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Landbruks- og Matdepartementet ga sommeren 2023 NIBIO i oppdrag å utrede effekter av suppleringsplanting med henblikk på potensialet for «karbon-fangst» og klimabidrag. Oppdraget omfattet en evaluering av følgende tiltak: 1. Suppleringsplanting etter tradisjonell kulturforyngelse (nyplanting) av gran. 2. Hjelpekultur (supplering) for å komplettere naturforyngelse av furu. 3. Behovet for hjelpekultur (supplering) for å sikre tilfredsstillende foryngelse etter lukkede hogster i granskog. 4. Hjelpekultur (supplering) for å komplettere naturforyngelse etter fjellskoghogst. Problemstillingene knyttet til hvert av tiltakene slik de er konkretisert av oppdragsgiver er gjengitt i kapittel 1. I løsningen av oppdraget er det benyttet en kombinasjon av data fra Resultatkartleggingen og Landsskogtakseringen, i tillegg til modellsimuleringer og gjennomgang av tilgjengelig litteratur. De to første tiltakene behandles samlet i rapportens kapittel 2, mens de to siste tiltakene belyses i kapitlene 3 og 4. Tiltak 1 og 2: Klimaeffekten av de to første tiltakene fram mot år 2100 er estimert ved å sammenligne akkumulert opptak av CO2 for et basisscenario uten supplering, med scenarier der det forutsettes et aktivitetsnivå som dekker opp behovet slik det er registrert i Resultatkartleggingen i perioden 2018-2022. Analysene gav som resultat at scenariet med supplering i både gran- og furuforyngelser gir et akkumulert meropptak på 34,6 Mt CO2 fram mot år 2100 sammenlignet med scenariet uten supplering. Supplering i kun granforyngelser gav som resultat et meropptak på 27,9 Mt CO2, mens meropptaket ved supplering i kun furuforyngelser ble estimert til 6,1 Mt CO2. Den akkumulerte forskjellen på 34,6 Mt CO2 mellom scenariet uten supplering og scenariet med supplering i både gran og furu utgjør et ekstra årlig opptak på 0,4 Mt CO2 når differansen fordeles over 80 år. Siden det meste av meropptaket kommer i siste del av perioden har tiltaket liten betydning for å nå klimamål for 2030 og 2050, men desto større effekt i et lengre tidsperspektiv. Basert på diskontert kostnad havner begge tiltakene i den lavere delen av kostnadskategorien «under 500 kr per tonn», uansett skogtype (treslag, bonitet). Tiltak 3 og 4: Resultatet ved naturlig foryngelse kan variere mye etter lukkede hogster i granskog. Noen vegetasjonstyper, for eksempel fattige utforminger av bærlyng- eller blåbærskog med tjukke råhumusmatter, skiller seg negativt ut. For hogstformer som skjermstillingshogst og gruppehogst vurderer vi at oppfølging av resultatet nokså raskt etter hogst, etterfulgt av suppleringsplanting der det er behov, vil kunne bidra til at plantetettheten er på et visst nivå. Men det er også store usikkerheter knyttet til effekten, fordi veksten er langsom og dødeligheten i foryngelsen nokså stor, ikke minst ved de gjentatte hogstinngrepene som kjennetegner lukkede hogster. Ved selektive hogster er det viktig å ha i bakhodet at innvoksingen (årlig rekruttering av nye trær inn i minste diameterklasse) ikke trenger å være veldig stor for å erstatte de trærne som hogges. Her er det også svært vanskelig å forutsi hvilke planteplasser i bestandet som vil sikre plantene god utvikling, over alle de tiårene som trengs før de vokser inn i dominerende tresjikt. Grunnet mangelfulle data og empiri for lukkede hogstformer, inkludert fjellskoghogst, er effekter på karbonopptak ved suppleringsplanting ikke kvantifisert, utover å angi et grovt estimat for fjellskoghogst i granskog i Innlandet fylke. Det årlige omfanget av fjellskoghogst i fylket var i perioden 2010-2022 i gjennomsnitt på 456 ha (Resultatkartleggingen, upubliserte data), og kontrollørene vurderte at det var behov for supplering på 48 prosent av dette arealet (218 ha).

