pest management strategies are sustainable. Biological control with the use of parasitoid wasps is one of the durable and environmentally sound options. The present study was initiated to predict the habitats of high establishment potential of key parasitoids of FAW in South America, which might prove to be effective as classical biological control agents of FAW in regions where it is an invasive species under current and future climate scenarios. The prospective parasitoids are the following: Chelonus insularis, Cotesia marginiventris, Eiphosoma laphygmae, Telenomus remus and Trichogramma pretiosum. The results demonstrate overlapping habitat suitability areas of the pest and the parasitoids, suggesting promises for biological control options for the management of FAW under current and future climate scenarios. Abstract: The present study is the first modeling effort at a global scale to predict habitat suitability of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda and its key parasitoids, namely Chelonus insularis, Cotesia marginiventris, Eiphosoma laphygmae, Telenomus remus and Trichogramma pretiosum, to be considered for biological control. An adjusted procedure of a machine-learning algorithm, the maximum entropy (Maxent), was applied for the modeling experiments. Model predictions showed particularly high establishment potential of the five hymenopteran parasitoids in areas that are heavily affected by FAW (like the coastal belt of West Africa from Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast) to Nigeria, the Congo basin to Eastern Africa, Eastern, Southern and Southeastern Asia and some portions of Eastern Australia) and those of potential invasion risks (western & southern Europe). These habitats can be priority sites for scaling FAW biocontrol efforts. In the context of global warming and the event of accidental FAW introduction, warmer parts of Europe are at high risk. The effect of winter on the survival and life cycle of the pest in Europe and other temperate regions of the world are discussed in this paper. Overall, the models provide pioneering information to guide decision making for biological-based medium and long-term management of FAW across the globe.
Academic – The Arthropod Fauna of Oak (Quercus spp., Fagaceae) Canopies in Norway
Karl Thunes, Geir Einar Ellefsen Søli, Csaba Thuroczy, ...
AuthorsKarl Thunes Geir Einar Ellefsen Søli Csaba Thuroczy Arne Fjellberg Stefan Olberg Steffen Roth Carl-C. Coulianos R. Henry L. Disney Josef Stary G. (Bert) Vierbergen Terje Jonassen Johannes Anonby Arne Köhler Frank Menzel Ryszard Szadziewski Elisabeth Stur Wolfgang Adaschkiewitz Kjell M. Olsen Torstein Kvamme Anders Endrestøl Sigitas Podenas Sverre Kobro Lars Ove Hansen Gunnar Mikalsen Kvifte Jean-Paul Haenni Louis Boumans
(1) We document the invertebrate fauna collected from 24 oak canopies in east and west Norway as a contribution to the Norwegian Biodiversity Information Centre’s ‘The Norwegian Taxonomy Initiative’. (2) A snap-shot inventory of the canopies was recorded by means of emitting a mist of natural pyrethrum into the canopies at night using a petrol-driven fogger and collecting the specimens in butterfly nets spread on the ground under the canopy. (3) Almost the entire catch of more than 6800 specimens was identified to 722 species. Out of 92 species new to the Norwegian fauna, 21 were new to science and, additionally, 15 were new to the Nordic fauna. Diptera alone constituted nearly half of the species represented, with 61 new records (18 new species). Additionally, 24 Hymenoptera (one new species), six oribatid mites (two new species) and one Thysanoptera were new to the Norwegian fauna. (4) Our study emphasizes the importance of the oak tree as a habitat both for a specific fauna and occasional visitors, and it demonstrates that the canopy fogging technique is an efficient way to find the ‘hidden fauna’ of Norwegian forests. The low number of red listed species found reflects how poor the Norwegian insect fauna is still studied. Moreover, the implication of the IUCN red list criteria for newly described or newly observed species is discussed.
