Publikasjoner

NIBIOs ansatte publiserer flere hundre vitenskapelige artikler og forskningsrapporter hvert år. Her finner du referanser og lenker til publikasjoner og andre forsknings- og formidlingsaktiviteter. Samlingen oppdateres løpende med både nytt og historisk materiale. For mer informasjon om NIBIOs publikasjoner, besøk NIBIOs bibliotek.

2022

Sammendrag

Aldersfri bonitering er en metode for estimering av bonitet uten bruk av alder på skogen. Metoden er utviklet ved NIBIO i seinere år, og omtalt i tidligere publikasjoner. Vi går her videre i arbeidet med å kvalitetssikre metoden, og vurderer hvilken potensiell anvendelse den kan ha i skogbruket. Samlet sett viser resultatene at aldersfri bonitet har et potensial for å brukes i skogbruk i Norge. Det kan brukes for det første som et alternativ til konvensjonell bonitering i skogbruksplanlegging og på det landsdekkende skogressurskartet SR16, og for det andre som et supplement til konvensjonell bonitet på Landsskogtakseringens felt for å overvåke endringer forårsaket av klimaendringer. I det første tilfellet er fordelen at metoden ikke krever alder som input. En generell fordel er at metoden kan fange opp endringer i bonitet som skyldes endringer i vekstvilkår grunnet for eksempel klimaendringer, og dermed i større grad enn konvensjonell bonitet representere dagens bonitet. Metoden har også den fordelen at den er velegnet for bruk med fjernmåling, og resultatene viser at både enkelttre- og areal-baserte metoder fungerer, og at både laserskanning og stereo flybilder kan brukes.

Sammendrag

The number of people affected by snow avalanches during recreational activities has increased over the recent years. An instrument to reduce these numbers are improved terrain classification systems. One such system is the Avalanche Terrain Exposure Scale (ATES). Forests can provide some protection from avalanches, and information on forest attributes can be incorporated into avalanche hazard models such as the automated ATES model (AutoATES). The objectives of this study were to (i) map forest stem density and canopy-cover based on National Forest Inventory and remote sensing data and, (ii) use these forest attributes as input to the AutoATES model. We predicted stem density and directly calculated canopy-cover in a 20 Mha study area in Norway. The forest attributes were mapped for 16 m × 16 m pixels, which were used as input for the AutoATES model. The uncertainties of the stem number and canopy-cover maps were 30% and 31%, respectively. The overall classification accuracy of 52 ski-touring routes in Western Norway with a total length of 282 km increased from 55% in the model without forest information to 67% when utilizing canopy cover. The F1 score for the three predicted ATES classes improved by 31%, 9%, and 6%.

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Sammendrag

Mountain birch forest covers large areas in Eurasia, and their ecological resilience provides important ecosystem services to human societies. This study describes long-term stand dynamics based on permanent plots in the upper mountain birch belt in SE Norway. We also present forest line changes over a period of 70 years. Inventories were conducted in 1931, 1953, and 2007. Overall, there were small changes from 1931 up to 1953 followed by a marked increase in biomass and dominant height of mountain birch throughout the period from 1953 to 2007. In addition, the biomass of spruce (Picea abies) and the number of plots with spruce present doubled. The high mortality rate of larger birch stems and large recruitment by sprouting since the 1960s reveal recurrent rejuvenation events after the earlier outbreak of the autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata). Our results demonstrate both a high stem turnover in mountain birch and a great ability to recover after disturbances. This trend is interpreted as regrowth after a moth attack, but also long-term and time-lagged responses due to slightly improved growth conditions. An advance of the mountain birch forest line by 0.71 m year−1 from 1937 to 2007 was documented, resulting in a total reduction of the alpine area by 12%. Most of the changes in the forest line seem to have taken place after 1960. Regarding silviculture methods in mountain birch, a dimension cutting of larger birch trees with a cutting interval of c. 60 years seems to be a sustainable alternative for mimicking natural processes.

Sammendrag

In a fertiliser experiment in a Norway spruce forest in SE Norway, four treatments were applied in a block design with three replicates per treatment. Treatments included 3 t wood ash ha−1 (Ash), 150 kg nitrogen ha−1 (N), wood ash and nitrogen combined (Ash + N), and unfertilised control (Ctrl). Treatment effects on understory plant species numbers, single abundances of species and (summarised) cover of main species groups were studied. Two years after treatment there were no significant changes for species numbers or abundances of woody species, dwarf shrubs or pteridophytes, nor for Sphagnum spp. in the bottom layer. The cover of graminoids decreased in Ctrl plots. Herb cover increased significantly in Ash + N and N plots due to the increase of Melampyrum sylvaticum. In Ash + N plots, mosses decreased significantly in species number, while their cover increased. Moss cover also decreased significantly in N plots. The species number and cover of hepatics decreased significantly in Ash and Ash + N plots. Hepatics cover also decreased in Ctrl plots. Both the lichen number and cover decreased in Ash + N plots. Single species abundances decreased for many bryophytes in fertilised plots. To conclude, fertilisation had modest effects on vascular plants, while bryophytes were more strongly affected, especially by Ash + N.

2021

Til dokument

Sammendrag

This paper presents some of the ethical challenges that current care robots raise in home- and healthcare services for senior adults (≥65 years). The paper is grounded in some of the state-of-the-art projects within the area of care robotics.Further, the paper identifies and discusses several central challenges raised by using robots as part of care services for the elderly people. The paper contributes to the ethical debate on the implications care robots may have for the practical context of healthcare. In addition, the paper summarizes the main lines of the EU legal approach to AI robotic technology, offering a comprehensive picture of the existing regulatory, theoretical and research gaps, compelling the need of an interdisciplinary ethical reflection on care robots. Finally, the discussion is then balanced by some of the opportunities the care robots may provide for the care services.