Kjersti Holt Hanssen

Research Scientist

(+47) 480 89 114
kjersti.hanssen@nibio.no

Place
Ås H8

Visiting address
Høgskoleveien 8, 1433 Ås

Biography

Fields of interest: Silviculture, especially in connection with forest regeneration, fertilization, and other nutrient issues.

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Abstract

Short-term (three to four years) effects of forest harvesting on soil solution chemistry were investigated at two Norway spruce sites in southern Norway, differing in precipitation amount and topography. Experimental plots were either harvested conventionally (stem-only harvesting, SOH) or whole trees, including crowns, twigs and branches were removed (whole-tree harvesting, WTH), leaving residue piles on the ground for some months before removal. The WTH treatment had two sub-treatments: WTH-pile where there had been piles and WTH-removal, from where residues had been removed to make piles. Increased soil solution concentrations of NO3–N, total N, Ca, Mg and K at 30 cm depth, shown by peaks in concentrations in the years after harvesting, were found at the drier, less steep site in eastern Norway after SOH and WTH-pile, but less so after WTH-removal. At the wetter, steeper site in western Norway, peaks were often observed also at WTH-removal plots, which might reflect within-site differences in water pathways due largely to site topography.

Abstract

Natural regeneration of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) is a relatively common practice in Norway on medium to low site indices. However, seedling establishment is often hampered by rapid regrowth of competing vegetation in scarified patches. The aim of our study was to examine the effect of coordinating scarification towards an expected seed-fall, by studying germination and seedling establishment in scarified patches of different age (fresh, one- and two-year-old). The experiment was conducted in two stands in southeast Norway that were clear-cut in 2007. Scarification was applied to subplots in autumn 2008–2010. To simulate seed-fall, seeds were sown in fresh scarification patches in spring 2009–2011, in one-year-old patches in 2010 and 2011, and in twoyear- old patches in 2011. Both germination and seedling survival were negatively affected by the age of the scarified patches. Germination was higher, and mortality lower, at the small fern woodland site, compared with the bilberry woodland site. Sowing in fresh patches also resulted in increased height and root collar diameter of the seedlings compared with sowing in older patches. It is likely that the competing vegetation both on the site and in the scarification patches affected the growth of the seedlings. In conclusion, the age of the scarified patches affected both germination and mortality, as well as early growth of the seedlings.

Abstract

Removal of logging residues causes significant nutrient losses from the harvesting site. Furthermore,collection of residues into piles could lead to small-scale differences in establishment conditions for seedlings. We studied the effects of stem-only (SOH) and aboveground whole-tree harvesting (WTH) on Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedling growth and pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) damage at two sites (SE and W Norway). We also compared two planting environments within the WTH plots (WTH-0: areas with no residues, WTH-1: areas where residue piles had been placed and removed before planting). In practice, one-third of the residues were left on site after WTH. After three growing seasons there were no differences for height or diameter increment between SOH and WTH (WTH-1 and WTH-0 combined) treatments. However, relative diameter increment was largest for WTH-1 seedlings and lowest for WTH-0 seedlings. Few seedlings sustained pine weevil attacks at the W Norway site, with no differences among treatments. At the SE Norway site, the percent of seedlings damaged by pine weevils and average debarked area were significantly higher after WTH (82% and 3.3 cm2) compared to SOH (62% and 1.7 cm2). We conclude that WTH may lead to spatial differences in establishment conditions.

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Abstract

Feeding by pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) causes severe damage to newly planted conifer seedlings in most parts of Scandinavia. We investigated the effect of planting time and insecticide treatment on pine weevil damage and seedling growth. The main objective was to study if planting in early autumn on fresh clear-cuts would promote seedling establishment and reduce the amount of damage caused by pine weevil the following season. The experiment was conducted in southern Sweden and in south-eastern Norway with an identical experimental design at three sites in each country. On each site, Norway spruce seedlings with or without insecticide treatment were planted at four different planting times: August, September, November and May the following year. In Sweden, the proportion of untreated seedlings that were killed by pine weevils was reduced when seedlings were planted at the earliest time (August/September) compared to late planting in November, or May the following year. This pattern was not found in Norway. The average length of leading shoot, diameter growth and biomass were clearly benefited by planting in August in both countries. Insecticide treatment decreased the number of seedlings killed or severely damaged in both Norway and Sweden.