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Purpose of Review The demand for forest tree seedlings is increasing globally, and Sphagnum peat moss is widely used as a component of growing media for container plant production. However, peat extraction is environmentally unsustainable. The forest nursery sector needs to switch to more sustainable alternatives to peat. This review aims to identify potential substitutes for peat by reviewing the worldwide literature on alternative materials for growing media in forest nurseries. Recent Findings Most studies on alternative growing media focused on single plant species growing under local conditions, thereby limiting generalizations about the effectiveness of alternative materials for plant production. To our knowledge, no systematic reviews of scientific literature on the effectiveness of new, alternative-to-peat materials for enhancing plant growth and the associated growing media characteristics for the forest nursery sector are currently available. Summary Most of the analyzed case studies focused on angiosperms (73.1%), with the majority of studies coming from tropical seasonal forests/savannas (36.5%), followed by woodlands/shrublands (31.6%), and temperate forests (15.0%) biomes. Compost was the most studied material (19.5%), followed by bark, other organic materials, and manure (9.8, 9.7, and 8.0%, respectively). Green and municipal wastes were the principal sources of compost (> 60%), while agriculture and green wastes were the first sources of other materials (> 90%). Tested materials were dependent on the geographic region. Thus, manure was the most tested material in Africa and South America, tree bark in North America, and compost in Europe, Asia, and Oceania. Alternative materials effectively provided optimal physicochemical characteristics of growing media and enhanced seedling nursery growth when compared with peat-based growing media in more than 60% of the case studies. This review helps to identify research gaps and, most importantly, provides the basis for the future application of alternative growing media materials in forest nursery management worldwide.

Sammendrag

«Bjørk i Norge» er sluttrapporten etter det treårige prosjekt «Flaskehalser og barrierer for økt bruk av bjørk» som er utført av en gruppe forskere ved NIBIO. Formålet med rapporten er å gi en oversikt over dagens bjørkeressurser, prognoser for volum og tilvekst samt dagens bruk av bjørk. Vi beskriver brukspotensiale, flaskehalser og barrierer for økt og kvalitetstilpasset bruk av bjørk og gjennomgår dagens kunnskap om foryngelse og skjøtsel av bjørk. I tillegg gir rapporten en oversikt over kvalitetsevalueringer av bjørk, samt en presentasjon av en studie om «forbedret kvalitetsevaluering av bjørkestokker». Vi påpeker fremtidige forskningsbehov og handlingsmuligheter for å få en bedre utnyttelse av avvirket virke, en mer kvalitetstilpasset bruk og en generell økt bruk av norsk bjørk.

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The relationship between the quality of forest seedlings and their outplanting survival and growth has long been recognized. Various attributes have been proposed to measure the quality of planted seedlings in forest regeneration projects, ranging from simple morphological traits to more complex physiological and performance attributes, or a combination thereof. However, the utility and meaning of seedling quality attributes can differ significantly among regions, nursery practices, site planting conditions, species and the establishment purpose. Here, forest scientists compiled information using a common agreed questionnaire to provide a review of current practices, experiences, legislation and standards for seedling quality across 23 European countries. Large differences exist in measuring seedling quality across countries. The control of the origin of seed and vegetative material (genetic component of plant quality), and control of pests and diseases are common practices in all countries. Morphological attributes are widely used and mandatory in most cases. However, physiological attributes are hardly used at the operative level and mainly concentrated to Fennoscandia. Quality control legislation and seedling quality standards are less strict in northern European countries where seedling production is high, and quality control relies more on the agreements between producers and local plant material users. In contrast, quality standards are stricter in Southern Europe, especially in the Mediterranean countries. The control of seedling quality based on plantation and reforestation success is uncommon and depends on the conditions of the planting site, the traditional practices and the financial support provided by each country. Overall, European countries do not apply the “target seedling concept” for seedling production except for seed origin. Seedling production in many countries is still driven by traditional “know-how” and much less by scientific knowledge progress, which is not adequately disseminated and transferred to the end-users. Our review highlights the need for greater harmonization of seedling quality practices across Europe and the increased dissemination of scientific knowledge to improve seedling quality in forest regeneration activities.

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På oppdrag fra Miljødirektoratet og Landbruksdirektoratet har vi gått gjennom kunnskapsstatus på 11 ulike tiltak utvalgt av direktoratene. Alle tiltakene ligger innenfor det tradisjonelle bestandsskogbruket. Tiltakene er vurdert ut fra hvordan de kan øke skogens netto CO2-opptak (karbonlagring), men for noen tiltak også betydning for andre klimagasser og for biogeofysiske effekter som albedo. Utvalget er ikke uttømmende, og også andre tiltak gjennom omløpet vil ha effekt på skogens CO2-opptak. Potensielle substitusjonseffekter gjennom tilgang på mer tømmer eller tømmer med høyere kvalitet er ikke inkludert. Klimatilpasning har vært med i vurderingen av alle tiltak. Det er korte omtaler av tiltakenes effekter på naturmangfold.

