Andreas Treu

Research Scientist

(+47) 456 71 343
andreas.treu@nibio.no

Place
Ås H8

Visiting address
Høgskoleveien 8, 1433 Ås

Biography

Dr. Andreas Treu is a researcher at the Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (formerly the Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute) since 2006 and is working in the Department of Wood Technology. He graduated from the University in Göttingen, Germany, with a doctoral degree in Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology. After his studies he moved to Norway where he is currently working on wood protection, wood modification and wood anatomy.

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Abstract

Creosote is commonly used as a wood preservative for highway timber bridges in Norway. However, excessive creosote bleeding at various highway timber bridge sites lead to complaints, and a potentially bad reputation for wooden timber bridges. Macro-and microanatomical factors such as the amount of heartwood, annual ring width, annual ring orientation, ray-height and composition and resin canal area were investigated in order to classify seven timber bridges in Norway into bleeding- and non-bleeding bridges. A classification into bleeding and non-bleeding was possible for discriminant categories based on three anatomical factors analysed on wood core samples. The amount of heartwood content dominated the influencing factors, even obscuring the significance of other factors. Classification with a low amount of variables was done preferably on sample level instead of bridge level, due to the restricted number of 17 core samples per bridge.

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Abstract

The aim of cell wall modification is to keep wood moisture content (MC) below favorable conditions for decay organisms. However, thermally modified, furfurylated, and acetylated woods partly show higher MCs than untreated wood in outdoor exposure. The open question is to which extent decay is influenced by the presence of liquid water in cell lumens. The present paper contributes to this topic and reports on physiological threshold values for wood decay fungi with respect to modified wood. In total, 4200 specimens made from acetylated, furfurylated, and thermally modified beech wood (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Scots pine sapwood (sW) (Pinus sylvestris L.) were exposed to Coniophora puteana and Trametes versicolor. Piles consisting of 50 small specimens were incubated above malt agar in Erlenmeyer flasks for 16 weeks. In general, pile upward mass loss (ML) and MC decreased. Threshold values for fungal growth and decay (ML ≥ 2%) were determined. In summary, the minimum MC for fungal decay was slightly below fiber saturation point of the majority of the untreated and differently modified materials. Surprisingly, T. versicolor was able to degrade untreated beech wood at a minimum of 15% MC, and growth was possible at 13% MC. By contrast, untreated pine sW was not decayed by C. puteana at less than 29% MC.

Abstract

Wood protection against fungal decay is mainly based on chemical protection. Nontoxic protection methods have become more important in Europe due to environmental concerns. A method using electric fields to inhibit wood decay by fungi has been investigated in laboratory trials and wood mass loss and moisture content after exposure to fungal attack were determined. The results show significantly reduced mass loss for wood samples exposed to a low pulsed electric field (LPEF), while wood samples connected to alternating and direct current displayed higher mass loss compared to LPEF. Changing the electrode material reduced the mass increase due to metal ion transfer into the wood samples for LPEF-exposed samples. The use of conductive polymer instead of metal electrodes and carbon fibers was preferable as no ions were transferred and the integrity of the material persisted. Decay of pre-exposed wood samples to white rot could be stopped or slowed down by means of LPEF.

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Abstract

Treatability of wood is a function of anatomical properties developed under certain growing conditions. While Scots pine sapwood material normally is considered as easy to impregnate, great variations in treatability can be observed. In order to study anatomical differences in the structural elements of transverse fluid passage, wood material with contrasting treatability has been compared. Ray composition and resin canal network, membrane areas of fenestriform pits in the cross-field as well as dimension and properties of bordered pits were investigated. The results showed large anatomical differences between the two contrasting treatability groups. Refractory Scots pine sapwood samples developed more rays per mm2 tangential section, while they were on average lower in cell numbers than rays found in easily treatable material. Easily treatable material had more parenchyma cells in rays than refractory material. At the same time, a larger membrane area in fenestriform pits in the cross-field was observed in the easily treatable sample fraction. Differences in the composition of resin canal network were not observed. Refractory samples developed on average smaller bordered pit features, with relatively small formed pit apertures compared to the easily treatable samples. In refractory Scots pine sapwood material, the structural elements of fluid passage such as bordered pit dimensions, fenestriform pits in the cross-field and parenchyma cells were altogether developed in smaller dimensions or number. Wood samples from better growing conditions and sufficient water supply showed a better treatability in this study.

