Publications

NIBIOs employees contribute to several hundred scientific articles and research reports every year. You can browse or search in our collection which contains references and links to these publications as well as other research and dissemination activities. The collection is continously updated with new and historical material.

2022

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Abstract

Aims To investigate and compare antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in faeces from cohabiting dogs and owners. Methods and Results DNA from faecal samples from 35 dogs and 35 owners was screened for the presence of 34 clinically relevant ARGs using high throughput qPCR. In total, 24 and 25 different ARGs were present in the dog and owner groups, respectively. The households had a mean of 9.9 ARGs present, with dogs and owners sharing on average 3.3 ARGs. ARGs were shared significantly more in households with dogs over 6 years old (3.5, interquartile range 2.75–5.0) than in households with younger dogs (2.5, interquartile range 2.0–3.0) (p = 0.02). Dogs possessed significantly more mecA and aminoglycoside resistance genes than owners. Conclusions Dogs and owners can act as reservoirs for a broad range of ARGs belonging to several antimicrobial resistance classes. A modest proportion of the same resistance genes were present in both dogs and owners simultaneously, indicating that ARG transmission between the dog and human gut is of minor concern in the absence of antimicrobial selection. Significance and Impact of the Study This study provides insight into the common dog and human gut resistomes, contributing to an improved knowledge base in risk assessments regarding ARG transmission between dogs and humans.

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Abstract

Modern apple orchard systems should guarantee homogeneity of fruit internal and external qualities and fruit maturity parameters. However, when orchards reach productive age, a variation of these parameters takes place and mostly it is related to uneven light distribution within the tree canopy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the canopy position’s effect on fruit internal and external quality parameters. This is the first study where all the main fruit quality and maturation parameters were evaluated on the same trees and were related to the light conditions and photosynthetic parameters. Four fruit positions were tested: top of the apple tree, lower inside part of the canopy, and east and west sides of the apple tree. Fruit quality variability was significant for fruit size, blush, colour indices, total sugar content, dry matter concentration, accumulation of secondary metabolites and radical scavenging activity. Fruit position in the canopy did not affect flesh firmness and fruit maturity parameters such as the starch index, Streif index and respiration rate. At the Lithuanian geographical location (55°60′ N), significantly, the highest fruit quality was achieved at the top of the apple tree. The tendency was established that apple fruits from the west side of the canopy have better fruit quality than from the east side and it could be related to better light conditions at the west side of the tree. Inside the canopy, fruits were distinguished only by the higher accumulation of triterpenic compounds and higher content of malic acid. Light is a main factor of fruit quality variation, thus all orchard management practices, including narrow two-dimensional tree canopies and reflecting ground covers which improve light penetration through the tree canopy, should be applied.