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Planting healthy seedlings with optimal growth potential is essential for proper growth and survival in forest regeneration. Assessing the seedling quality prior to planting is therefore important. In this Icelandic study, effects of root damage induced with artificial freezing in young Russian larch seedlings were examined using the root growth capacity method (RGC). Frost tolerance of roots varied during the winter, and root growth in undamaged seedlings fluctuated, indicating seasonal variations in growth rhythm. The LT50 value for root frost tolerance was −13.9°C in late January, but already at −10.6°C (LT10) root damages were severe. After one growing season, shoot elongation was significantly lower in seedlings frozen to −9°C, −13.5°C, and −15.5°C by 23%, 54%, and 72%, respectively, compared with undamaged seedlings. Control seedlings and seedlings frozen to −9°C achieved 100% survival after the first growing season. Survival in seedlings frozen to −13.5°C and −15.5°C was 85% and 27%, respectively. After the second growing season, survival decreased in all frost-damaged seedlings. The ongoing mortality demonstrates the long-lasting effects of planting seedlings with damaged root systems, and the fluctuation in root frost tolerance of young Russian larch seedlings during winter emphasises the need for care when seedlings are moved to outdoor storage.

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Store mengder god jord med frø eller rotstengler av fremmede invaderende karplanter deponeres hvert år. For en mer bærekraftig forvaltning av jordressurser ønsket Statens vegvesen å undersøke om slik jord fra veianlegg isteden kan kanaliseres til jordbruket der vanlig ugraskontroll og drift forhåpentligvis kan kontrollere de uønskede artene. I prosjektet FoU-forsøk «Håndtering av jordmasser infisert av fremme karplanter gjennom landbruket» gjennomførte vi tre forsøk der vi 1. undersøkte etablering av kanadagullris fra lagret A-sjikt tilbakeført til eng, 2. etablering av kanadagullris fra infisert jord lagt ut på arealer til korndyrking, og 3. bruk av geiter til å kontrollere slireknearter i infisert jord lagt ut til beite. Resultatene fra disse forsøkene presenteres i denne rapporten. Resultatene viser at disse tilnærmingene kan fungere, men effektene må dokumenteres bedre.

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Reusing soil can reduce environmental impacts associated with obtaining natural fresh soil during road construction and analogous activities. However, the movement and reuse of soils can spread numerous plant diseases and pests, including propagules of weeds and invasive alien plant species. To avoid the spread of barnyardgrass in reused soil, its seeds must be killed before that soil is spread to new areas. We investigated the possibility of thermal control of barnyardgrass seeds using a prototype of a stationary soil steaming device. One Polish and four Norwegian seed populations were examined for thermal sensitivity. To mimic a natural range in seed moisture content, dried seeds were moistened for 0, 12, 24, or 48 h before steaming. To find effective soil temperatures and whether exposure duration is important, we tested target soil temperatures in the range 60 to 99 C at an exposure duration of 90 s (Experiment 1) and exposure durations of 30, 90, or 180 s with a target temperature of 99 C (Experiment 2). In a third experiment, we tested exposure durations of 90, 180, and 540 s at 99 C (Experiment 3). Obtaining target temperatures was challenging. For target temperatures of 60, 70, 80, and 99 C, the actual temperatures obtained were 59 to 69, 74 to 76, 77 to 83, and 94 to 99 C, respectively. After steaming treatments, seed germination was followed for 28 d in a greenhouse. Maximum soil temperature affected seed germination, but exposure duration did not. Seed premoistening was of influence but varied among temperatures and populations. The relationships between maximum soil temperature and seed germination were described by a common dose–response function. Seed germination was reduced by 50% when the maximum soil temperature reached 62 to 68 C and 90% at 76 to 86 C. For total weed control, 94 C was required in four populations, whereas 79 C was sufficient in one Norwegian population.

Sammendrag

Established invasive alien plant species make it difficult and costly to move and make use of infested soil in public and private construction work. Stationary soil steaming as a non-chemical control method has the potential to disinfect soil masses contaminated with seeds and other propagative plant materials. The outcome can vary depending on steaming temperature and duration. Higher temperatures and longer durations are relatively more efficient but may also have side-effects including change in soil physical and chemical characteristics. Barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli) is among troublesome invasive species in Norway. We have tested different steam duration at 99°C to find the possible lowest effective exposure duration for killing seeds of this annual grass species. Four replications of 40 barnyard grass dry seeds of one population were placed in polypropylene-fleece bags (9*7 cm), moistened for 12 hours, and covered by the soil at a depth of 7 cm in 60*40*20 cm boxes. The boxes with soil and bags were steamed at 99°C for 1.5, 3 and 9 min. The bags including steamed seeds were taken out, opened, placed on soil surface in pots and covered by a thin layer of soil. The pots were placed in greenhouse and watered from below and seed germination was followed for a month. Moistened non-steamed seeds were used as control. It was shown that steaming at 99°C gave 0% germination indicating that 100% of the seeds were killed regardless of exposure duration while in the control seed germination was 100%. Consequently, to achieve an efficacy of 100%, exposure duration of 1.5 min would be enough. Finding the lowest possible steam temperature and exposure duration to get the highest possible seed killing in a seed mixture of different plant species as well as other factors to increase the heat transferability are under investigation. Keywords: Echinochloa crus-galli; Resource recovery; Steaming temperature and duration; Thermal soil disinfection