Academic – The red wood ant Formica aquilonia (Hymenoptera : Formicidae) may affect both local species richness and composition at multiple trophic levels in a boreal forest ecosystem
Karl Thunes, Ivar Gjerde, John Skartveit
AuthorsKarl Thunes Ivar Gjerde John Skartveit
In temperate forests, red wood ants (Formica aquilonia) are considered ecosystem engineers affecting ecosystem properties and functions. Possible effects of F. aquilonia ants on species communities of invertebrates and plants were studied in the pine-dominated Geitaknottane forest reserve, Norway. Species richness of carabids, lichens and epiphytes (tree-living lichens and bryophytes) was negatively affected by ant mound density. Species of all groups, except for lichens and snails, were affected either positively or negatively by ant presence. Food availability and interference competition are plausible explanations of decreased species richness and negative species associations in carabids; while collecting, foraging and changed chemical environment may explain decreased species richness in lichens and epiphytes. Thirteen out of 15 plant and invertebrate species were weakly associated with ant mound density. Associations of only two species (Carabus violaceus and Drusilla canaliculata) were negative, while Pella humeralis and Agroeca proxima were associated positively and very strongly with ant mounds. Positive associations with ants of those invertebrates may be a response to excessive abundance of food and chemical mimicry.
Academic – Pest damage on Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae). The effect of seedling irrigation in Sahelian Niger
Karl Thunes, Alain Ratnadass, Albert Nikiema, ...
AuthorsKarl Thunes Alain Ratnadass Albert Nikiema Zaratou Claude
Herbivory by insects and mites on physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) seedlings was investigated and compared with irrigation in the semi-arid Sahelian Niger, utilizing a randomized complete block design experiment. Three water treatment protocols were applied and the types of damage were recorded. Less than 5% of the seedlings died during the 10-month trial period with sap suckers causing the most damage on the surviving plants. Plants with high production of biomass and leaf cover (foliage) were most strongly positively correlated with irrigation and were also the plants that endured the highest degree of herbivory. The low dieback may indicate that defence mechanisms counteract seedling herbivory and that drought-stressed plants invest more in their defence mechanism system than vital plants.
Lecture – Carbon monitoring in tropical and temperate forests based on interferometric SAR
Karl Thunes, Svein Solberg
Errata – Corrigenda to “Scuttle flies (Diptera, Phoridae) from the canopies of oak trees (Fagaceae) in Norway, including 13 new species”
Karl Thunes, R. Henry L. Disney
Academic – Black Fungus Gnats (Diptera: Sciaridae) in oak canopies: description of Bradysia quercina Menzel & Köhler spec. nov. and new records for Norway
Arne Köhler, Frank Menzel, Karl Thunes, ...
AuthorsArne Köhler Frank Menzel Karl Thunes Geir Einar Ellefsen Søli
No abstract has been registered
EditorsKarl Thunes Gulusa Vildanova
The collapse of the Soviet Union in the Central Asian countries has led to enormous challenges for them ensuring a sustainable environment. Weak economies, weak institutions and lack of environmental sciences expertise were important reasons for the Norwegian support to the environmental sector in this region. The State Forest Service of the Kyrgyz Republic and the Norwegian Forestry Group initiated the TEMP project, later renamed TEMP-CA, in the Kyrgyz Republic in 2004. TEMP-activities in the Republic of Tajikistan were included in 2007 and in the Republic of Uzbekistan from 2008. In 2008, as a spin-off of TEMP-CA, the Ahangaran Forest Damage Project was initiated realizing that the Juniper forests surrounding the town of Angren were under environmental constrain, possibly due to massive industrial activities....
AuthorsKarl Thunes Mariela Covault Tyrihjell Rasmus Astrup
No abstract has been registered
Academic – New ecological options for the management of horticultural crop pests in Sudano-Sahelian agroecosystems of West Africa
Alain Ratnadass, P Ryckewaert, Zarathou Claude, ...
AuthorsAlain Ratnadass P Ryckewaert Zarathou Claude Albert Nikiema D Pasternak L. Woltering Karl Thunes O Zakari-Moussa
No abstract has been registered
Academic – Is Eradication of the Pinewood Nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) Likely? An Evaluation of Current Contingency Plans
Bjørn Økland, Olav Skarpaas, Martin Schroeder, ...
