Ievina Sturite

Research Scientist

(+47) 934 99 484
Ievina.Sturite@nibio.no

Place
Tjøtta

Visiting address
Parkveien, 8861 Tjøtta

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Abstract

Multilocation testing remains the main tool for understanding varietal responses to the environment. Here, Latvian and Norwegian hull-less and hulled barley varieties were tested in field experiments in Latvia and Norway in order to assess the varieties adaptability across environments (sites). Two Latvian (cv Irbe and cv Kornelija) and one Norwegian hull-less barley variety (cv Pihl) were tested along with one Latvian (cv Rubiola) and one Norwegian hulled barley variety (cv Tyra) under conventional and organic management systems. The grain yield, together with physical and chemical grain parameters were compared, and variety yield and protein stability detemined. Overall, grain yield of hull-less barley varieties was significantly lower than for hulled barley varieties regardless of climatic conditions and management system. However, in the organic farming systems this difference between barley types was less pronounced. The hull-less barley varieties cv Pihl and cv Irbe, along with both hulled varieties, had good yield stability across environments and were well adapted to both cropping systems. Hull-less barley varieties tended to contain more protein and β -glucans than hulled barley varieties. Despite being bred for local conditions in Norway and Latvia, our study shows that all the varieties used may be successfully transferred across countries.

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Abstract

Aims: Evaluate biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and its contribution to total N yield in different grass-clover mixtures under a boreal coastal climate and assess how winter conditions affect the survival of clover and its capability to fix nitrogen (N). Methods: Grass-clover mixtures sown with 0, 15 and 30% red and white clover were subjected to two N rates and three levels of tractor trafficking over four years. BNF was estimated by N-difference for each of the two harvests per year, whereas the first harvest was used to estimate the fraction of N derived from the atmosphere (NdfA) and its transfer to grasses by 15N natural abundance. Results: Biological N fixation, mainly by red clover, contributed substantially to total N yield, which was up to 75% greater in grass-clover mixtures than in pure grass stands in the second production year. However, the number of red clover plants and associated BNF decreased dramatically in the third and fourth production year, with N fertilization rate having a more detrimental effect than soil trafficking. Conversely, the amount of biologically fixed N transferred to grass, increased with time, evidencing that some of the biologically fixed N is retained in the system. In the first harvests, NdfA values were generally between 80 and 100%, irrespective of preceding winter conditions. Conclusions: BNF in high latitude grass-clover mixtures can be substantial but is limited by the poor survival of red clover. Variable winter conditions had no measurable effect on winter survival nor on the sward’s capacity to fix nitrogen in spring.

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Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate changes of physical, microbiological, and sensory properties of muesli with germinated fakes during storage. Germinated fakes were made from conventionally grown grains: hullless barley, hull-less oat, rye, wheat, and triticale in various proportions. Breakfast cereals samples were packaged in Doypack (stand up pouches) made from Pap50g/Alu7/ Pe60 (Pap/Alu/PE) and stand up pouches Fibrecote® HB MG 40/60 (PE/EvOH/Pap) and stored for 6 months at temperature t=35±2°C and relative air humidity φ=55±3%, to provide accelerated shelf-life testing. The main quality parameters such as total plate count, yeasts and mould, water activity, moisture content, water absorption and sensory properties—taste, aroma, consistency, and appearance were analysed using the standard methods. The results of the present experiments demonstrate that the best quality of dried breakfast cereals after storage in terms of sensory quality, microbiological stability, moisture migration, and water absorption were achieved in the Fibrecote® HB MG 40/60 pouches. This study revealed that breakfast cereals made from rye, triticale germinated triticale, germinated hull-less oat, germinated hull-less barley fakes; as well breakfast cereals made from triticale, oat, germinated wheat, germinated triticale, and germinated hull-less barley fakes packaged in Fibrecote® HB MG 40/60 can be stored for 12 months at temperature 23±2°C; but breakfast cereals made from wheat, rye, triticale, germinated hull-less oat, germinated hull-less barley, germinated rye fakes and package in same packaging material can be stored for 10 months at temperature 23±2°C.

Abstract

Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is normally a short-lived perennial with no vegetative propagation and the number of plants in the field declines rapidly. In organic farming, the amount of clover in the field is decisive for the N2 fixation and yield, the protein content and quality of the forage produced. In Nordland County (66.27°N), there is a farm with some red clover plants in more than 15 years old grassland. In the presented study we examined grassland botanical content and attempted to recognise age of red clover plants. Our hypotheses was 1) that extensive grassland management promotes self-seeding of red clover 2) self-seeding maintaining a desired content of red clover over time. In addition, we tested two harvesting regimes of the first cut for seed maturation and seed quality at two locations in Norway. Red clover plants in old swards showed very high age and a branched root system. Only very few seedlings were found in old sward suggesting that self-seeding was insignificant. Experiments with leaving the grassland after the first cut for seed production of clover failed due to poor seed maturation. Surface seeding of red clover in pure grass plots gave good results, especially with early spring seeding.