Sammendrag

Soil disinfestation by steaming is being reconsidered for its efficiency in controlling or even eradicating pathogens, nematodes and weed seeds, particularly to avoid excess use of pesticides. Most weeds within a field result from seeds in the soil seedbank and therefore management of weed seeds in the soil seedbank offers practical long-term management of weeds, especially those difficult to control. We investigated the possibility of thermal control of seeds of grass weeds Bromus sterilis (barren brome) and Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyardgrass) using a prototype of a soil steaming device. Five different soil temperatures of 60, 70, 80, 90 and 99°C with an exposure duration of 3 min were tested. Four replications of 50 seeds of each species were placed in polypropylene-fleece bags. Bags in the same replicate of each target temperature were placed at the bottom of one plastic perforated basket container and covered by a 7-cm soil layer. Each basket was placed in the steaming container and steam was released from the top and vacuumed from the bottom of the container. Soil temperature was monitored by 10 thermocouples and steaming was stopped when 5 of the thermocouples had reached the target temperature. The basket was then removed from the steaming container after 3 min exposure time. Bags were taken out, opened, placed on soil surface in pots and covered by a thin layer of soil. Seed germination was followed for 8 weeks in the greenhouse. Non-steamed seeds were used as controls. It was shown that soil temperatures of 60, 70, 80, 90 and 99°C lasting for 3 min reduced the seed germination of barren brome by 83, 100, 100, 95 and 100% and seed germination of barnyardgrass by 74, 69, 83, 89 and 100% respectively, compared to the controls. Germination rate of control seeds were 94 and 71% for barren brome and barnyardgrass, respectively. These results show a promising seed mortality level of these two weed species by steaming and that steam is a potential method to control weed seeds, however further studies are needed to investigate the effect of other factors such as soil type and moisture content. Keywords: Non-chemical weed control, thermal soil disinfection, weed seedbank

Sammendrag

Invasive plant propagative material can be introduced to new regions as contaminants in soil. Therefore, moving soil should be done only when the soil has been verified to be free of invasive species. Stationary soil steaming as a non-chemical control method has the potential to disinfect soil masses contaminated with invasive species. We investigated the possibility of thermal control of propagative material of Bohemian knotweed (Reynoutria × bohemica) in two experiments using a prototype of a soil steaming device. Five soil temperatures of 60, 70, 80, 90 and 99 °C with an exposure duration of 3 min were tested. In each replicate and target temperature, rhizome cuttings containing at least two buds and shoot clumps were placed at the bottom of a plastic perforated basket and covered by a 7-cm soil layer. Each basket was placed in the steaming container and steam was released from the top and vacuumed from the bottom. Soil temperature was monitored by 10 thermocouples and steaming was stopped when 5 of the thermocouples had reached the target temperature. The basket was then removed from the steaming container after 3 min. Plant materials were taken out and planted in pots. Buds sprouting was followed for 8 weeks. Non-steamed plant materials were used as controls. Results showed 100% rhizome death at soil temperatures of ≥70 and 99 °C in the first and second experiments, respectively. Shoot clumps death was obtained at ≥90 °C in both experiments. These results showed that steaming at 99 °C for 3 min can guarantee control of Bohemian knotweed in infested soils supporting the steam treatment as a potential method of disinfecting soil against invasive species. However, depending on the intended re-use of the soil, further studies are needed on the effect of potential negative impacts of high temperatures on the soil quality.

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Nursery-grown Norway spruce Picea abies seedlings are often heavily attacked by the pine weevil Hylobius abietis on clear-cuts the first years after planting. Because the seedlings are not resource-limited during the growing phase in the nursery they are expected to invest less in defence than naturally regenerated seedlings already present on the clear-cuts. The latter have had to cope with various environmental stressors that could make them invest more in defence. We tested if naturally regenerated plants have stronger chemical defences than nursery-grown plants. Nursery-grown plants were planted in-between naturally regenerated plants on fresh clear cuts, and phenolic and terpene compounds in the stem bark were measured after one growing season. To test both constitutive and inducible defences, plants were either wounded, painted with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) to induce defences, or given a combination of both treatments. Growth and pine weevil attacks of the plants were registered. Nursery-grown plants had higher total concentrations of phenolic compounds and lower concentrations of terpenes than naturally regenerated plants. These opposite responses were reflected in very different compound profiles in the two plant types. We suggest the differences between plant types to be results of differences in plant age, stress level, genetic origin or possibly a combination of these factors. Most compounds showed no response to wounding, MeJA-treatment or wounding and MeJA-treatment combined, but the terpenes 3-carene, eucalyptol, limonene and para-cymene had higher concentrations in MeJA-treated nursery-grown plants than in control plants. These compounds are known to be effective in conifer resistance against weevils and bark beetles. Overall, 27% of our 400 study plants had signs of pine weevil damage after 3 ½ months in the field. However, treatment or plant type had no significant effect on whether plants were attacked or not and this might have been a result of the relatively low overall level of attacks in this study. Further studies are needed to disentangle the importance of plant age, stress level, genetic origin and resource availability for chemical defence mechanisms of young Norway spruce plants, as strengthening the natural resistance of nursery plants may be increasingly important in a future with less pesticide use.