Abstract

Whole-tree harvest (WTH), i.e. harvesting of forest residues (twigs, branches and crown tops) in addition to stems, for bioenergy purposes may lead to biodiversity loss and changes in species composition in forest ground vegetation, which in turn also will affect soil properties. Effects of clear-cut harvesting on ground vegetation have been investigated at two Norway spruce sites in southern east and western Norway, respectively, differing in climate and topography. Experimental plots at these two sites were either harvested conventionally (stem-only harvest, SOH), leaving harvest residues spread on the site,or WTH was carried out, with the residues collected into piles at the site for six - nine months prior to removal. Vegetation plots in the eastern site were established and analysed before WTH and SOH in 2008 and reanalysed after harvesting in 2010, 2012 and 2014. In the western site vegetation plots were established before WTH and SOH in 2010 and reanalysed after harvesting in 2012 and 2014 (and planned for 2016). All vegetation plots are permanently marked. Pre-as well as post-harvesting species abundances of all species in each vegetation plot were each time recorded as percentage cover (vertical projection) and subplot frequency. Environmental variables (topographical, soil physical, soil chemical, and tree variables) were recorded only once; before WTH and SOH. Effec ts of WTH and SOH on ground vegetation biodiversity and cover are presented.

Abstract

The relative volume growth effects of thinning after whole-tree harvesting (WTH) compared to a conventional stem-only harvest (CH) in young stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) were analyzed, using a series of four pine and four spruce field experiments. The series was established in the years 1972–1977, and thinning was performed only once. Results are shown periodically and cumulatively. All sites were included for 20 (19) years in pine and 25 years in spruce. The total experimental period varied between 19 and 35 years for individual sites. Four models assuming additive or multiplicative effects gave only slightly varying results. The inclusion of standing volume after thinning as a covariate was effective in spruce independent of whether the covariate was treated as multiplicative or additive. A logarithmic model with a multiplicative effect of the covariate was preferred in further presentations. Results for pine stands after 20 years indicated a nonsignificant loss of 5% with confidence limits (p = 0.05) of ±6–7%, while the spruce stands showed a significant growth loss of 11% with confidence limits of ±4–5% after 25 years. The difference between the species in relative growth effects was significant, and amounted to 8% for a cumulative 20-year period. No indications of trends in response were found during a 20-year period in pine and a 25-year period in spruce. An analysis of growth effects in the first years showed that basal area increment in spruce was significantly reduced already in the first growing season after thinning.

Abstract

In this report, the oral and poster contributions of the scientific conference “Forest Management and Silviculture in the North – Balancing Future Needs” have been compiled. The conference was arranged 6-8 September 2011 in Stjørdal, Norway, gathering more than 50 delegates from seven countries. The conference was hosted by the Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute and was initiated jointly by IUFRO WP 1.01.01 Boreal forest silviculture and management and the SNS network group Sustainable forest management in northern Fennoscandia (NORFOR).

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of whole-tree harvesting (WTH) on the growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) as compared to conventional stem harvesting (CH) over 10 and 20 years. Compensatory (WTH+ CoF) and normal nitrogen-based (CH + F or WTH+ F) fertilisation were also studied. A series of 22 field experiments were established during 1977–1987, representing a range of site types and climatic conditions in Finland, Norway and Sweden. The treatments were performed at the time of establishment and were repeated after 10–13 years at 11 experimental sites. Seven experiments were followed for 25 years. Volume increment was on average significantly lower after WTH than after CH in both 10-year periods in the spruce stands. In the pine stands thinned only once, the WTH induced growth reduction was significant during the second 10-year period, indicating a long-term response. Volume increment of pine stands was 4 and 8% and that of spruce stands 5 and 13% lower on the WTH plots than on CH during the first and the second 10-year period, respectively. For the second 10- year period the relative volume increment of the whole-tree harvested plots tended to be negatively correlated with the amount of logging residue. Accordingly, the relative volume increment decreased more, the more logging residue was harvested, stressing the importance of developing methods for leaving the nutrient-rich needles on site. If nutrient (N, P, K) losses with the removed logging residues were compensated with fertiliser (WTH+ CoF), the volume increment was equal to that in the CH plots. Nitrogen (150–180 kg ha−1) or N+ P fertilisation increased tree growth in all experiments except in one very productive spruce stand. Pine stands fertilised only once had a normal positive growth response during the first 10-year period, on average 13m3 ha−1, followed by a negative response of 5m3 ha−1 during the second 10-year period. The fertilisation effect of WTH+ F and WTH+ CoF on basal area increment was both smaller and shorter than with CH+ F.