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Abstract

New wood protection technologies should be effective against biodeterioration and at the same time minimize environmental impact. The present study investigates the effect of polyaniline modification of wood and the effect of a pulsed electric field on fungal protection. The effect of fungi and a pulsed electric field on the conductivity of the modified wood was also measured. It was found that it is possible to polymerize polyaniline particles in-situ homogeneously throughout the wood specimens. The polyaniline particles themselves were not found to be anti-fungal, however when in contact with water they affected the pH drastically and inhibited fungal growth. The wood treatment with polyaniline and the connection to a pulsed electric field were found to be effective in protecting the wood from deterioration when exposed to Postia placenta. The unmodified samples that were connected to a pulsed electric field lost under 10 wt% due to fungal degradation. The combination of polyaniline treatment with the connection to a pulsed electric field showed a slight synergistic effect which resulted in less weight loss due to fungal degradation. However, a more brittle wood structure was observed. Leached and fungal exposed samples showed a significant drop in the conductivity, indicating that the network has broken down slightly.

Abstract

Overview of the chemical suppliers' perspectives and impact on innovation in the wood treating industry Methods: Personal Interviews Data Source: 14 interviews of managers in three chemical companies and three of their customers Key Findings: 1) Managers of companies manufacturing wood preservatives see their customer base as highly conservative and lacking innovation. 2) Big box retailers have an important impact on innovation in the wood treating sector. 3) Chemical suppliers are important for both product

Abstract

Improving wood preservation techniques can contribute substantially to reducing waste and avoiding negative environmental impacts. Dr Andreas Treu outlines a promising technique to dramatically reduce or even stop wood degradation altogether by using electro-osmosis. International Innovation is the leading global dissemination resource for the wider scientific, technology and research communities, dedicated to disseminating the latest science, research and technological innovations on a global level. More information and a complimentary subscription offer to the publication can be found at: www.researchmedia.eu

Abstract

The objective of the project Winfur (within WoodWisdomNet) was the industrial application of furfurylated wood in the window market. Because of promising results concerning the wood species European beech, common ash, radiata pine and Southern yellow pine it was decided to evaluate material from these species.The material exhibits promising wood water related behaviour. Coating tests showed the coatability with selected commercial products. Additionally, outdoor weathering tests were performed. It is also possible to produce 3-layer scantlings with common gluing systems like PVAc. The resistance against wood destroying fungi increased in a way that the material is suitable for the window application. Different investigations were performed to test the furfurylated material and the results are satisfying.The last step in the project was the production of prototypes for different investigations. The window companies reported no differences between using furfurylated wood compared to untreated wood within the production of the windows. The tests of full scale window prototypes according to seven test standards, e.g. repeated opening and closing and water tightness against driving rain were performed.The production and standardised testing of full-scale window prototypes indicates that the use of furfurylated wood will not cause any problems with fulfilling the criteria for the Scandinavian P-mark and the German RAL certificate. The overall conclusion is that furfurylated wood material is suitable for the window production.

Abstract

In this study, natural polymers were tested as possible alternatives for conventional wood preservative in a two-step process. Scots pine sapwood blocks were impregnated with chitosan, tannin, propiconazole and Wolmanit and oil-treated afterwards with a modified linseed oil. Two different fixation parameters were performed. The treated samples were leached according to EN84. The outcome of trials shows that a two-step process reduces the leaching of the main active components. After leaching, the samples were exposed to fungal attack by Coniophora puteana and Trametes versicolor according to EN113. Mycological tests showed that most of oil treated samples were effective against wood decay.

Abstract

Wood protection in the last century has mainly been based on chemical treatments. Additionally, the type of construction of wooden buildings and the choice of wood species play an important role. Degradation of wood is not only caused by fungi or bacteria but also by insects. Termites have been a potential risk to wooden structures not only in the warmer regions of our continents but also beyond the regions of their natural habitat due to transport of wood. A new treatment, Electro osmotic pulsing technology (PLEOT), has been tested in lab termite tests and fungi tests. The two choice and non-choice termite tests were carried out using different duration of exposure and different initial wood moisture content. The results show growth of mould fungi on untreated wood samples with high initial wood moisture content after 4 weeks of termite testing whereas PLEOT treatment strongly reduced the development of moulds. Termite mortality was high on untreated wood samples with high initial moisture content but not on wood samples with low initial moisture content. This is explained by mould growth on the wetter samples, which termites don\"t tolerate in large amounts. The loss of wood mass due to termite attack could be reduced by using PLEOT. The mortality of termites was higher in test systems with protected wood samples than untreated samples. PLEOT could be used successfully against fungal attack. The treatment reduced on the one hand mould growth in a termite test and on the other hand reduced strongly the attack of brown rot fungi in a lab test.