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Many herbaceous perennial plant species gain significant competitive advantages from their underground creeping storage and proliferation organs (CR), making them more likely to become successful weeds or invasive plants. To develop efficient control methods against such invasive or weedy creeping perennial plants, it is necessary to identify when the dry weight minimum of their CR (CR DWmin) occurs. Moreover, it is of interest to determine how the timing of CR DWmin differs in species with different light requirements at different light levels. The CR DWmin of Aegopodium podagraria, Elymus repens and Sonchus arvensis were studied in climate chambers under two light levels (100 and 250 μmol m−2 s−1), and Reynoutria japonica, R. sachaliensis and R. × bohemica under one light level (250 μmol m−2 s−1). Under 250 μmol m−2 s−1, the CR DWmin occurred before one fully developed leaf in R. sachaliensis, around 1–2 leaves in A. podagraria and E. repens and around four leaves in S. arvensis, R. japonica and R. × bohemica. In addition to reducing growth in all species, less light resulted in a higher shoot mass fraction in E. repens and S. arvensis, but not A. podagraria; and it delayed the CR DWmin in E. repens, but not S. arvensis. Only 65% of planted A. podagragra rhizomes produced shoots. Beyond the CR DWmin, Reynoutria spp. reinvested in their old CR, while the other species primarily produced new CR. We conclude that A. podagraria, R. sachaliensis and E. repens are vulnerable to control efforts at an earlier developmental stage than S. arvensis, R. japonica and R. × bohemica.

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Since the beginning of the twentieth century, forest regeneration management and policy in the Nordic–Baltic region (Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) have gone through significant changes. For decades forest as a key natural resource was managed with main focus on timber production. However, several factors influenced shifting forest management, including forest regeneration to meet a wide range of society needs. This review study aims to reveal the historical development of forest regeneration identifying knowledge gaps and supporting decisions that promote sustainable regeneration of future forests. The development of forest regeneration management and policy in the Nordic–Baltic countries is analyzed through reforestation and afforestation practices as well as legislation aspects using a narrative review approach. Trends in forest regeneration practices within the region are identified and explored over a timeframe spanning from 1900 until today. Despite diverse forestry management structures and differing political, social situations, the study shows that forest regeneration development has followed similar patterns over time in all Nordic–Baltic region countries: extensive forestry, clear-cut forestry, retention forestry and currently evolving climate-adaptive forestry. Nevertheless, regional differences among the Nordic–Baltic countries, especially in forest regeneration-related legislation, were identified due to a mixture of international and local driving forces.

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Light and temperature are crucial factors for the annual growth rhythm of tree seedlings of the boreal and temperate zone. Dormant, vegetative winter buds are formed under short days (SD) and altered light quality. In the conifer Norway spruce, expression of FTL2 increases and PaCOL1-2 and PaSOC1 decrease under light regimes, inducing bud set. Although temperature is known to modulate the timing of bud set, information about combined effects of light climate and temperature on bud phenology and gene expression is limited. We studied the interactive effects of temperature (18, 22/24 °C) and day extension with blue (B), red (R) or far-red (FR) light or different R:FR ratios compared to SD on growth–dormancy cycling and expression of FTL2, PaCOL1-2 and PaSOC1 in Norway spruce seedlings. Day-extension with B light and all treatments involving FR light sustained shoot elongation, with increased growth at higher temperature. The R light treatment resulted in delayed/prevented bud set compared to SD, with more delay/prevented bud set at 24 °C than 18 °C. This was associated with lower PaFTL2-transcript levels at 24 °C and more rapid subsequent bud burst. For the growth-sustaining treatments (long days, FR and B light), the PaFTL2-transcript levels were generally lower and those of PaCO1-2 and PaSOC1 higher compared with SD and R light. In conclusion, our results demonstrate more reduced/prevented bud set and faster bud burst with increased temperature under day extension with R light, indicating less deep dormancy than at lower temperature. Also, sustained shoot elongation under the B light treatment (27 µmol m−2 s−1) in contrast to the lower B light-irradiances tested previously (≤13 µmol m−2 s−1), demonstrates an irradiance-dependent effect of day extension with B light.