AuthorsBjørn Økland Olav Skarpaas Martin Schroeder Christer Magnusson Åke Lindelöw Karl Thunes
The pinewood nematode (PWN) is one of the worst tree-killing exotic pests in East-Asian countries. The first European record of establishment in Portugal in 1999 triggered extensive surveys and contingency plans for eradication in European countries, including immediate removal of large areas of conifer host trees. Using Norway as an example, we applied a simulation model to evaluate the chance of successful eradication of a hypothetical introduction by the current contingency plan in a northern area where wilting symptoms are not expected to occur. Despite a highly variable spread of nematode infestations in space and time, the probability of successful eradication in 20 years was consistently low (mean 0.035, SE 0.02). The low success did not change significantly by varying the biological parameters in sensitivity analyses (SA), probably due to the late detection of infestations by the survey (mean 14.3 years). SA revealed a strong influence of management parameters. However, a high probability of eradication required unrealistic measures: achieving an eradication probability of 0.99 in 20 years required 10,000 survey samples per year and a host tree removal radius of 8,000 m around each detection point.
Report – Pests and Pest Risk Factors in Jatropha plantations in West Africa. Report, Norwegian Research Council
Academic – Search the canopies and you will find new species records of insects
Karl Thunes, Ivar Gjerde, Daniel V. Hagan, ...
AuthorsKarl Thunes Ivar Gjerde Daniel V. Hagan Ryszard Szadziewski
Arthropods were collected by fogging the canopy of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris selected from a 2 km2 boreal forest area in Sigdal, Norway with the overall purpose to examine whether there were faunal differences in the representation of arthropods among mature and old trees, and specifically for this paper, the biting midges (Ceratopogonidae). Target trees were chosen as pairs, one mature (70-110 years) and one old (250 years or older) tree from six different stands. All knock-down treatments were performed in June and July 1999, before dawn and after a dry and windless night. Knocked-down arthropods were collected in plastic funnels placed systematically on the ground. Funnels remained in place for circa one hour after treatment. Among the 61 species records new to Norway, the most frequently encountered taxon of invertebrates was Diptera, and the family of biting midges, Ceratopogonidae, comprised 30 of 61 (49%) of all new records, compared with the overall species numbers showing 40 biting midges of 193 recorded species (21%). Among the Ceratopogonidae new to Norway, two species new to science and two first records from Europe were found. Coleman rarefaction curves were constructed by running 500 iterations without replacements using EstimateS and showed that there were significantly more new records of Diptera in old trees in comparison with mature trees. A similar pattern of significance (by comparing standard deviations estimated by EstimateS) was found for Diptera when Ceratopogonidae was excluded. New species records of Ceratopogonidae were more common in old trees than in mature trees, although not significantly so. No predominance of new records in old trees was found for arthropods other than Diptera. Old trees are rare and may provide a variety of resources (e.g. resting sites, places to over-winter, hiding places, sites for oviposition, larval habitat, etc.) that are rarely found in younger trees. Thus, the high number of new species records probably result from studying a whole arthropod taxon (Diptera) in a part of a forest ecosystem (canopies) with a suite of microhabitats (old pine trees) that in combination has been poorly investigated earlier.
Report – Surveillance of pine wood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus: Norwegian surveys 2000-2006
Christer Magnusson, Karl Thunes, Hans Nyeggen, ...