Abstract

A combined wood impregnation process including impregnation with a chromium-free wood preservative and oil treatment was evaluated with regard to leaching of copper during the oil process. Two different experimental setups make up the balance of copper content in oil, wood samples and condensate water, also taking different fixation times and process durations into account. Copper is sufficiently fixed after 24 hours, and leaching of copper into the oil is low. Increasing the oil process time does not lead to increased leaching. The hot oil treatment of impregnated wood under vacuum atmosphere is a fast drying method without major negative consequences for the impregnated copper.

Abstract

Timber constructions are often built in combination with other materials such as concrete. These materials can influence the timber construction. Moist concrete can e.g. lead to development of molds which creates an unhealthy living area for people. Furthermore, moisture in wood buildings can negatively affect the wood material, which can lead to negative biological activity in timber and possible reduction of strength properties of timber constructions. The present paper introduces a new innovative method of timber protection and describes the influence of moisture on wood and concrete. The new environmental friendly system for protection of timber has been tested on wood destroying fungi and termites. It can be shown that wood protection by means of electro osmotic pulsing technology can preserve wood in laboratory trials. The wood moisture content is reduced when the protection system is installed. Trials on protected wood against subterranean termites showed lower wood moisture content after test of protected samples compared to untreated samples. However, termite activity could not be reduced to a larger extend as the termite living surroundings were not included. It could be shown that humidity in pores of concrete in cellar walls is reduced using electro osmotic pulsing. The drying of concrete when combined with timber constructions can additionally help to reduce timber degradation as all protection measures that lead to a drier building are positive for fungi and subterranean termite control.

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Abstract

This paper focuses on the improvement of a combined impregnation process (CIP, also known as the Royal process). This treatment combines the protective properties of a wood protection agent and the hydrophobic properties of a subsequent oil treatment in a wood product. Copper-based wood preservatives, which are traditionally used in CIP, are very effective but their long-term future use is questionable because of environmental concerns, especially the toxicity against water-living organisms. There is a need for new environmentally friendly wood preservative systems for a use in CIP. The substitutes for copper used in this study are natural polymers and organic biocides. The aim of this research is to describe the fixation effectiveness of the following compounds: Chitosan, Propiconazole, Wolmanit CX-8, Tannin, fire protection agent, Alginate. The scots pine sapwood samples (50´25´15) mm were impregnated and oil treated. The treated products were analysed for their preservative-and oil-retention. Preservative fixation time influence on oil treatment was tested. The treated samples were leached according to EN84. Water samples were analyzed for the amount of active ingredient.

Abstract

A new protection system has been tested which protects wood without treating it - by installing a low pulsing electric field. This electro-osmotic pulsing technology on wood, called PLEOT, has been tested in lab trials. Wood has a low specific conductivity and is considered as a dielectric material. Water plays therefore an important role. With increasing wood moisture content, a favorable environment for fungi development is created. At the same time, increasing wood moisture content increases the conductivity in wood and PLEOT can protect the material. Wood can be considered as naturally protected against fungal attack at a wood moisture content <20 %. It could be shown in lab tests, that a protection by means of PLEOT can be achieved at higher wood moisture content....

Abstract

Modification of wood with furfuryl alcohol or furfuryl alcohol prepolymer leads to a wood product with increased decay resistance, hardness and dimensional stability. In normal application, i.e. under Use Class 3 conditions, furfurylated wood can be regarded as non-toxic. This has earlier been demonstrated by toxic hazard tests on water leachates using relevant leaching procedures, e.g. the OECD Guideline 313 or the Dutch shower test procedure. These leachates showed slight to no toxicity towards standard aquatic test organisms. However, when using forced leaching procedures with limited amount of water such as the EN 84 procedure, slight to moderate toxicity to the same test organisms was observed, depending on furfurylation process. Furthermore, earlier studies have shown that leachates from wood treated with furfuryl alcohol pre-polymers have higher toxicity to Vibrio fischeri (luminescent marine bacterium) than leachates from wood treated with furfuryl alcohol monomers and that this probably is attributed to differences in leaching of chemical compounds. The ambition of the present study, was to investigate which chemical compounds in the leachates causes toxicity to the aquatic organisms V. fischeri and Daphnia magna (water flea). In this study five different wood species, both hardwoods and softwoods, treated with three different furfurylation processes, were leached according to two different leaching methods. The study shows that this difference in toxicity of leachates towards V. fischeri most likely cannot be attributed to maleic acid, furan, furfural, furfuryl alcohol or 2-furoic acid. However, the difference in toxicity might be caused by the substance 2,5-furandimethanol. Leachates from furfurylated wood still need to be investigated further in order to identify the chemical differences between wood furfurylated with furfuryl alcohol monomers and furfuryl alcohol prepolymer causing differences in toxicity to different organisms.