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Skogens helsetilstand påvirkes i stor grad av klima og værforhold, enten direkte ved tørke, frost og vind, eller indirekte ved at klimaet påvirker omfanget av soppsykdommer og insektangrep. Klimaendringene og den forventede økningen i klimarelaterte skogskader gir store utfordringer for forvaltningen av framtidas skogressurser. Det samme gjør invaderende skadegjørere, både allerede etablerte arter og nye som kan komme til Norge i nær framtid. I denne rapporten presenteres resultater fra skogskadeovervåkingen i Norge i 2020 og trender over tid. I den landsrepresentative skogovervåkingen har kronetettheten hos gran og furu holdt seg stabil i 2020 sammenlignet med tidligere år. Det ble registrert lite misfarging hos bartrærne. Skadenivået hos både bartrær, bjørk og andre løvtrær var lavere enn i 2019. Abiotiske faktorer med snø, vind og tørke som de viktigste årsakene dominerte skadebildet hos alle treslag. Kjemiske analyser av luft og nedbør i den intensive skogovervåkingen viser at det fortsatt er høyest verdier av antropogene svovel- og nitrogenforbindelser på den sørligste overvåkingsflata i Birkenes grunnet langtransportert forurensing. Den høyeste konsentrasjonen av nitrogendioksid i luft ble målt på stasjonen i Hurdal i 2020, noe som skyldes utslipp fra veitrafikken i regionen. Det var lave nivåer av bakkenært ozon i Norge i 2020 og ingen overskridelser av UNECEs grenseverdi på 5000 ppb-timer for skog. Vegetasjonsanalysene fra Hurdal har påvist en endring i bunn-vegetasjonens artssammensetning grunnet økt lystilgang og mye barnålstrø. Både hogst utenfor overvåkingsflata og flere skrantende, råteangrepne og døde grantrær i flata har bidratt til økt lystilgang og til større strømengde på bakken. Mange grantrær på flata i Hurdal er sterkt preget av råte med lav kronetetthet og mye misfarging. Flere trær på flata har dødd de seinere årene som følge av råteskader, ofte i kombinasjon med andre faktorer som vindfelling og skader etter tørken i 2018 med påfølgende barkbilleangrep. Overvåking av bjørkemålere har vist at fjellbjørkeskogen både i Nord-Norge og fjellregionene i sørlige halvdel av landet har vært utsatt for betydelige utbrudd av bjørkemålere i løpet av perioden 2012–2018. Overvåkingsdata fra 2019 og 2020 tyder imidlertid på at målerbestandene nå er lave eller i sterk tilbakegang i det meste av landet. I Troms har målerbestandene allerede nådd et bunnpunkt, og bestandene er nedadgående også i fjellet i Sør-Norge. Vi forventer derfor at skogen i mesteparten av Norge vil bli mindre utsatt for angrep av bjørkemålere de neste par årene. De fleste fylkene hadde en økning i fangstverdiene i barkbilleovervåkingen i 2020-sesongen. Alle fangstverdiene var imidlertid under 10 000 biller per felle, mens de høyeste verdiene ved slutten av utbruddet på 1970-tallet var rundt 25 000 biller per felle. Fylkene rundt Oslofjorden hadde noen lokale tilfeller av tørke- og barkbilleskader. Det ble ikke funnet noen tydelig økning av fellefangstene i tiden for en annen generasjon, men modellberegninger viser at stor granbarkbille har nok døgngrader til å gjennomføre to generasjoner før overvintring. I august 2020 ble soppen Diplodia sapinea funnet på sterkt skadet vrifuru i Ås kommune. Tidligere har det blitt gjort noen få funn av soppen på andre bartrearter i det samme området. D. sapinea er vanlig i varmere strøk på flere kontinenter, spesielt på furuarter. De pågående klima-endringene har trolig bidratt til at soppen har kunnet spre og etablere seg mot nord, men vi kan heller ikke utelukke innførsel av soppen via plantemateriale til bruk i grøntanlegg eller skog. D. sapinea er trolig bare i etableringsfasen i Norge, og har til dags dato gjort liten skade på våre stedegne bartrær.....

