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We present the results of an inventory and status assessment of alien species in Norway. The inventory covered all known multicellular neobiota, 2496 in total, 1039 of which were classified as naturalised. The latter constitute c. 3% of all species known to be stably reproducing in Norway. These figures are higher than expected from Norway’s latitude, which may be due a combination of climatic and historical factors, as well as sampling effort. Most of the naturalised neobiota were plants (71%),followed by animals (21%) and fungi (8%). The main habitat types colonised were open lowlands (79%), urban environments (52%) and woodlands (42%). The main areas of origin were Europe (67%), North America (15%) and Asia (13%). For most taxa, the rate of novel introductions seems to have been increasing during recent decades. Within Norway, the number of alien species recorded per county was negatively correlated with latitude and positively correlated with human population density. In the high-Arctic territories under Norwegian sovereignty, i.e. Svalbard and Jan Mayen, 104 alien species were recorded, of which 5 were naturalised.

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I 2018 vart totalt 130 prøvar av jord frå importerte grøntanleggsplanter analyserte for nematodar og Phytophthora spp. i OK-programmet «Nematoder og Phytophthora spp. i jord på importerte planter”. Prøvane vart tatt ut av inspektørar ved regionkontora til Mattilsyner. Større tre til utplanting hadde førsteprioritet. Her rapporterar vi Phytophthora-delen av OK-programmet. I 35 % av prøvane vart det totalt funne 14 Phytophthora-artar fordelt på fleire opphavsland; Polen, Tyskland, Nederland, Belgia, Italia og våre to naboland Sverige og Danmark. Ingen av Phytophthora-artane var karanteneorganismar, men fleire av dei gjer i dag skade i både grøntanlegg og norsk natur, til dømes Phytophthora cambivora og P. plurivora på bøk (Fagus sylvatica). Kartleggingsprogrammet skal fylgjast opp i 2019.

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I 2011 vart symptom på angrep av Phytophthora på bøk (Fagus sylvatica) i bøkeskogen i Larvik oppdaga for fyrste gong. Skadegjeraren vart identifisert til Phytophthora cambivora. I tillegg vart det funne andre Phytophthora-artar i jord/vatn i og nær bøkeskogen. Dette førte til ei grundig kartlegging av situasjonen og Phytophthora vart tatt omsyn til i ein forvaltningsplan for bøkeskogen frå Fylkesmannen i Vestfold i 2013. I denne planen vart det stadfesta at Phytophthora-situasjonen skulle fylgjast opp med ny kartlegging om 5 år, noko som vart gjennomført i 2018 og presentert i denne rapporten. Vi fann fleire tre som hadde vorte sjuke sidan førre kartlegging, men utviklinga har ikkje gått så raskt som vi frykta. Også andre skadegjerarar det bør tast omsyn til ved skjøtsel av bøkeskogen vert omtala.

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Skogens helsetilstand påvirkes i stor grad av klima og værforhold, enten direkte ved tørke, frost og vind, eller indirekte ved at klimaet påvirker omfanget av soppsykdommer og insektangrep. Klimaendringene og den forventede økningen i klimarelaterte skogskader gir store utfordringer for forvaltningen av framtidas skogressurser. Det samme gjør invaderende skadegjørere, både allerede etablerte arter og nye som kan komme til Norge i nær framtid. I denne rapporten presenteres resultater fra skogskadeovervåkingen i Norge i 2018 og trender over tid for følgende temaer: (i) Landsrepresentativ skogovervåking; (ii) Skogøkologiske analyser og målinger av luftkjemi på de intensive overvåkingsflatene; (iii) Overvåking av bjørkemålere i Troms og Finnmark; (iv) Granbarkbilleovervåking – utvikling av barkbillepopulasjonene i 2018; (v) Ny barkbille på vei – vil den like klimaet?; (vi) Phytophthora i importert jord på prydplanter og faren det utgjør for skog; (vii) Overvåking av askeskuddsyke; (viii) Skog- og utmarksbranner i 2018; (ix) Andre spesielle skogskader i 2018...….