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Abstract

The furfurylation process is an extensively investigated wood modification process. Furfuryl alcohol molecules penetrate into the wood cell wall and polymerize in situ. This results in a permanent swelling of the wood cell walls. It is unclear whether or not chemical bonds exist between the furfuryl alcohol polymer and the wood. In the present study, five different wood species were used, both hardwoods and softwoods. They were treated with three different furfurylation procedures and leached according to three different leaching methods. The present study shows that, in general, the leachates from furfurylated wood have low toxicity. It also shows that the choice of leaching method is decisive for the outcome of the toxicity results. Earlier studies have shown that leachates from wood treated with furfuryl alcohol prepolymers have higher toxicity to Vibrio fischeri than leachates from wood treated with furfuryl alcohol monomers. This is probably attributable to differences in leaching of chemical compounds. The present study shows that this difference in the toxicity most likely cannot be attributed to maleic acid, furan, furfural, furfuryl alcohol, or 2-furoic acid. However, the difference might be caused by the two substances 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 2,5-furandimethanol. The present study found no difference in the amount of leached furfuryl alcohol between leachates from furfurylated softwood and furfurylated hardwood species. Earlier studies have indicated differences in grafting of furfuryl alcohol to lignin. However, nothing was found in the present study that could support this. The leachates of furfurylated wood still need to be investigated further to identify the chemical differences between wood furfurylated with furfuryl alcohol monomers and furfuryl alcohol prepolymers.

Abstract

The furfurylation process is an extensively investigated wood modification process. Furfuryl alcohol molecules penetrate into the wood cell wall and polymerize in situ. This results in a permanent swelling of the wood cell walls. It is unclear whether or not chemical bonds exist between the furfuryl alcohol polymer and the wood. In the present study, five different wood species were used, both hardwoods and softwoods. They were treated with three different furfurylation procedures and leached according to three different leaching methods. The present study shows that, in general, the leachates from furfurylated wood have low toxicity. It also shows that the choice of leaching method is decisive for the outcome of the toxicity results. Earlier studies have shown that leachates from wood treated with furfuryl alcohol prepolymers have higher toxicity to Vibrio fischeri than leachates from wood treated with furfuryl alcohol monomers. This is probably attributable to differences in leaching of chemical compounds. The present study shows that this difference in the toxicity most likely cannot be attributed to maleic acid, furan, furfural, furfuryl alcohol, or 2-furoic acid. However, the difference might be caused by the two substances 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 2,5-furandimethanol. The present study found no difference in the amount of leached furfuryl alcohol between leachates from furfurylated softwood and furfurylated hardwood species. Earlier studies have indicated differences in grafting of furfuryl alcohol to lignin. However, nothing was found in the present study that could support this. The leachates of furfurylated wood still need to be investigated further to identify the chemical differences between wood furfurylated with furfuryl alcohol monomers and furfuryl alcohol prepolymers.

Abstract

Wood protection is mainly based on chemical protection of wood. The disposal of wood preservative treated material causes restrictions in its later use or recirculation into the eco-cycle. A new protective system, electro-osmotic pulsing technology on wood, called PLEOT, is tested in a fungi test and in soil contact. Mass loss and moisture content of Scots pine sapwood samples was calculated after testing and an element analysis was performed on the sample powder. The results show that PLEOT- protected samples have nearly no mass loss after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of exposure to Coniophora puteana in laboratory trials. The samples protected with PLEOT showed lower moisture content but trace elements of metals in the samples after basidiomycete test compared to untreated samples. It is concluded, that neither the resulted wood moisture content nor the transferred metal ions in the PLEOT samples contribute to large amounts to the wood protection effect. Furthermore, the PLEOT system might give a protection for wood in soil contact. Further research on the mode of action as well as further tests including field tests are under planning.