AuthorsChrister Magnusson Karl Thunes Hans Nyeggen Hans Overgaard Trond Rafoss Solveig Haukeland May Bente Brurberg K. A. Strandenæs Bjørn Økland Bonsak Hammeraas
The detection in 1999 of the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in Portugal triggered survey activities in many European countries. With the assumption that PWN would reach frequency 10 times lower than the native B. mucronatus and the requirement of a 95 % confidence limit suggested 2 995 samples to be required for a safe statement on the absence of PWN from the territory surveyed. Samples were taken from 10 circular areas with 50 km diameter erected from a point of import of risk materials. In the period 2000-2006 3 165 wood samples, 2 880 from Pinus sylvestris, 279 from Picea abies and 6 from unknown wood, were collected from 446 logging sites, in 84 municipalities and 13 counties. Of the total material 85 % of the samples came from cutting wastes, timber or lying trees. Wood showing signs of insect activity (incl. Monochamus) formed 73 % of the total material. Nematodes were recorded in 85 % of the samples. The order Rhabditida was most frequent, followed by the orders Aphelenchida, Tylenchida and Dorylaimida. Rhabditid nematodes were equally frequent in pine and spruce, while Aphelenchida (Aphelenchus, Aphelenchoides, Cryptaphelenchus, Seinura and Bursaphelenchus) and Tylenchida (Filenchus, Lelenchus, Ditylenchus, Deladenus and Nothotylenchus) tended to be more common in pinewood. Aphelenchoides was the most common genus. The genus Bursaphelenchus occurred in 1 % of the samples. B. mucronatus was detected in 0,3 % of the samples and most often in cutting waste of pine. The pine wood nematode (PWN), B. xylophilus, was not detected in this survey. The unexpected low natural occurrence of B. mucronatus indicates that the number of potential niches for PWN also is lower than expected, and hence it will be necessary to continue this surveillance program to reach 10 000 samples. The present zone sites in central and south-eastern Norway will be supplemented with 1-2 zone sites in southwestern region of the country. In the future these zone sites will function as permanent observation areas. Care will also be taken to collect all samples from detached wood with signs of Monochamus activity.
Academic – Ecology, history and silviculture of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in western Norway - a literature review
Bernt-Håvard Øyen, Hans Blom, Ivar Gjerde, ...
AuthorsBernt-Håvard Øyen Hans Blom Ivar Gjerde Tor Myking Magne Sætersdal Karl Thunes
Results from a literature review on pinewood ecology, silviculture, genetics, aspects of history and forest resources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in western Norway are presented. The pinewoods cover 40 per cent of the forested land, 0.31 million ha. During the last 75 years, the area has increased by 17 per cent and the growing stock has risen from 10 to 34 million m3. The impact of man in previous times was very marked, and has had a significant influence on the present forest conditions. The pronounced climatic gradients mixed with the topographic variation - from the coastal plains via the fjord systems to the high mountains - is reflected in rather steep gradients in the pine forest vegetation. Various floristic elements can be distinguished, from oceanic via the suboceanic in the outer islands to the thermophytic, boreonemoral and boreal elements in the inner fjord districts and valleys. The introduction of spruce (Picea spp.) plantations on 10-15 per cent of former native pine forests has not negatively affected the bird fauna at the landscape scale. Although not particular species rich, the pine forests harbour species usually not found in other forest types. So far, most work in the field of silviculture and forest ecology in the pinewoods of West Norway has been in the form of case studies. Implications of the results for forestry in the region are briefly discussed.
Lecture – Structure and annual growth after selective cutting in irregular Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) stands - some preliminary results
Kjell Andreassen, Aksel Granhus, Karl Thunes
AuthorsKjell Andreassen Aksel Granhus Karl Thunes
In this study, forest treated with different strengths of selective cutting (2570 % of volume removed) was remeasured after twelve years in 2005. At each of the sixteen 0.2 ha plots, including four repeats of each treatment, all trees larger than dbh 2.5 cm were calipered. We investigated growth, changes in stand structure, tree age, tree damage and crown condition.The diameter distribution displayed a reverse J-curve at all plots both before and after the cuttings. Twelve years later the curve is only slightly changed. Increment cores from 300 trees were taken to analyse annual growth reactions in different diameter classes. Most trees reacted with increased growth from the second or third year after the cutting.This improved growth accelerated the following six or seven years with 20-80% increase. Both small and large trees reacted, including severely suppressed trees. The initial crown volume and crown vitality after cutting is essential for the increased growth since several years are necessary to build up a larger and better crown. The relationship between increased growth and reduced volume per hectare indicates less competition between trees regarding nutrients and light after the cutting.