Sammendrag

Eradication of alien invasive species in the soil with steam as an alternative to chemical fumigation may allow contaminated soil to be reused. We have investigated steam disinfestation of soil to combat invasive plant species in three experiments including different temperatures and exposure durations using a prototype stationary soil-steaming device. The experiments included effects on seed germination of bigleaf lupine (Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl.), ornamental jewelweed (Impatiens glandulifera Royle), and wild oat (Avena fatua L.; one population from Poland and one from Norway), as well as effects on sprouting rhizome fragments of Canada goldenrod (Solidago canadensis L.) and Bohemian knotweed (Reynoutria x bohemica Chrtek & Chrtková). In Experiment 1, we tested four different soil temperatures of 64, 75, 79, and 98 C with an exposure duration of 90 s. In Experiments 2 and 3, we tested exposure durations of 30, 90, and 180 s and 90, 180, and 540 s, respectively, at 98 C. Seed pretreatment of 14 d cooling for L. polyphyllus and I. glandulifera, no seed pretreatment and 12-h moistening for A. fatua populations, and 5- and 10-cm cutting size for R. x bohemica were applied. Our results showed germination/sprouting was inhibited at 75 C for I. glandulifera (for 90 s) and 98 C for the other species; however, longer exposure duration was needed for L. polyphyllus. While 30 s at 98 C was enough to kill A. fatua seeds and S. canadensis and R. x bohemica rhizome fragments, 180-s exposure duration was needed to kill L. polyphyllus seeds. The results showed promising control levels of invasive plant propagules in contaminated soil by steaming, supporting the steam treatment method as a potential way of disinfecting soil to prevent dispersal of invasive species.

Sammendrag

I denne rapporten presenteres resultater fra biologisk veiledningsprøving av soppmidler i bygg, hvete, setteløk, gulrot og solbær. Det er også presentert et forsøk med skadedyrmidler mot kålmøll i kinakål. I tillegg er det rapportert et forsøk mot bringebærbarkgallmygg og ferskenbladlus, et forsøk med kairomonfeller mot skadedyr i eple, og et forsøk med vekstregulering av juletrær.

Sammendrag

Soppen Diplodia sapinea er en nylig oppdaget skadegjører på furu i Norge og andre nordiske land. Soppen kan skade både frø, småplanter og større trær. Soppen er relativt varmekjær og har tidligere stort sett gjort skade på furu lenger sør i Europa, samt på andre kontinenter. Her i nord ser oppblomstringen av soppen ut til å sammenfalle med de pågående klimaendringene.

Sammendrag

Identification of stocktype attributes that speed up field establishment has potential to reduce rotation time of Christmas tree productions. Such morphological and physiological attributes can be targeted in the nursery production. This study tested the effects of container type and nursery seedling density on stocktype attributes at planting and the effects of these on field performance over two years in Abies lasiocarpa and A. nordmanniana Christmas tree stock. Nursery conditions had a considerable impact on seedling attributes at planting. Although sets of these correlated stocktype attributes contributed to forecast field performance, the predictive power was low. No simple relationships were found between plant biomass, stem diameter or height at planting and biomass at final harvest in either of the two species under the range of stocktype variation and field conditions tested. Contrary, stem diameter and stem height at planting explained some of the responses in stem diameter and height after two years in the field. Thus, any target seedling approach would have to be based on a combined set of stocktype attributes exploring more productive stocktypes. The differences observed between stocktypes were largely due to size differences and ontogenetic drift, and stocktypes converged towards a similar field phenotype over time.

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Ornamental jewelweed (Impatiens glandulifera Royle) is an alien invasive plant in Europe. This annual plant often grows in riparian habitats where herbicides are prohibited. Several studies have reported the negative effect on ecosystem and ecosystem services by this species. However, limited research is published on control measures and the aim of our study was to explore use of hot water and cutting to control I. glandulifera. A lab experiment showed that the lethal water temperature for seed was between 45 and 50 C. In a pot experiment with seeds in soil, emergence of I. glandulifera was reduced by 78% and 93% compared with the untreated control with volumes of hot water (80 C) of 7.2 and 14.5 L m−2, respectively. When treatments were conducted on relatively tall plants (almost 60 cm) in late June, hot water gave significantly better control than cutting. Compared with an untreated control, I. glandulifera cover was reduced by 97% and 79% after hot water and cutting, respectively. Application of hot water to smaller (<40 cm) and less developed plants (BBCH 12–13) in early June and cutting of plants with visible flower buds (mid-July) led to no significant difference in cover. Compared with an untreated control, I. glandulifera cover was reduced by 99% (cut below first node) and 91% (hot water and cut above first node). When relatively tall plants (almost 60 cm) were treated, hot water use was high (31.1 L m−2) and required twice as many work hours (4.8 min m−2) as cutting (2.4 min m−2). When smaller plants (<40 cm) were targeted, work hours and hot water use were reduced to 2.1 min m−2 and 13.7 L m−2, respectively.