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Både dagens og forventet klimautvikling gir utfordringer i forvaltning av bytrær og byskoger, og spesielt nye planteskadegjører og nye nedbørsmønster forventes gi økende skadeomfang og redusert kvalitet og funksjon på trær og skog. I denne rapporten skisserer vi prinsipper for forvaltning av bytrær og byskoger, dvs. skoger der den primære funksjon ikke er skogsdrift, og gir mer konkrete forslag for videre utvikling av Vålandskogen som en av Stavangers viktigste bynære rekreasjonsområder.

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The spatial distribution and niche differentiation of three closely related species (Erysiphe alphitoides, Erysiphe quercicola and Erysiphe hypophylla) causing oak powdery mildew was studied at scales ranging from the European continent, where they are invasive, to a single leaf. While E. alphitoides was dominant at all scales, E. quercicola and E. hypophylla had restricted geographic, stand and leaf distributions. The large-scale distributions were likely explained by climatic factors and species environmental tolerances, with E. quercicola being more frequent in warmer climates and E. hypophylla in colder climates. The extensive sampling and molecular analyses revealed the cryptic invasion of E. quercicola in nine countries from which it had not previously been recorded. The presence of the three species was also strongly affected by host factors, such as oak species and developmental stage. Segregation patterns between Erysiphe species were observed at the leaf scale, between and within leaf surfaces, suggesting competitive effects.

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Total forfattarliste: Franić, I., Prospero, S., Adamson, K., Allan, A., Auger-Rozenberg, A-M, Augustin, S., Avtzis, D., Barta, M., Boroń, P., Bragança, H., Brestovanská, T., Brurberg, M. B., Burgess, B., Burokienė, D., Černý, K., Cleary, M., Corley, J., Coyle, D. R., Csóka, G., Davydenko, K., Elsafy, M. A. O., Eötvös, C., de Groot, M., Diez, J. J., Lehtijärvi, H. T. D., Drenkhan, R., Fan, J., Grabowski, M., Grad, B., Havrdova, L., Hrabetova, M., Iede, E. T., Kacprzyk, M., Kenis, M., Kirichenko25,45, N., Lacković26,N., Lazarević, J., Leskiv, M., Li, H., Madsen, C.L., Matošević, D., Matsiakh, I., Meffert, J., Migliorini, D., Mikó, Á., Nikolov, C., O'Hanlon, R., Oskay, F., Paap, T., Parpan, T., Petrakis, P.V., Piškur, B., Ravn, H.P., Ronse, A., Roques, A., Schühli, G.S., Sivickis, K., Talgø, V., Tomoshevich, M., Uimari, A., Ulyshen, M., Vettraino, A.M., Villari, C., Wang, Y., Witzell, J., Zlatković, M., Eschen, R.

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Total forfattarliste: Franić, I., Prospero, S., Adamson, K., Allan, A., Auger-Rozenberg, A-M, Augustin, S., Avtzis, D., Barta, M., Boroń, P., Bragança, H., Brestovanská, T., Brurberg, M. B., Burgess, B., Burokienė, D., Černý, K., Cleary, M., Corley, J., Coyle, D. R., Csóka, G., Davydenko, K., Elsafy, M. A. O., Eötvös, C., de Groot, M., Diez, J. J., Lehtijärvi, H. T. D., Drenkhan, R., Fan, J., Grabowski, M., Grad, B., Havrdova, L., Hrabetova, M., Iede, E. T., Kacprzyk, M., Kenis, M., Kirichenko25,45, N., Lacković26,N., Lazarević, J., Leskiv, M., Li, H., Madsen, C.L., Matošević, D., Matsiakh, I., Meffert, J., Migliorini, D., Mikó, Á., Nikolov, C., O'Hanlon, R., Oskay, F., Paap, T., Parpan, T., Petrakis, P.V., Piškur, B., Ravn, H.P., Ronse, A., Roques, A., Schühli, G.S., Sivickis, K., Talgø, V., Tomoshevich, M., Uimari, A., Ulyshen, M., Vettraino, A.M., Villari, C., Wang, Y., Witzell, J., Zlatković, M., Eschen, R.

