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Abstract

This study aims to understand the environmental factors, focusing on rain and fungal infection, affecting the assembly of glutenin polymers during grain maturation. Spring wheat was grown in the field and grains were sampled from 50% grain moisture until maturity. Grain moisture content, protein content, size of glutenin polymers, the presence of proteases, and the amount of DNA from common wheat pathogenic fungi were analysed. Rain influenced the rate of grain desiccation that occurred parallel to the rate of glutenin polymer assembly. Rapid desiccation contributed to faster glutenin polymer assembly than gradual desiccation. Severe reduction in the glutenin polymer size coincided with increased grain moisture due to rain. Furthermore, increased fungal DNA followed by presence of gluten-degrading proteases was observed in the grain after humid conditions. The presence of gluten-degrading proteases was presumably involved in reducing the size of glutenin polymers in grain. Our study gave new insight into how environmental conditions could be associated with the assembly of glutenin polymers during grain maturation. The results suggest that rain and/or fungal proteases play an important role in reducing the molecular size of glutenin polymers.

Abstract

To mitigate the risk of erosion and nutrient runoff, reduced tillage has become more prevalent in Norway. Within within recent decades, there have been some years with relatively high occurrence of Fusarium head blight and mycotoxins in Norwegian cereal grain. This is thought to have been caused by an increased inoculum potential (IP) of Fusarium spp. due to larger amount of crop residues remaining on the soil surface, in combination with weather conditions promoting fungal growth and infection of cereal plants. The objective of this work was to elucidate the influence of different tillage practices on the IP of Fusarium spp. and the subsequent Fusarium-infection and mycotoxin contamination of spring wheat grain at harvest. Tillage trials were conducted at two locations in southeast Norway (Solør and Toten) over three years, 2010-2012. Residues of wheat from the previous year were collected in spring. Fusarium avenaceum and Fusarium graminearum were the most common Fusarium species recorded on wheat straw residues. IP was calculated as the percentage of the residues infested with Fusarium spp. multiplied by the proportion of the soil surface covered with residues. The IP of Fusarium spp. was lower in ploughed plots compared to those tilled with harrowing only. Ploughing in spring resulted in a similarly low IP as autumn ploughing. In contrast, harrowing in autumn generally reduced IP more than did spring harrowing. The mycotoxin levels in the harvested wheat were generally low, except for deoxynivalenol at high levels in Solør 2011. Despite a lower IP of ploughed versus harrowed plots, this was not reflected in the content of Fusarium and mycotoxins in harvested grain. The Fusarium species that dominated in the residues examined in this study were the same as those detected in the harvested grain, supporting the finding that residues are an important source of inoculum.

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Abstract

An increase in cereal production in Norway is important for national food security and fulfilling the aim of increased food production. Since the early 1990’s, both reduced cereal area and stagnating yields have been reported. A sustainable yield increase on existing arable land is an important strategy to increase cereal production globally, but also in Norway.

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Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of wheeling with two different wheel loads (1.7 and 2.8 Mg) and contrasting wheeling intensities (1x and 10x) on the bearing capacity of a Stagnosol derived from silty alluvial deposits. Soil strength was assessed by laboratory measurements of the precompression stress in topsoil (20 cm) and subsoil (40 and 60 cm) samples. Stress propagation, as well as elastic and plastic deformation during wheeling were measured in the field with combined stress state (SST) and displacement transducers (DTS). We also present results from soil physical analyses (bulk density, air capacity, saturated hydraulic conductivity) and barley yields from the first two years after the compaction. Although the wheel loads used were comparatively small, typical for the machinery used in Norway, the results show that both increased wheel load and wheeling intensity had negative effects on soil physical parameters especially in the topsoil but with similar tendencies also in the subsoil. Stress propagation was detected down to 60 cm depth (SST). The first wheeling was most harmful, but all wheelings led to accumulative plastic soil deformation (DTS). Under the workable conditions in this trial, increased wheeling with a small machine was more harmful to soil structure than a single wheeling with a heavier machine. However, the yields in the first two years after the compaction did not show any negative effect of the compaction.