Academic – Insect assemblage associated with the polypore Fomitopsis pinicola: a comparison across Fennoscandia
Atte Komonen, Mats Jonsell, Bjørn Økland, ...
AuthorsAtte Komonen Mats Jonsell Bjørn Økland Anne Sverdrup-Thygeson Karl Thunes
No abstract has been registered
Report – Survey of the pine wood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Norway 2002
Christer Magnusson, Hans Overgaard, Hans Nyeggen, ...
AuthorsChrister Magnusson Hans Overgaard Hans Nyeggen Karl Thunes Solveig Haukeland Bonsak Hammeraas
In this survey of 2002, 600 samples were collected from 83 forest blocks in the counties Akershus, Buskerud, Oppland and Østfold. The sampling activity involved 16 municipallities situated mainly within the three zone sites A, B, and C. Samples from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) formed 89%, while samples of Norway spruce (Picea abies) made up 10% of the total sample volume. Timber and forest debris were the most common objects sampled. Sixty-five percent of the pine samples and 81% of the spruce samples showed signs of Monochamus activity. Nematodes were common and occurred in 94% of the samples analysed. Thirteen samples of pinewood were positive for the genus Bursaphelenchus. Bursaphelenchus mucronatus was recorded for the third time in Norway, and was detected in forest debris attacked by Monochamus at Bjørdalen in the municipality of Eidsberg in the county of Østfold. The pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was not detected in this survey.
Report – Survey of the pine wood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Norway 2003
Christer Magnusson, Hans Nyeggen, Karl Thunes, ...
AuthorsChrister Magnusson Hans Nyeggen Karl Thunes Solveig Haukeland Bonsak Hammeraas
In this survey of 2003, 600 samples were collected from 96 forest blocks in the counties of Aust-Agder and Vest-Agder in southern Norway. The sampling activity involved 19 municipalities situated mainly within the two zone sites D and E close to Kristiansand and Arendal. Samples from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) formed 92%, while samples of Norway spruce (Picea abies) made up 8% of the total sample volume. Timber and forest debris was the most common objects sampled. Ninety-eight percent of the samples, regardless of tree species, showed signs of Monochamus activity. Nematodes were common and occurred in 90% of the samples analysed. Eight samples of pinewood were positive for the genus Bursaphelenchus. This genus did not occur in spruce. Bursaphelenchus mucronatus was detected in 6 samples of forest debris of pine attacked by Monochamus and collected in the county of Aust-Agder. In the municipality of Evje and Hornes B. mucronatus was detected at Skjerkelia and Sutestad. In the municipality of Froland the nematode was found in two samples from Budalsfjellet, and in one sample from Mjålandsvatn. In the municipality of Birkenes one sample from Vågsdalen contained B. mucronatus. This is the fourth report on the occurrence of B. mucronatus in Norway. The pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was not detected.
Academic – The arthropod community of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) canopies in Norway
Karl Thunes, John Skartveit, Ivar Gjerde, ...