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The fungus Neonectria fuckeliana has become an increasing problem on Norway spruce (Picea abies) in the Nordic countries during recent years. Canker wounds caused by the pathogen reduce timber quality and top-dieback is a problem for the Christmas tree industry. In this study, four inoculation trials were conducted to examine the ability of N. fuckeliana to cause disease on young Norway spruce plants and determine how different wound types would affect the occurrence and severity of the disease. Symptom development after 8–11 months was mainly mild and lesion lengths under bark were generally minor. However, N. fuckeliana could still be reisolated and/or molecularly detected. Slow disease development is in line with older studies describing N. fuckeliana as a weak pathogen. However, the results do not explain the serious increased damage by N. fuckeliana registered in Nordic forests and Christmas tree plantations. Potential management implications, such as shearing Christmas trees during periods of low inoculum pressure, cleaning secateurs between trees, and removal and burning of diseased branches and trees to avoid inoculum transfer and to keep disease pressure low, are based on experiments presented here and experiences with related pathogens.

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Phytophthora cryptogea, P. gonapodyides, P. lacustris, P. megasperma, P. plurivora, P. taxon paludosa and an unknown Phytophthora species were isolated from waterways and soil samples in Christmas tree fields in southern Sweden. In addition, P. megasperma was isolated from a diseased Norway spruce (Picea abies) plant from one of the fields in Svalöv. Inoculation tests were sequentially carried out with one isolate from each of the three species P. cryptogea, P. megasperma, and P. plurivora, all known pathogens on conifers. The same three isolates were used to study a few morphological features to confirm the identification, and temperature-growth relationships were carried out to see how well the organisms fit into Swedish climatic conditions. Seedlings of Norway spruce and Nordmann fir (Abies nordmanniana) were inoculated in the roots and the stems. None of the isolates caused extensive root rot under the experimental conditions, but all three species could be re-isolated from both Norway spruce and Nordmann fir. Phytophthora root rot is currently of minor concern for Christmas tree growers in Sweden. However, the Phytophthora isolations from soil and water indicate the presence of this damaging agent, which may lead to future problems.

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Skogens helsetilstand påvirkes i stor grad av klima og værforhold, enten direkte ved tørke, frost og vind, eller indirekte ved at klimaet påvirker omfanget av soppsykdommer og insektangrep. Klimaendringene og den forventede økningen i klimarelaterte skogskader gir store utfordringer for forvaltningen av framtidas skogressurser. Det samme gjør invaderende skadegjørere, både allerede etablerte arter og nye som kan komme til Norge i nær framtid. Denne rapporten presenterer resultater fra skogskadeovervåkingen i Norge i 2017 og trender over tid for følgende temaer...

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Introduction and purpose: The ability of apple rootstocks to become infected by Neonectria ditissima, the cause of European canker, was studied over two years. Materials and methods: Rootstocks B9 and M9 with a size suitable for grafting (6-10 mm stem diameter, termed rootstocks), and smaller sized rootstocks (<5 mm stem diameter, termed transplants) of B9, M9, M26, MM106 and Antonovka were inoculated with N. ditissima at different times, either with contaminated map pins or with spore suspensions. In addition, the rootstocks were either defeathered (side shoots removed), topped (top shoot headed) or both, to create wounds that would normally occur during propagation, while wounds on transplants were made by removing leaves. Results and discussion: One month after inoculation, slightly sunken canker lesions had developed around the inoculation points of the map pins or wounds. No lesions developed on the non-inoculated controls. Map pin inoculation resulted in 30% to 89% infection and spore suspension sprayed on wounds from 5% to 45% infection. When the cankered areas were split open, brown lesions with necrotic tissue due to infection by N. ditissima appeared. The transplants of M9, M26 and MM106 inoculated with contaminated map pins in 2014 developed necrosis on 40% to 67% of the plants, but there were no differences in the incidence or severity among the different types. On the transplants of B9, Antonovka and M9 inoculated in 2015, there was more necrosis on B9 (42%) than on Antonovka (11%) and more sporulating lesions on B9 (29%) than on M9 (9%) or on Antonovka (4%). Conclusion: It can be concluded that rootstocks used for apple trees may become infected by N. ditissima, and wounds should thus be protected during propagation.

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Field trials of Abies lasiocarpa were undertaken with the aim of assessing the potential for Christmas tree production in Denmark. Twenty-six provenances originating from Alaska to New Mexico were tested. Damage by the insect Adelges piceae and the fungus Neonectria neomacrospora was recorded for the first time 8 and 12 years after the initial planting. Damage from N. neomacrospora increased rapidly in the period 12–15 years after planting. Trees from the northern provenances and humid climates exhibited less damage than those from southern ones. Previous attack by A. piceae had a minor effect on N. neomacrospora infection. Greenhouse tests showed that detached shoots from healthy Abies lasiocarpa can be used to rank provenances for resistance to N. neomacrospora, but results varied according to host subspecies.