Abstract

The pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) is an important pest to conifer seedlings in large parts of Europe. To get an objective measure of the extent of damages related to pine weevils in South-Eastern Norway, a survey was implemented in the autumn of 2010 in nine counties. Altogether, 155 stands regenerated by planting in 2009 or 2010 were examined. The percentage of seedlings killed from pine weevil attacks varied between 0 and 63 % in the surveyed fields. On average, 7 % of the seedlings were killed by pine weevils, while 23 % had bark wounds. In addition, 3 % of the seedlings were killed by other causes. Few of the registered field variables were correlated to the degree of damage, but there was a tendency towards higher mortality at the largest clear cuts, in hilly areas, and for dry soil types. The present survey shows that in unscarified stands in SE Norway pine weevils are the most important cause of seedling mortality. A total seedling mortality of at least 10% should be expected the first two years.

Abstract

The use of logging residues for bioenergy is encouraged in many countries, due to an increasing demand for renewable energy. However, there is concern that removal of logging residues may cause a long-term reduction in soil nutrient availability, reducing forest growth in the remaining stand. To quantify the growth response of Norway spruce and Scots pine to whole-three harvesting at first thinning a series of eight field experiments was set up in SE Norway in the seventies. Results after 25 years showed that whole-tree thinning lead to a decrease in forest growth. The effect was present more or less immediately after thinning, and was still present after 25 years. The average reduction in growth was around 10 % after 25 years in the spruce stands, while in the pine stands a non-significant average growth reduction of 4 % was found. The results are generated under experimental conditions, and in practice a share of the residues is left on site, decreasing the nutrient loss.

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Abstract

In this study we demonstrate how airborne laser scanning (ALS) can be applied to map effective leaf area index (LAI(e)) in a spruce forest, after being calibrated with ground based measurements. In 2003 and 2005, ALS data and field estimates of LAI(e) were acquired in a Norway spruce forest in SE Norway. We used LI-COR's LAI-2000 (R) Plant canopy analyzer ("LAI-2000") and hemispherical images ("HI") for field based estimates of LAI(e). ALS penetration rate calculated from first echoes and from first and last echoes was strongly related to field estimates of LAI(e). We fitted regression models of LAI(e) against the log-transformed inverse of the ALS penetration rate, and in accordance with the Beer-Lambert law this produced a linear, no-intercept relationship. This was particularly the case for the LAI-2000, having R-2 values > 0.9. The strongest relationship was obtained by selecting ALS data from within a circle around each plot with a radius of 0.75 times the tree height. We found a slight difference in the relationship for the two years, which can be attributed to the differences in the ALS acquisition settings. The relationship was valid across four age classes of trees representing different stages of stand development, except in one case with newly regenerated stands which most likely was an artifact. Using LAI(e) based on HI data produced weaker relationships with the ALS data. This was the case even when we simulated LAI-2000 measurements based on the HI data. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Abstract

Manipulation of the canopy cover and site preparation are the most important silvicultural measures to enhance the conditions for natural regeneration of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). During the early regeneration phase however, seedling mortality may be high, so it is important to study how different combinations of stand-level treatments and site preparation methods affect seedling establishment. We studied emergence, 1st winter and 2nd summer mortality for naturally regenerated spruce seedlings in a field experiment that combined four harvest treatments (shelterwoods of high (SH), medium (SM) and low (SL) residual basal area, and a 50 x 50 m clear-cut (CC)) and two site preparation methods (patch scarification and inverting). The CC had significantly fewer seedlings the 1st fall than the SL and SH (p = 0.0377), and in all harvest treatments, fewer seedlings emerged in inverted than in patch scarified spots (p = 0.0351). Mortality was also lower with patch scarification than inverting (1st winter: p = 0.0565, 2nd summer: p = 0.0377), but was not affected by harvest treatment (1st winter: p = 0.9211, 2nd summer: p = 0.1896). On average, mortality from 1st to 2nd fall reached 38% and 27% after inverting and patch scarification, respectively. First winter mortality accounted for approximately two thirds of the accumulated mortality, regardless of the harvest treatment and site preparation method.