Abstract

Modified wood is commercially available and merchandized as a new, environmentally friendly and durable wood species. However, there are no standards focusing on the evaluation of modified wood. Combining resistance against fungal decay and good ecotoxicological properties may be a start. In this study softwood and hardwood species were furfurylated using different treatment processes and treating solutions. The durability was determined by exposing the treated wood to a range of Basidiomycetes and the ecotoxicity was studied on two aquatic organisms.It was the purpose to come to a strategy and how to unite efficacy and ecotoxicity, since this is important in product development. The results show that the selection of fungus used for mass loss determination and the choice of ecotoxicity method is decisive, confirming that a combination of methods is valuable. A tiered approach to find the optimal treatment seems the best option. First, adequate protection against wood-rotting fungi should be attained, followed by ecotoxicity evaluation of the wood leachates. If necessary, the optimization process should be repeated until both durability and ecotoxicity are within satisfactory limits. This process could be extended with other evaluation criteria, e.g. dimensional stability of the modified wood or a risk analysis of its leachate.

Abstract

In recent years the market share for wooden window products has continuously decreased in Europe. Plastics and aluminum have partly replaced wooden window constructions. Service life and maintenance costs lead the customer to a preferable use of other materials than wood. Additionally the use of tropical hardwoods is decreasing because the market demands sustainable alternatives. A transnational research project is initiated to evaluate the use of an alternative wood material for the production of wooden windows. This project involves both, industry and research institutes from Germany, Sweden and Norway. The objective is to establish Kebony furfurylated wood within the window market of the involved countries. Furfurylation of wood using European timbers has been a research topic for many years and is already commercially produced for different applications. The treatment improves dimensional stability, durability and some mechanical properties. This paper presents the first part of the project, where wood properties such as dimensional stability, water sorption, ecotoxicity, capillary water uptake and water vapor diffusion are evaluated.

Abstract

New environmental benign wood protection agents often come from natural resources, and are sometimes a waste product. Chitosan, a derivative from chitin which is among other sources a by-product from the shellfish industry, is tested as well as known wood protection agents and their synergetic effect with chitosan. The objective of the research presented in this paper, is to describe the leaching properties of the following compounds: Chitosan, chitosan/copper, chitosan/boron and chitosan/ScanImp (a commercial wood preservative). A leaching procedure was performed on treated Scots pine sapwood samples. The four solutions have also been tested with and without post treatment. A new effective fire preservative has been included in the test. Common wood preservatives have been tested as references. The combination with chitosan did improve the fixation of the wood protection agent ScanImp. Furthermore, the post treatment of the chitosan treated samples did significantly reduce the leaching of glucosamine and to some extend also the leaching of boron.

Abstract

Wood modification with furfuryl alcohol is an extensively investigated process and already produced commercially. Furfurylated wood is in the focus of a European project on its use for the production of high performance windows. Different wood species were treated with furfuryl alcohol and tested on water uptake, dimensional changes, leaching in water, resistance to fungal degradation, and ecotoxicity. The results show a reduced water uptake and a reduced swelling of the furfurylated wood samples. A high resistance against fungal attack of the treated wood samples can be shown. A low amount of furfuryl alcohol was leached out and the water samples of two different leaching tests showed in general low toxicity. Southern yellow pine showed good results in all of the tests and has potential for the production of window frames according to the tests performed.

Abstract

An easier penetrability and a more even uptake of wood protection agents is aimed for the two most common wood species in Europe, namely Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine heartwood (Pinus sylvestris), particularly when there is a great difference in absorption behavior of sapwood and heartwood. Microwave conditioning can improve permeability, reduce density and heat conductivity and change dimensional stability of wood. It could also improve the permeability of refractory wood species. This study deals with the evaluation of different parameters of a microwave treatment and their influence on the penetrability of water during dipping and impregnation of Scots pine heartwood and Norway spruce. Microwave irradiation lead to an increased water uptake after a submersion test, and after vacuum and pressure impregnation of the tested samples. This effect was more pronounced for Scots pine heartwood samples than for spruce wood samples. A short process with high microwave energy is recommended in order to reduce the development of large cracks but to increase the sorption behavior due to small checks in wood.

