Publications

NIBIOs employees contribute to several hundred scientific articles and research reports every year. You can browse or search in our collection which contains references and links to these publications as well as other research and dissemination activities. The collection is continously updated with new and historical material.

2021

Abstract

Plantevernmidler er et viktig verktøy i dagens plantevernpraksis i jordbruket for å sikre gode avlinger. Miljørisikoen knyttet til det enkelte plantevernmiddel vurderes nøye før det godkjennes for bruk, men langvarig overvåking er nødvendig for å avdekke de faktiske miljøkonsentrasjoner og - effekter etter forskriftsmessig bruk av plantevernmidler. Sveriges nasjonale miljøovervåkingsprogram for plantevernmidler startet i 2002. Hovedmålet med programmet er å følge langtidstrender i påvirkningen av jordbrukets plantevernmiddelbruk på kvaliteten av overflate- og grunnvann, samt å bestemme miljøkonsentrasjonene av plantevernmidler i sediment, luft og nedbør. Formålet med denne evalueringen var å vurdere styrker og svakheter ved overvåkingsprogrammet, samt behov for endringer i den praktiske gjennomføringen, rapporteringsprosedyrer og målsetningen med programmet. Denne evalueringen vurderer også behovene hos de aktuelle sluttbrukergruppene for programmet som inkluderer svensk landbruks- og miljøforvaltning, rådgivningstjenesten i landbruket, bønder og bondeorganisasjoner mv.

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Abstract

As the periodic emission of light pulses by light emitting diodes (LEDs) is known to stimulate growth or induce high value biocompounds in microalgae, this flashing light regime was tested on growth and biochemical composition of the microalgae Nannochloropsis gaditana, Koliella antarctica and Tetraselmis chui. At low flashing light frequencies (e.g., 5 and 50 Hz, Duty cycle = 0.05), a strain-dependent growth inhibition and an accumulation of protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids, chlorophyll or carotenoids (lutein, β-carotene, violaxanthin and neoxanthin) was observed. In addition, a 4-day application of low-frequency flashing light to concentrated cultures increased productivities of eicosapentaenoic acid and specific carotenoids up to three-fold compared to continuous or high frequency flashing light (500 Hz, Duty cycle = 0.05). Therefore, applying low-frequency flashing light as finishing step in industrial production can increase protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids or pigment contents in biomass, leading to high-value algal products.

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Abstract

Conservation and management of large carnivores requires knowledge of female and male dispersal. Such information is crucial to evaluate the population’s status and thus management actions. This knowledge is challenging to obtain, often incomplete and contradictory at times. The size of the target population and the methods applied can bias the results. Also, population history and biological or environmental influences can affect dispersal on different scales within a study area. We have genotyped Eurasian lynx (180 males and 102 females, collected 2003–2017) continuously distributed in southern Finland (~23,000 km2) using 21 short tandem repeats (STR) loci and compared statistical genetic tests to infer local and sex-specific dispersal patterns within and across genetic clusters as well as geographic regions. We tested for sex-specific substructure with individual-based Bayesian assignment tests and spatial autocorrelation analyses. Differences between the sexes in genetic differentiation, relatedness, inbreeding, and diversity were analysed using population- based AMOVA, F-statistics, and assignment indices. Our results showed two different genetic clusters that were spatially structured for females but admixed for males. Similarly, spatial autocorrelation and relatedness was significantly higher in females than males. However, we found weaker sex-specific patterns for the Eurasian lynx when the data were separated in three geographical regions than when divided in the two genetic clusters. Overall, our results suggest male-biased dispersal and female philopatry for the Eurasian lynx in Southern Finland. The female genetic structuring increased from west to east within our study area. In addition, detection of male-biased dispersal was dependent on analytical methods utilized, on whether subtle underlying genetic structuring was considered or not, and the choice of population delineation. Conclusively, we suggest using multiple genetic approaches to study sex-biased dispersal in a continuously distributed species in which population delineation is difficult.