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Abstract

The relationships between measures of forest structure as derived from airborne laser scanner data and the variation in quantity (Q) and vitality (V) of young trees in a size-diverse spruce forest were analyzed. A regeneration success rate (Q), leader length (V), relative leader length (V), and apical dominance ratio (V) were regressed against 27 different laser-derived explanatory variables representing three different spatial scales. The resulting 81 different models for each response variable were ranked according to their Akaike information criterion score and significance level. Each laser variable was then associated with four categories. These were scale, return, fraction, and type. Within the scale category, laser variables were grouped according to the spatial scale from which they originated. Similarly, within the return, fraction, and type categories, the variables were grouped according to if they originated from first or last return echoes; if they originated from lower, middle, or upper fraction of the range of laser heights or values derived from the full range of laser pulses, and if they were canopy height or canopy density metrics. The results show that the laser variables were strongest correlated with the quantity of small trees and that these variables could be attributed to large-scale, last return, lower fraction, and density metrics. The correlations with the vitality responses were weaker, but the results indicate that variables derived from a smaller scale than for the quantity were better in order to explain variation in leader length, relative leader length, and apical dominance ratio. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Abstract

We studied first winter frost-heaving damage to one-year-old Picea abies (L.) Karst. seedlings planted in gaps made by group fellings (large circular gaps, ca. 500 m(2)) and single-tree selection cuttings (small irregularly shaped gaps, ca. 175 m 2), as well as in uncut forest. One-month-old seedlings were planted on manually exposed LF, Ae, and B horizons that emulated various intensities and depths of scarification. The three experimental sites were located in multistoried Pinus sylvestris L. or P. abies forests on sandy loam or silt loam in southeastern Norway. Altogether, 5% of seedlings sustained frost heaving damage on the LF horizon, compared with 20% on the Ae horizon and 45% on the B horizon. On average, 31% of the seedlings in large gaps incurred frost-heaving damage compared with 20% in small gaps and 19% in uncut forest. Exposed roots and poorly anchored or uplifted seedlings were recurring classes of damage, especially on the B horizon and in large gaps. The above- versus below-ground biomass ratio of seedlings was higher on the B than on the Ae horizon in uncut forest and large gaps, inferring broken roots. Therefore, to reduce the risk of frost-heaving damage, shallow soil preparation and smaller gap sizes should be used.

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Abstract

The relationships between measures of forest structure as derived from airborne laser scanner data and the variation in quantity of young trees established by natural regeneration in a size-diverse spruce forest were analyzed. A regeneration success rate (RSR) was regressed against 27 different laser-derived explanatory variables. The 27 different models were ranked according to their Akaike information criterion score. Each laser variable was then associated with two categories. These were return and type. Within the return and type categories, the variables were grouped according to if they originated from first or last return echoes and if they were canopy height or canopy density metrics. The results show that the laser variables strongest correlated to the quantity of small trees could be attributed to last return and density metrics.

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Abstract

In a balanced experiment based on 20 field plots located in a 21 km(2) Scots pine forest in southeast Norway covering age classes from newly regenerated to old forest, leaf area index (LAI) was determined in field by a LAI-2000 instrument and hemispheric photography. Based on a fortualized framework, i.e., the so-called Beer-Lambert law, gap fraction derived from small-footprint airborne laser scanner data was regressed against field-measured LAI. LAI was strongly (R-2 =0.87-0.93), positively, and linearly related to the log-transformed inverse of the gap fraction derived from the laser scanner data. This was as expected according to the Beer-Lambert law, as was the absence of an intercept, producing a directly proportionality of the two variables. We estimated an extinction coefficient for the first return echoes to be 0.7, fortunately fairly stable across age classes, and this is likely to be a parameter specific for the applied laser scanner system under the given flight and system settings, such as flying altitude and laser pulse repetition frequency. It was demonstrated that airborne laser was able to detect defoliation in terms of estimated changes in LAI, by three repeated laser data acquisitions over the area where severe insect attacks were going on in between the acquisitions. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.