Academic – Comparison of conventional and IPM cropping systems: a risk efficiency analysis paper
Ming Su, Gudbrand Lien, Brian Hardaker, ...
No abstract has been registered
Land-sea riverine carbon transfer (LSRCT) is one of the key processes in the global carbon cycle. Although natural factors (e.g. climate, soil) influence LSRCT, human water management strategies have also been identified as a critical component. However, few systematic approaches quantifying the contribution of coupled natural and anthropogenic factors on LSRCT have been published. This study presents an integrated framework coupling hydrological modeling, field sampling and stable isotope analysis for the quantitative assessment of the impact of human water management practices (e.g. irrigation, dam construction) on LSRCT under different hydrological conditions. By applying this approach to the case study of the Nandu River, China, we find that carbon (C) concentrations originating from different land-uses (e.g. forest, cropland) are relatively stable and outlet C variations are mainly dominated by controlled runoff volumes rather than by input C concentrations. These results indicate that human water management practices are responsible for a reduction of ∼60% of riverine C at seasonal timescales, with an even greater reduction during drought conditions. Annual C discharges have been significantly reduced (e.g. 77 ± 5% in 2015 and 39 ± 11% in 2016) due to changes in human water extraction coupled with climate variation. In addition, isotope analysis also shows that C fluxes influenced by human activities (e.g. agriculture, aquaculture) could contribute the dominant particulate organic carbon under typical climatic conditions, as well as drought conditions. This research demonstrates the substantial effect that human water management practices have on the seasonal and annual fluxes of LSRCT, especially in such small basins. This work also shows the applicability of this integrated approach, using multiple tools to quantify the contribution of coupled anthropogenic and natural factors on LSRCT, and the general framework is believed to be feasible with limited modifications for larger basins in future research.
Remediation using nanoparticles depends on proper documentation of safety aspects, one of which is their ecotoxicology. Ecotoxicology of nanoparticles has some special features: while traditional ecotoxicology aims at measuring possible negative effects of more or less soluble chemicals or dissolved elements, nanoecotoxicology aims at measuring the toxicity of particles, and its main focus is on effects that are unique to nano-sized particles, as compared to larger particles or solutes. One of the main challenges when testing the ecotoxicity of nanoparticles lies in maintaining stable and reproducible exposure conditions, and adapt these to selected test organisms and endpoints. Another challenge is to use test media that are relevant to the matrices to be treated. Testing of nanoparticles used for remediation, particularly red-ox-active Fe-based nanoparticles, should also make sure to exclude confounding effects of altered red-ox potential which are not nanoparticle-specific. Yet another unique aspect of nanoparticles used for remediation is considerations of ageing of nanoparticles in soil or water, leading to reduced toxicity over field-relevant time scales. This review discusses these and other aspects of how to design and interpret appropriate tests and use these in hazard descriptions for subsequent risk assessments.
Lecture – Effects of germanium dioxide (GeO2) as diatom growth inhibitor on the photophysiology and biomass production of the green marine macroalga Ulva fenestrata
The commercial cultivation of marine macroalgae is a young and rapidly growing industry sector in Norway. Although it is currently limited to a few brown macroalgae, other species such as the green marine macroalga Ulva fenestrata (formerly Ulva lactuca) has also a high potential for an industrial biomass production, for example to be used for the food marked. However, this process is strongly affected by the presence of marine diatoms transported along with the seawater into the cultivation system of U. fenestrata. These diatoms not only proliferate in the water tanks, they also colonise the green macroalgal biomass with many brown spots, which reduces its value for the food marked significantly. This presentation shows the results of a project that studied the use of germanium dioxide (GeO2) as a known growth inhibitor of diatoms to control their contamination during the biomass production process of U. fenestrata. First, the co-occurring diatom was morphologically identified as Fragilaria sp. using light microscopy. Thereafter, a dose-response experiment was conducted to reveal the concentrations of GeO2, resulting in an effective growth inhibition of Fragilaria sp. Based on this knowledge, the impact of different GeO2 concentrations was studied on how the photophysiolgy (photosynthetic characteristics, pigment patterns) and growth of U. fenestrata are affected in both small-scale (2 L) and large-scale (100 L) cultivation systems. An effective control of the proliferation of Fragilaria sp. during the cultivation process of U. fenestrata may result in the production a high-quality biomass with a high value for the food marked.