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Abstract

Europe accounts for around 20% of the global cereal production and is a net exporter of ca. 15% of that production. Increasing global demand for cereals justifies questions as to where and by how much Europe’s production can be increased to meet future global market demands, and how much additional nitrogen (N) crops would require. The latter is important as environmental concern and legislation are equally important as production aims in Europe. Here, we used a country-by-country, bottom-up approach to establish statistical estimates of actual grain yield, and compare these to modelled estimates of potential yields for either irrigated or rainfed conditions. In this way, we identified the yield gaps and the opportunities for increased cereal production for wheat, barley and maize, which represent 90% of the cereals grown in Europe. The combined mean annual yield gap of wheat, barley, maize was 239 Mt, or 42% of the yield potential. The national yield gaps ranged between 10 and 70%, with small gaps in many north-western European countries, and large gaps in eastern and south-western Europe. Yield gaps for rainfed and irrigated maize were consistently lower than those of wheat and barley. If the yield gaps of maize, wheat and barley would be reduced from 42% to 20% of potential yields, this would increase annual cereal production by 128 Mt (39%). Potential for higher cereal production exists predominantly in Eastern Europe, and half of Europe’s potential increase is located in Ukraine, Romania and Poland. Unlocking the identified potential for production growth requires a substantial increase of the crop N uptake of 4.8 Mt. Across Europe, the average N uptake gaps, to achieve 80% of the yield potential, were 87, 77 and 43 kg N ha−1 for wheat, barley and maize, respectively. Emphasis on increasing the N use efficiency is necessary to minimize the need for additional N inputs. Whether yield gap reduction is desirable and feasible is a matter of balancing Europe’s role in global food security, farm economic objectives and environmental targets.

Abstract

Four field trials (spring wheat and oats) were conducted (one on clay soil, one on loam soil and two on silt soil) for three years in important cereal growing districts, to investigate the influence of tillage regimes (ploughing versus reduced tillage in either autumn or spring) and straw management (removed and retained) on plant residue amounts, weed populations, soil structural parameters and cereal yields. The effect of tillage on soil structure varied, mainly due to the short trial period. In general, the amount of small soil aggregates increased with tillage intensity. Reduced soil tillage, and in some cases spring ploughing, gave significantly higher aggregate stability than autumn ploughing, thus providing protection against erosion. However, decreasing tillage intensity increased the amounts of weeds, particularly of Poa annua on silt soil. Straw treatment only slightly affected yields, while effects of tillage varied between both year and location. Reduced tillage, compared to ploughing, gave only small yield differences on loam soil, while it was superior on clay soil and inferior on silt soil. Our results suggest that shallow spring ploughing is a good alternative to autumn ploughing, since it gave comparable yields, better protection against erosion and was nearly as effective against weeds.

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Abstract

Verification of traffic-induced soil compaction after long-term ploughing and ten years minimum tillage on clay loam soil in South-East Norway T. Seehusen, T. Børresen, B.I. Rostad, H. Fleige, A. Zink and H. Riley Abstract Grain yields are presented from a 10-year field trial with four tillage regimes (annual ploughing, harrowing only, ploughing/harrowing alternate years, minimum tillage) on clay loam. We also present soil physical analyses and use the compaction verification tool (CVT) to assess compaction on plots with annual ploughing and minimum tillage, after using slurry tankers with contrasting wheel loads (4.1 Mg, 6.6 Mg) and wheeling intensities (1x/10x) in the 11th trial year, and yields monitored two years after compaction. Winter wheat yields in the period before compaction were strongly affected by tillage, with annual ploughing giving on average 24% higher yield than direct drilling. Both wheat and oats were far less affected in treatments with harrowing only or ploughing/harrowing alternate years, on average within 6% of annual ploughing. Yields after compaction were affected by both previous tillage and compaction intensity. In the first year, single wheeling after annual ploughing gave 23% yield reduction with 4.1 Mg wheel load and 28% reduction with 6.6 Mg wheel load, whilst multiple wheeling gave 14 % reduction at 6.6 Mg wheel load. Yield reductions after minimum tillage ranged from 63% (single wheeling with 4.1 Mg) to 100% (multiple wheeling with 6.6 Mg). Similar trends were found in the second year. The soil physical data indicated that all wheeling led to changes in bulk density, pore sizes and permeability in both topsoil and subsoil on both sampled tillage plots. However, effects in the subsoil were partly masked by the soil’s high initial bulk density, partly due to its high clay content. The CVT, which plots air capacity against hydraulic conductivity, suggested some harmful compaction on both plots, with the minimum tillage plot being less affected than the ploughed plot. However, yield results did not support this conclusion, indicating that other factors limited yields on the minimum tilled plot. Keywords: long term contrasting soil tillage, yield results, slurry tanker, wheel load, wheeling intensity, compaction verification tool.