The variability in the emergence process of different populations was confirmed for two Echinochloa crus-galli populations, one from Italy (IT) and the second from Norway (NO). Seeds were sown in 12 localities over Europe and the Middle East, and the emergence patterns of IT and NO were compared with those of several local populations at each location. Seeds of each population were sown in pots buried to the ground level. The base temperature (Tb) for emergence was estimated by (1) analysing logistic models applied to the field emergence of IT and NO, and (2) a germination assay set in winter 2020 at constant temperatures (8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 26, 29°C) with newly collected seeds in 2019 from the same fields where IT and NO had previously been harvested in 2015. The logistic models developed for IT and NO in each location showed that the emergence pattern of IT was similar to that of the local populations in Poland, Italy, Spain, Turkey South and Iran, while NO fitted better to those in Sweden and Latvia. No germination was obtained for IT in a germination chamber, but the estimated Tb with the logistic model was 11.2°C. For NO, the estimated Tb was 8.8°C in the germination chamber and 8.1°C in the field. Results suggest that adaptation to local environmental conditions has led to inter-population differences in Tb and parameter estimates of thermal-time models to predict the emergence of E. crus-galli should only be used for populations with similar climatic and habitat conditions.
Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv. is one of the most important weeds. It is distributed worldwide and has adapted to diverse habitats and climatic conditions. This study aimed to compare the emergence patterns of two populations of E. crus-galli from different environments at 11 locations across Europe and the Middle East. Seeds of the two populations were collected from maize in Italy and from spring barley in Norway and were then buried in soil in autumn 2015. In the spring of 2016, the soil was disturbed around the usual seedbed preparation date in each location and emergence was recorded. The soil was again disturbed a year later and emergence was recorded for a second season. Total emergence, the times of onset, end and to 50% emergence and the period between 25% and 75% of emergence were analysed by two-way ANOVA and principal components analysis. The Italian population showed a higher emergence than the Norwegian population in Southern locations, while the ranking was reversed in Northern locations. In almost all locations, a tendency to emerge earlier was recorded for the Norwegian population, but the periods from 25% to 75% emergence were similar for both populations. Total emergence, and the times of onset and end of emergence seemed to be mainly under genotypic (plus maternal) control, suggesting there were different temperature thresholds for seedling emergence in each population. Conversely, the duration of emergence seemed to be mainly under environmental control. This research confirms the high variability between populations and suggests the need to continue identifying key characteristics for the development of efficient models for seedling emergence in specific climates and/or latitudes.
Lecture – Comparison of cell wall chemistry and durability of esterified wood using microscopy-based techniques
Lisbeth Garbrecht Thygesen, Andreas Treu, Gry Alfredsen
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