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The impact of Delphinella shoot blight (Delphinella abietis) and Grovesiella canker (Grovesiella abieticola) on subalpine (Abies lasiocarpa) and corkbark fir (A. lasiocarpa var. arizonica) in a provenance trial in Idaho (ID) was evaluated in 2013. Both pathogens were previously reported from North America on fir species. D. abietis had been found on subalpine fir in USA, but not in ID, and G. abieticola on grand fir (Abies grandis) in ID, but not on subalpine or corkbark fir. D. abietis kills current-year needles and in severe cases buds and shoots, and G. abieticola results in dead shoots and branches and can eventually kill whole trees. Significant differences between provenances in susceptibility to D. abietis and G. abieticola were observed in the provenance trial in ID. In general, subalpine fir was more susceptible to both diseases than corkbark fir. In 2013, D. abietis was also found on subalpine fir in the Puget Sound area of Washington State and G. abieticola was seen on white fir (Abies concolor), but neither disease was detected in native stands of subalpine fir in Washington State. Morphological features of both fungi were described from samples collected in the provenance trial in ID in May 2016.

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Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, was detected for the first time in Norway in 1986. It was a limited outbreak on the south-western coast, only on ornamentals, and particularly on Cotoneaster spp. An action group handling the eradication and containment of the disease was quickly established. Comprehensive statutory powers and resources were given by the government to do surveys and eradicate diseased or symptomless but highly susceptible plant species from contaminated areas. These activities have likely restricted fire blight to the western and southern coastal areas. Eastern and northern parts of Norway are considered free from fire blight. The disease has not been observed in important fruit-growing areas. Uncontrolled movement of beehives from areas with fire blight to areas free from the disease has contributed to its introduction to new areas. From 1969 to 2016 import of most host plants of E. amylovora from countries with fire blight was prohibited. A yearly program for annual surveys in parts of the country with commercial fruit-growing and nurseries, using digital maps on internet connected tablets with GPS and software for in situ registrations, proved to be an efficient method for discovering new outbreaks at an early stage, and to start eradication and thus limit further spread.

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Fleire soppar kan angripa kongler av gran (Picea spp.) og føra til dårleg spiring av frø. Frøsmitte kan også overførast til planter og gjera skade seinare i omløpet, både i planteskular og i produksjonsfelt til skog og juletre.

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Production of inoculum of Colletotrichum acutatum from both previously infected and overwintered tissue, as well as newly developed plant tissue of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), was studied in southern Norway. Plant parts were sampled from commercial, private, or research orchards, and incubated for 2 to 14 days (time depended on tissue type) in saturated air at 20°C. In early spring, abundant sporulation was found on scales of overwintered buds and shoots. A mean of 35% infected buds in four cultivars was observed, with a maximum of 72% of the buds infected in one of the samples. Over 3 years, the seasonal production of overwintered fruit and peduncles of cv. Fanal infected the previous year was investigated. In all three years, the infected plant material was placed in the trees throughout the winter and the following growing season; in two of the years, fruit and peduncles were also placed on the ground in the autumn or the following spring. Old fruit and peduncles formed conidia throughout the season, with a peak in May and June. Spore numbers declined over the season, but the decline was more rapid for plant material on the ground than in the trees. On average over 2 years, 68.7, 24.0, or 7.3% of the inoculum came from fruit placed in the trees, placed on the ground in spring, or placed on the ground the preceding autumn, respectively. The number of fruit and peduncles attached to the trees in a planting of cv. Hardangerkirsebær was followed from February to July one year, and although there was a decline over time, fruit and/or their peduncles were still attached in substantial numbers in July, thus illustrating their potential as sources of inoculum. In observations over 2 years in a heavily infected orchard of cv. Stevnsbær, 75 and 47% of flowers and newly emerged fruit, respectively, were infected. Artificially inoculated flowers and fruit produced conidia until harvest, with a peak in mid-July. It may be concluded that previously infected and overwintered, as well as newly emerged tissue of sour cherry, may serve as sources of inoculum of C. acutatum throughout the growing season.

