Publications

NIBIOs employees contribute to several hundred scientific articles and research reports every year. You can browse or search in our collection which contains references and links to these publications as well as other research and dissemination activities. The collection is continously updated with new and historical material.

2022

Abstract

Harvest Weed Seed Control (HWSC) systems are used to collect and/or kill weed seeds retained on the weed plants at crop harvest. The effect of HWSC methods depends on the weeds seed retention at harvest. Therefore, delay in crop harvest reduces the efficiency of HWSC. In 2018, we studied the seed production and shedding pattern of Alopecurus myosuroides in a semi-field experiment in Taastrup, Denmark, to find the seed shedding time range of this species. In 2017 and 2018, we also followed the seed shedding pattern of A. myosuroides in a wheat field. Seeds of A. myosuroides were planted in pots in a greenhouse with a constant temperature of 5°C. In December 2017, the seedlings were transplanted in a box (120 × 80 cm2) located outdoor. In spring 2018, the number of plants was reduced to 14 providing a space of 685 cm2 for each plant. We surrounded each plant with a porous net to collect the seeds. The nets were checked once a week to record the beginning of the seed shedding period. Hereafter, seeds were collected weekly using a portable vacuum cleaner. Plants in the box started seed shedding in the second week of June and seed shedding continued for 12 weeks (end of August). In the wheat field, A. myosuroides plants surrounded by a net started to shed seeds in the third week of June and continued until wheat harvest on 31 July in 2017 and in the second week of July and continued until wheat harvest on 15 August in 2018. We found a significant difference between the weekly number of shed seeds in all three experiments (P

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Abstract

Compatibility and synchrony between specialized tissues of the pistil, female gametophytes and male gametophytes, are necessary for successful pollination, fertilization, and fruit set in angiosperms. The aim of the present work was to study the development and viability of embryo sacs, as well as fertilization success, in relation to the fruit set of the cultivars ‘Mallard’, ‘Edda’, ‘Jubileum’, and ‘Reeves’, under specific Norwegian climatic conditions. Emasculated, unpollinated, and open-pollinated flowers were collected at the beginning of flowering, and on the 3rd, 6th, 9th, and 12th days after flowering, from all four plum cultivars over two years (2018/2019). Ovaries were dehydrated, embedded in paraffin wax, sectioned, stained, and observed under a light microscope. Results showed the existence of synchronization between successive phases in the development of the embryo sac and individual phases of flowering. All plum cultivars had higher percentages of viable embryo sacs, fertilized embryo sacs, and fruit set in 2018 than in 2019. These differences may be related to the very low temperatures during the post-full-flowering period in 2019, and to the low adaptation of some studied cultivars to unfavorable conditions. In our study, the cultivar ‘Jubileum’ showed the highest percentage of viable embryo sacs, fertilized embryo sacs, and fruit set compared to other cultivars, i.e., the best low-temperature adaptation.

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Abstract

Understanding the mechanisms of ecological community dynamics and how they could be affected by environmental changes is important. Population dynamic models have well known ecological parameters that describe key characteristics of species such as the effect of environmental noise and demographic variance on the dynamics, the long-term growth rate, and strength of density regulation. These parameters are also central for detecting and understanding changes in communities of species; however, incorporating such vital parameters into models of community dynamics is challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate how generalized linear mixed models specified as intercept-only models with different random effects can be used to fit dynamic species abundance distributions. Each random effect has an ecologically meaningful interpretation either describing general and species-specific responses to environmental stochasticity in time or space, or variation in growth rate and carrying capacity among species. We use simulations to show that the accuracy of the estimation depends on the strength of density regulation in discrete population dynamics. The estimation of different covariance and population dynamic parameters, with corresponding statistical uncertainties, is demonstrated for case studies of fish and bat communities. We find that species heterogeneity is the main factor of spatial and temporal community similarity for both case studies.

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Abstract

Aims To investigate and compare antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in faeces from cohabiting dogs and owners. Methods and Results DNA from faecal samples from 35 dogs and 35 owners was screened for the presence of 34 clinically relevant ARGs using high throughput qPCR. In total, 24 and 25 different ARGs were present in the dog and owner groups, respectively. The households had a mean of 9.9 ARGs present, with dogs and owners sharing on average 3.3 ARGs. ARGs were shared significantly more in households with dogs over 6 years old (3.5, interquartile range 2.75–5.0) than in households with younger dogs (2.5, interquartile range 2.0–3.0) (p = 0.02). Dogs possessed significantly more mecA and aminoglycoside resistance genes than owners. Conclusions Dogs and owners can act as reservoirs for a broad range of ARGs belonging to several antimicrobial resistance classes. A modest proportion of the same resistance genes were present in both dogs and owners simultaneously, indicating that ARG transmission between the dog and human gut is of minor concern in the absence of antimicrobial selection. Significance and Impact of the Study This study provides insight into the common dog and human gut resistomes, contributing to an improved knowledge base in risk assessments regarding ARG transmission between dogs and humans.