Publications

NIBIOs employees contribute to several hundred scientific articles and research reports every year. You can browse or search in our collection which contains references and links to these publications as well as other research and dissemination activities. The collection is continously updated with new and historical material.

1991

Abstract

During an outbreak in the 1970\"s, millions of Norway spruce trees were killed by the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus. At that time, little was known about the associated fungi and their role in the tree-killing process. Studies were started to elucidate ecological aspects of fungi associated with I. typographus, with special emphasis on the fungal invasion process.I. typographus has no mycangium and caries a variety of fungal spores, externally in pits on the pronota and elytra and internally within the digestive tract. Spores are also transmitted by phoretic mites. Most species belong to Ophiostomataceae and confusions within some important species have been put right. The fungal flora aseetle, but with some variations. Four species proved to be common in Norway, but Ophiostoma polonicum was more frequent in epidemic areas man in endemic areas . The frequency of this species is thus suspected to increase during epidemics. Studies during epidemic conditions revealed that the fungi invaded the sapwood of infested Norway spruce trees in an obvious succession, with O. polonicum in the leading edge of fungal penetration until heartwood was reached. The species found to be most commonly transmitted by I. typographus were shown to be first in the succession.The temperature is important for the rate of fungal invasion and the development of visible blue-stain, which occurred close to the leading edge of fungal penetration. The fungal colonization of sapwood leads to a gradual decrease in the moisture content, followed by desiccation symptoms in the foliage of infested trees. The tree trunks soon reached a moisture level not favourable for decaying Hymenomycetes, except near the base of the trees.The primary invader O. polonicum appeared to be pathogenic to Norway spruce trees when mass inoculated, while the secondary invaders were not at the given load of infection doses. However, the inoculation doses are of importance for the success of inoculated fungi. Judging from the large reaction zones in the phloem made by same secondary invaders, they may play an important role in the tree killing process in areas with low frequencies of O. polonicum. O. polonicum can kill other species of spruce used in European forestry and Douglas fir, so the fact that conifers other than Norway spruce rather rarely are attacked by I. typographus seems not to depend on the absence of a pathogenic fungus to overwhelm the trees.The fungi associated with I. typographus are sensitive to the lesion resin produced by Norway spruce trees in response to the fungal invasion. The potential of O. polonicum to be a primary invader seems to be linked to its rapid growth rate and ability to grow for a prolonged period under oxygen-deficient conditions. In conclusion, it seems that the interrelationship between Norway spruce, I. typographus and associated fungi is similar to other interrelationships. One of the associated fungi, O. polonicum, appeared lo play a key role in overwhelming infested trees due its abilily to grow for a prolonged period in wood with low oxygen pressure.

Abstract

The effects of aluminium concentrations between 0.2 and 30 mM at pH 3.8 0.2 on small plants of Norway spruce [(Picea abies (L.) Karst], Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), and Scots pine infected with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus bovinus (L. ex Fr.) O. Kuntze were investigated. The plants were grown at maximum relative growth rate (RG % day1) with free access but very low external concentrations of nutrients. Steady-state conditions with respect to relative growth rate (RG) and internal nutrient concentrations were achieved before addition of aluminium, which was added as AlCl3 and/or Al(NO3)3. There were reductions in rg at aluminium concentrations of 0.3 mM in spruce, 6 mM in pine and 10 mM in ectomycorrhizal pine, i. e. at aluminium concentrations considerably higher than those normally occurring in the top layer of the mineral soil where most fine roots are found. Nutrient uptake rate per unit root growth rate was calculated for different nutrient elements. The uptake rate of calcium and magnesium was reduced at aluminium concentrations of 0.2 mM (spruce), 1 mM (pine) and 3 mM (ectomycorrhizal pine), without influencing Rg. The results question the validity of the hypothesis of aluminium toxicity to forest tree species at low external concentrations.

Abstract

A study on the effects of eight years application of artificial acid rain on the vegetation and soil in an old Scots pine forest is described. Artificial rain of pH 2.5 and 3.0 caused severe damage to mosses, especially Pleurozium schreberi and Dicranum polysetum. The presence of Melampyrum pratense decreased drastically in plots treated with rain of pH 2.5 and 3.0. In Vaccinium myrtillus reduced leaf production was found in plots treated with rain of pH 2.5. A considerable decrease in base saturation had taken place in plots treated with pH 2.5 and pH 3.0 rain. Exchangeable calcium and magnesium in particular had been reduced, and the content of mangnesium in tissue of Vaccinium myrtillus appeared also to be reduced in plots treated with water of pH 2.5. The study demonstrates the need for better methods in evaluating vegetation responses in field studies. The use of visual cover recording should be supplemented by frequency analysis and harvesting methods to get better estimates of changes in vegetation structure.

Abstract

Effects of various partial pressures of oxygen (5, 20 and 45 kPa) and carbon dioxide (0.03 and 6 kPa) on initiation, proliferation and maturation of somatic embryos in Picea abies were studied. The pO2 had a significant effect on the initiation of embryogenic tissue from mature zygotic embryos. However, the effect of pO2 was dependent on the strength of the basal medium.Low pO2 stimulated the formation of embryogenic tissue when the zygotic embryos were incubated on full strength medium, but was inhibitory when half-strength medium was used.Proliferation of embryogenic tissue was stimulated by higher partial pressures of both CO2 and O2. The effect of the gas phase on maturation of somatic embryos varied between different cell lines. However, there was a general tendency for 5 kPa O2 and 6 kPa CO2 to stimulate maturation.

Abstract

Seedlings of four populations from the two mentioned species were grown for 6 weeks in varying temperature, light and daylength. In accordance with earlier studies there was a strong latitudinal effect on the critical daylengths for growth. There was also a weaker, but significant effect due to altitude. Large differences were also found in growth pattern and compensation mechanisms. Fast-growing lowland populations reacted to low light levels and high temperatures by increasing their shoot/root ratios and the temperature optimum for shoot elongation. In mountain birch from Kevo, northern Finland, plants reacted to increasing temperatures by increasing their net assimilation rates. The shoot/root ratios and leaf area ratios were highest at the early stages of growth while maximum net assimilation occurred later. This illustrates the high priority in birch for leaf growth. In all populations except the northern population the plants grew better in alternating day and night temperatures than at the corresponding constant temperature.