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On September 6th – 11th in 2015, the Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO) organized The 12th International Christmas Tree Research and Extension Conference (CTREC) at Honne, Norway. Around 40 participants from Australia, Austria, Canada, Denmark, France, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Norway, UK, and USA gathered to share skills and recent research related to Christmas tree production and marketing. Nearly 50 presentations (oral and poster) were given during the conference covering the following topics; Breeding & genetic, Insects, Tree health, Physiology, Growth conditions & integrated pest management, Postharvest, and Market & economy. Abstracts, extended abstracts or papers from all presentations are available in this proceedings.

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The fungus Neonectria neomacrospora has recently caused an epidemic outbreak in conifer species within the genus Abies in Denmark and Norway. Christmas tree producers in Europe and North America rely, to a large extent, on Abies species. The damage caused by N. neomacrospora, including dead shoot tips, red flagging of branches and potentially dead trees, have therefore caused concern about reduced quality and loss of trees, and thereby of revenue. Field observations of natural infection of 39 taxa, from 32 species, within the genus Abies in the Hørsholm Arboretum, Denmark, were evaluated; significant differences were seen between taxa, that is, species, and between some species and their subspecies. The Greek fir, Abies cephalonica, was the only species without damage. An inoculation experiment on detached twigs with mycelium plugs from a N. neomacrospora culture showed that all species could be infected. The damage observed in the inoculation experiment could explain 30% of the variation in the field observations based on species mean values. The epidemic outbreak and the high number of species susceptible to this fungus indicate that N. neomacrospora requires attention in the cultivation and conservation of Abies species.

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Fire blight was detected for the first time in Norway in 1986. It was a limited outbreak on the West Coast, only on ornamentals, particularly on Cotoneaster. An organization for the eradication and containment of fire blight was quickly established, and given comprehensive statutory powers and government resources to do surveys and eradicate diseased plants and highly susceptible plants from contaminated areas. The work has managed to restrict fire blight to the West Coast. Eastern and Northern parts of the country are considered pest free areas. The disease has not moved into important fruit-growing areas. Spread of fire blight to new areas has mainly been due to uncontrolled movement of beehives. From 1969 to 2016 import of all host plants from countries with fire blight has been prohibited. Systematic yearly surveys by foot and car in all parts of the country, using digital maps, internet connected tablets with GPS, and software for registrations made in the field have proved to be an efficient tool to spot new outbreaks at an early stage and start eradication, thus limiting further spread.

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Pseudomonas syringae was isolated from symptomatous goat willow trees (and some other tree species) from different locations in Norway. The isolates were characterized by different methods and their pathogenicity proven by bioassays. We conclude that the pathogen represents a threat to the health of goat willow and other host plants in Norwegian natural environment.

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De siste ti årene er det i Norge, som i mange andre land, observert store skader på trær og andre planter både i grøntanlegg og naturområder etter angrep av planteskadegjørere innen slekten Phytophthora. Spredningen og sjukdomsomfanget viser med all tydelighet at arter av Phytophthora har et stort skadepotensiale og må tas på største alvor.

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Delphinella shoot blight (Delphinella abietis) attacks true firs (Abies spp.) in Europe and North America. Especially subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa), one of the main Christmas tree species in Norway, is prone to the disease. The fungus kills current year needles, and in severe cases entire shoots. Dead needles become covered with black fruiting bodies, both pycnidia and pseudothecia. Delphinella shoot blight has mainly been a problem in humid, coastal regions in the northwestern part of Southern Norway, but, probably due to higher precipitation in inland regions during recent years, heavy attacks were found in 2011 in a field trial with 76 provenances of subalpine fir in Southeastern Norway. However, the amount of precipitation seemed less important once the disease had established in the field. Significant differences in susceptibility between provenances were observed. In general, the more bluish the foliage was, the healthier the trees appeared. The analysis of provenance means indicated that, at least for the southern range, the disease ratings were correlated with foliage color. This study also includes isolation, identification, a pathogenicity test, a seed test and electron microscopy of the wax layer on the needles. The fungus was identified based on the morphology of spores and by sequencing the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of the ribosomal DNA. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled. The fungus was found present on newly harvested seeds and may therefore spread via international seed trade. When comparing the wax layers on green and blue needles, those of the latter were significantly thicker, a factor that may be involved in disease resistance.

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