Abstract

A future wetter climate in Northern Europe may increase soil compaction from traffic of heavy machinery. This study investigated the impact of tractor traffic on grassland yield, soil physical properties and penetration resistance in three experimental field trials in Norway; on medium sand at Tjøtta, Nordland, on silty medium sand at Fureneset, Sogn og Fjordane and on silt at Løken, Oppland. The experiments were conducted in a split-plot design with three levels of two wheel-by-wheel passes with tractor traffic after each cut: no traffic, light tractor or heavy tractor on large plots, and three different seed mixtures on small plots. The yield reduction by tractor traffic was 26% at Løken, 4% at Fureneset and 1% at Tjøtta. There was a positive correlation between soil moisture content and yield reduction by traffic. Tractor traffic reduced pore volume and air capacity and increased bulk density, compaction degree and penetration resistance with the largest effect at Løken and the smallest at Tjøtta. There were no statistically significant differences in yield or soil physical properties between light and heavy tractor. The study shows that soil texture and soil moisture content are major factors explaining traffic effects on soil physical properties and grassland yield.

Abstract

In order to detect the efficiency of the nitrogen (N2) fixation in clover-grass leys in northern climate conditions, we studied how soil compaction affects growth and N2 -fixation of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) under contrasting growth conditions. A pot experiment was carried out under controlled climatic conditions in the phytotron at Holt (Tromsø). Sandy soil was compacted to two levels, 60% and 85% of the standard degree of compactness (SDC). Four seedlings of white clover plants or timothy (Phleum pratense L.) were carefully planted in each pot. Timothy was used as reference plant. The plants were placed at 15 ºC for twelve weeks and subjected to 18 or 24 h daylight. The 15N isotope dilution method was used to assess N2 -fixation. Results suggest that 24 h daylight increased white clover biomass production as compared to 18 h daylight and favoured leaf and stolon production significantly more at 85% of SDC than at 60% of SDC. However, for white clover plants grown at 18 h day length higher compactness reduced the root development. On average, white clover derived 44-58% of its total N from N2 -fixation grown at 60% of SDC and 46-47% at 85% of SDC, regardless of light conditions. The N2 -fixation was somewhat higher at 24 h day length only under the low soil compaction level.

Abstract

In order to improve the basis for utilising nitrogen (N) fixed by white clover (Trifolium repens L.) in northern agriculture, we studied how defoliation stress affected the N contents of major plant organs in late autumn, N losses during the winter and N accumulation in the following spring. Plants were established from stolon cuttings and transplanted to pots that were dug into the field at Apelsvoll Research Centre (60 degrees 42'N, 10 degrees 51' E) and at Holt Research Centre (69 degrees 40' N, 18 degrees 56' E) in spring 2001 and 2002. During the first growing season, the plants were totally stripped of leaves down to the stolon basis, cut at 4 cm height or left undisturbed. The plants were sampled destructively in late autumn, early spring the second year and after 6 weeks of new spring growth. The plant material was sorted into leaves, stolons and roots. Defoliation regime did not influence the total amount of leaf N harvested during and at the end of the first growing season. However, for intensively defoliated plants, the repeated leaf removal and subsequent regrowth occurred at the expense of stolon and root development and resulted in a 61-85% reduction in the total plant N present in late autumn and a 21-59% reduction in total accumulation of plant N (plant N present in autumn + previously harvested leaf N). During the winter, the net N loss from leaf tissue (N not recovered in living nor dead leaves in the spring) ranged from 57% to 74% of the N present in living leaves in the autumn, while N stored in stolons and roots was much better conserved. However, the winter loss of stolon N from severely defoliated plants (19%) was significantly larger than from leniently defoliated (12%) and non-defoliated plants (6%). Moreover, the fraction of stolon N determined as dead in the spring was 63% for severely defoliated as compared to 14% for non-defoliated plants. Accumulation in absolute terms of new leaf N during the spring was highly correlated to total plant N in early spring (R-2 = 0.86), but the growth rates relative to plant N present in early spring were not and, consequently, were similar for all treatments. The amount of inorganic N in the soil after snowmelt and the N uptake in plant root simulator probes (PRS (TM)) during the spring were small, suggesting that microbial immobilisation, leaching and gas emissions may have been important pathways for N lost from plant tissue.