Abstract

Norway spruce (Picea abies) is widely used not only in Norway but in many other European countries. Due to its refractory behavior after drying it is difficult to impregnate with wood protecting agents that makes it suitable for outside applications. In this research spruce wood samples are exposed to microwave radiation in order to improve the impregnability. The strength properties are evaluated after both microwave and impregnation treatment. The results show, that microwave treatment on spruce wood samples improves the uptake of impregnation agents. With increasing energy absorption due to microwave radiation the impregnability is improved. No differences could be found between the microwave treatments in radial or tangential direction, neither in uptake of wood preservative nor in strength properties. The uptake of impregnation agents in spruce wood is increased by using a pre-treatment with microwave radiation. However, some microwave treatments lead to cracks and a reduction in tangential strength. Most of the values of the process parameters used were obviously too high, which resulted in a distinct crack development.

Abstract

The effectiveness against soft rotting micro fungi and other soil inhabiting micro-organisms was tested according to ENV 807 using different treated Scots pine sapwood and beech wood samples. The treatments differed in basic material, solvent, depolymerization agent, viscosity and post treatment. The chitosan treated Scots pine samples showed improved performance against soft rot, whereas a large amount of untreated pines sapwood samples failed during the test. The different chitosan treatments showed only slight differences in performance during the test.Further results of ongoing field tests should give more information about the life performance of the treated samples.

Abstract

Furfurylated wood has shown to have promising properties for a wood modification agent during the last years. In this paper, an alternative curing method for furfuryl alcohol modified pine sapwood by means of microwave radiation was investigated. Different process parameters of microwave treatment such as output power, exposure time to microwave radiation, initial wood moisture content and evaporation during treatment, were tested. The weight percent gain of pine wood samples due to polymerised furfuryl alcohol was investigated by means of thermo gravimetric analysis. Leaching of furfuryl treated and differently cured samples gave information about the degree of fixation. No distinct influence of initial moisture content could be stated. A slight tendency of improving the degree of fixation by increasing the consumption energy of wood samples due to microwave energy was found. Changing the evaporation ability of samples during microwave treatment by using plastic foil had no distinct influence. Fixation of furfuryl alcohol could be improved by microwave treatment, and a degree of fixation above 90 % was calculated. However, the fixation was lower than in oven cured samples.

Abstract

Resins and oils can easily evaporate during drying processes at high temperatures. The aim of this research was to investigate different drying methods such as oven-drying, vacuumdrying and freeze-drying of resin modified pine-sapwood samples to determine wood moisture content (MC) and weight percent gain (WPG). The results showed that freeze-drying is the slowest process. Vacuum drying of water impregnated samples takes approx. 7 times longer compared to oven-drying. The initial moisture content of wood before impregnation used in this research has only little influence on the WPG.

Abstract

In this study modified linseed oils, rape oil and three waxes were screened on their efficacy as wood protecting agents. By testing all products when impregnated with high retentions in Scots Pine sapwood on water repellence qualities, additionally an accelerated weathering test, drying quality, accelerated brown rot and blue stain test, an indication is formed of the capability of these products as wood protecting treatments. All oil and wax treatments significantly improve the water repellency of untreated wood. In weathering resistance, maleinised and polymerised linseed oil showed the best results in improving untreated pine sapwood dimensional stability thus reducing crack formation and decolourization by UV-light. In accelerated brown rot and blue stain tests boiled linseed oil significantly reduced degradation and staining. In addition, maleinised linseed oil and a mixture of modified linseed- and mineral oil are very well performing in the blue stain test. Overall most promising products are the maleinised oils and boiled linseed oil. The maleinised oils have good potentials in long lasting water repellency, showed some fungal growth prevention, are colour stable in weathering tests and create a dimensional stable wood product. Boiled linseed oil is not exceptionally good as a water repellent, but the good drying qualities together with easy handling makes this oil a promising product.

Abstract

The present investigation deals with the properties of resonance wood destined for the production of musical instruments and with the methods for the determination of resonance wood quality. At the same time there are stated the range of values for the dynamic modulus of elasticity, for the speed of sound transmission and for the density of wood. The demands regarding dimension and growth characteristics of resonance wood are explained insisting first of all on pure subjective and visual criteria. The grading rules, existing only in a few regions in Germany, show that forestry is sensitized to this high value timber assortment only to a very small extent. With the Lucchimeter measuring method (elasticity tester) and the stress wave nondestructive evaluation technique spruce (Picea abies) and fir (Abies alba) wood panels are investigated which are destined for the production of guitars. The methods used as well as the results of measurement are compared with another. Furthermore the quantity of sales of resonance wood is presented after survey at the state owned forest management in Germany. The established small quantity of existing resonance wood is attributed to the sales of resonance wood not mentioned explicitly or described in detail. All in all the amount of resonance wood is supposed to be higher.