AuthorsKarl Thunes John Skartveit Ivar Gjerde Josef Stary Torstein Solhøy Arne Fjellberg Sverre Kobro Sueo Nakahara R. Zur Strassen Gijsbertus Vierbergen Ryszard Szadziewski Daniel V. Hagan William. L. Grogan Jr Terje Jonassen Kjetil Aakra Johannes Anonby Lita Greve Berend Aukema Kai Heller Verner Michelsen Jean-Paul Haenni Alexandr F. Emeljanov Per Douwes Kai Berggren Jutta Franzen R. Henry L. Disney Sabine Prescher Kjell Arne Johanson Boris Mamaev Sigitas Podenas Stig Andersen Stephen D. Gaimari Emilia Narchuk Geir Einar Ellefsen Søli Laszlo Papp Fred Midtgaard Arild Andersen Michael von Tschirnhaus Gerhard Bächli Kjell Magne Olsen Hans A. Olsvik Mihaly Földvari Jan Emil Raastad Lars Ove Hansen Per Djursvoll
No abstract has been registered
Academic – The canopy arthropods of old and mature pine Pinus sylvestris in Norway
Karl Thunes, John Skartveit, Ivar Gjerde
AuthorsKarl Thunes John Skartveit Ivar Gjerde
We fogged trees in two pine dominated forests in Norway with a synthetic pyrethroid in order to compare the canopy-dwelling fauna of arthropods between costal (Kvam) and boreal (Sigdal) sites and between old (250-330 years) and mature (60-120 years) trees at Sigdal. Almost 30,000 specimens were assigned to 510 species; only 93 species were present at both sites. Species diversity, as established by rarefaction, was similar in old and mature trees. However, the number of species new to Norway (including nine species new to science) was significantly higher in the old trees. We suggest that the scarcity of old trees, habitat heterogeneity and structural differences between old and mature trees may explain these patterns. Productivity and topographic position at the site of growth explained the between-tree variation in species occurrence for the more abundant species, which were mainly Collembola and Oribatida. Species diversity was similar at the boreal and coastal sites, but there were clear differences in species composition
Report – Pine bark beetles in the Mountain Pine Ridge Forest Reserve, Belize: description of the species and how to monitor and combat the beetle infestations
Fred Midtgaard, Karl Thunes
Report – Survey of the pine wood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Norway 2001
Christer Magnusson, Karl Thunes, Solveig Haukeland, ...
AuthorsChrister Magnusson Karl Thunes Solveig Haukeland Bonsak Hammeraas
In 2001, a zone site C, was established as a circular areas with 50 km radius and centred in Greåker close to Sarpsborg in South-eastern Norway. Zone site C is complementary to the similar zone sites A and B established in 2000. From June 2001 to December 2002, 601 wood samples were collected from 66 forest blocks, all situated within the 3 existing zone sites A, B and C. The sampling was carried out in the provinces Akershus, Buskerud, Vestfold and Østfold, but was concentrated to the South-eastern region, where 399 samples were taken from 45 forest blocks in the province of Østfold. Samples from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) formed 96% of the collected material, while Norway spruce (Picea abies) was a minor fraction. Lying trees and various kinds of detached wood formed the main part of the objects sampled. The frequency of objects showing signs of attack by wood boring insects was 44%. Some samples were also taken in Porsgrunn in the province of Telemark from a consignment of spruce imported from Russia. Nematodes were often more common in samples from objects with signs of insect activity. In four samples, all from lying pine trees, nematodes belonging to the genus Bursaphelenchus were detected. Bursaphelenchus mucronatus was recorded for the second time in Norway, and occurred in a lying pine tree attacked by Monochamus at Ombudstvedt in the municipality of Våler in the province of Østfold. The pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was not detected, nor in forests or in 5 samples from spruce imported from Russia
Academic – Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from forest habitats in Norway
Daniel V. Hagan, Ryszard Szadziewski, Karl Thunes, ...
AuthorsDaniel V. Hagan Ryszard Szadziewski Karl Thunes John Skartveit
No abstract has been registered
Report – Survey of the pine wood nematode (PWN) Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Norway 2000
Christer Magnusson, Karl Thunes, Solveig Haukeland, ...
Two zone sites, i.e. two circular areas with 50 km radius, were established in southern Norway. The zone sites were centred in Tofte (the location of a major pulp mill) and in Drammen (the site of a major timber yard). From June to October 2000, 66 forest blocks were visited, 65 of which were situated within the zone site areas. Samples were collected from 40 forest blocks, especially from wood attacked by wood boring insects. At 34 forest blocks, trees of Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris, or Norway spruce Picea abies were provided as trap-logs for Monochamus spp. This material will be sampled in the survey of 2001. Some samples were also taken from a wood chip pile and from imported wood material. The total number of wood samples analysed for nematodes were 275. Out of these, 214 samples were collected from forest trees, stumps, timber and logging wastes of P. sylvestris and P. abies. Three samples contained nematodes belonging to the genus Bursaphelenchus, but the Pine Wood Nematode (PWN), B. xylophilus, was not detected. Similarly, this nematode was not detected in the 10 samples of wood chips, or in the 25 samples of imported lumber or in the 26 samples of imported solid wood packing material. In order reach the minimal number of 3000 samples within reasonable time, the number of samples for the next survey season of 2001 needs to be increased drastically. To achieve this, the sampling will continue within the existing zone sites, and be extended into new zone sites to be established in 2001.
Academic – Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from forest habitats in Norway
Daniel V. Hagan, E Hassold, B Kynde, ...
AuthorsDaniel V. Hagan E Hassold B Kynde Ryszard Szadziewski Karl Thunes John Skartveit WL Grogan
No abstract has been registered
Academic – Diversity of coleoptera of the bracket fungus Fomitopsis pipicola in a Norwegian spruce forest
Karl Thunes, Fred Midtgaard, Ivar Gjerde
AuthorsKarl Thunes Fred Midtgaard Ivar Gjerde
The beetle fauna of 299 sporocarps of the bracket fungus Fomitopsis pinicola in a 200 ha spruce forest in southeastern Norway was investigated in relation to sporocarp, tree and forest variables. The sporocarps contained 36 species of beetles, of which six species are on the Norwegian Red List. Of 12,373 individual beetles collected, 91 % were Cis glabratus. Plots of species accumulation curves suggested that there may be more than 60 beetle species present in F. pinicola in the area, but that probably all the specialist Ciidae were found. The major factor influencing beetle diversity turned out to be the level of dead wood at and in the vicinity of the sampling site, with a higher number of species per unit volume of sporocarps in areas with high levels of dead wood. There were also significantly more red-listed species in those areas. Analysing the species occurrence with stepwise logistic regression, we show preferential habitat selection of the six most abundant species of Ciidae. Conservation of beetles associated with bracket fungi using amount of dead wood as a surrogate measurement is discussed.
Academic – The diversity of coleoptera of the bracket fungus Fomitopsis pinicola in a Norwegian spruce forest
Karl Thunes, Fred Midtgaard
Doctoral dissertation – Bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae and Platypodinae) in a neotropical rain forest. Comparing occurrence and distribution between different forest habitats within a continuous reserve in Costa Rica
Karl Thunes, Lawrence R. Kirkendall
Academic – Species composition of beetles (Coleoptera) in the bracket fungi Piptoporus betulinus and Fomes fomentarius (Aphyllophorales : Polyporaceae): an explorative analysis with canonical correspondence analysis
Karl Thunes, Endre Willassen
Academic – Bracket fungi (Polyporaceae): an alternative habitat for soil chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae)
Endre Willassen, Karl Thunes
Academic – The fauna of Fomes fomentarius and Piptoporus betulinus (Aphyllophorales : Polyporaceae) with special emphasis on ecology of the Coleoptera species
Thesis at a second degree level – Polypore fungi and their associated arthropod communities in selected West Norwegian forests. The rationale and applications of numerical methods
Karl Thunes, Endre Willassen, Torstein Solhøy
Academic – Leucophenga quinquemaculata Strobl (Diptera:Drosophilidae) from Norway
Gerhard Bächli, Karl Thunes
Division of Food Production and Society
Perennial grassland mixtures: a novel approach to forage and food production, land restoration and climate resilience in Ethiopia (EthiopiaGrass).
CAP-Africa – Combating Arthropod Pests for Better Health, Food and Resilience to Climate Change
CAP-Africa will address the most important and pressing continental issues of malaria and emerging infectious diseases (yellow fever and dengue), climate change impact and education, to improve the livelihood of rural communities in the Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Ethiopia. It is a response to accumulating evidence that addressing these major problems will improve health, food and nutritional security. At the same time, it will build the resilience of the people against the impacts of climate change and enhance the capacity for leadership in scientific research, policy and technology dissemination.
Division of Biotechnology and Plant Health
Malawi Digital Plant Health Service (MaDiPHS)
This project will establish a digital agricultural plant health service at the national level in Malawi, based on coordination of internationally developed digital systems.