Sammendrag

In integrated pest management (IPM), the goal is to keep the impact of damaging agents below a threshold level with reduced pesticide use. The present review is focusing on IPM of fungal diseases and Phytophthora root rot in Norwegian Christmas tree plantations. Healthy transplants are of vital importance to give the production a good establishment. Sanitation of diseased material and weeds is also very important in IPM. Management strategies will vary with the disease-causing agent in question, therefore, correct identification is necessary. The major pathogens are within the kingdom’s Fungi (e.g. Neonectria neomacrospora) and Chromista (e.g. Phytophthora spp.). They depend on relatively high humidity or free moisture to spread and infect. Any factors diminishing the duration of wet conditions will, therefore, reduce the disease pressure. Efficient weed management in Christmas tree fields will increase air circulation and thereby ensure a quicker drying after precipitation. Furthermore, certain weed species are host plants for rust fungi on Christmas trees, and thus, removal of the alternate host is a highly relevant control strategy. In Norway, fungicide use in Christmas trees is limited and only recommended during the short period from bud break to fully elongated shoots, generally the most vulnerable period concerning fungal attacks.

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Seedling blight caused by Sirococcus conigenus was recently reported on Norway spruce (Picea abies) from Norwegian forest nurseries. The inoculum source was found to be infected seeds. In a Petri dish assay, the fungicide fludioxonil + difenoconazole was, among other fungicides, found to inhibit mycelial growth of S. conigenus. This fungicide is formulated as a seed treatment and registered for cereals in Norway, and was chosen for an experiment to control S. conigenus on Norway spruce seeds. Samples from two naturally infected seed lots were treated with half, normal and double dose of the recommended rate for cereals. Together with untreated control samples, treated seeds were tested in the laboratory for efficacy against S. conigenus on potato dextrose agar (PDA) in Petri dishes and for germination potential on filter paper. We also recorded seed emergence in soil of one of the seed lots in a growth chamber and in a forest nursery. On agar, the fungus was not detected after seed treatment with fludioxonil + difenoconazole at any of the three dosages, but it was present in the control. Germination on filter paper and emergence in soil was high in both treated and untreated control seeds with no signs of detrimental effects from any of the three fungicide doses.

Sammendrag

Norway spruce (Picea abies) is a widely used Christmas tree species in the Nordic countries. Postharvest needle retention is an important characteristic for Christmas trees and compared to many fir (Abies) species, Norway spruce has poor postharvest needle retention. This trait is one of the most important qualities in choice of natural versus plastic trees. In this study, current year shoots were cut from 30 Norway spruce seedlot sources, including the most widely used Norwegian Christmas tree provenances, and tested to identify genetic variation in postharvest needle retention. Current year shoots were collected from one field in November and December 2018, and from three fields in October, November and December 2019. The current year shoots were displayed indoors under controlled conditions and allowed to dry. Differences in postharvest needle retention were seen between seedlots, harvesting dates and locations. Our study indicates possibilities of selecting for improved postharvest needle retention in Norway spruce seed sources. Furthermore, postharvest needle retention should be considered as one characteristic to add in the ongoing Norway spruce Christmas tree breeding program.

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Blue light (BL) affects different growth parameters, but information about the physiological effects of BL on conifer seedlings is limited. In northern areas, conifer seedlings are commonly produced in heated nursery greenhouses. Compared with Norway spruce, subalpine fir seedlings commonly show poor growth in nurseries due to early growth cessation. This study aimed to examine the effect of the BL proportion on the growth and development of such conifer seedlings in growth chambers, using similar photosynthetic active radiation, with 5% or 30% BL (400–500 nm) from high pressure sodium (HPS) lamps (300 μmol m−2 s−1) or a combination of HPS (225 μmol m−2 s−1) and BL-emitting diodes (75 μmol m−2 s−1), respectively. Additional BL increased transpiration and improved the growth of the Norway spruce seedlings, which developed thicker stems, more branches, and a higher dry matter (DM) of roots and needles, with an increased DM percentage in the roots compared with the shoots. In contrast, under additional BL, subalpine fir showed reduced transpiration and an increased terminal bud formation and lower DM in the stems and needles but no change in the DM distribution. Since these conifers respond differently to BL, the proportion of BL during the day should be considered when designing light spectra for tree seedling production.

Sammendrag

Short-day (SD) treatment is used by forest nurseries to induce growth cessation in Picea abies seedlings. SD treatment may however increase the risk of reflushing in autumn and earlier bud break the following spring. When the start of the SD treatment is early in order to control seedling height, the duration of the SD treatment should be longer in order to prevent reflushing in autumn. However, due to the amount of manual work involved in the short-day treatment, increasing the number of days is undesirable from a practical point of view. Splitting the SD treatment could be a way to achieve both early height control and at the same time avoid autumn bud break with less workload. We tested how different starting dates and durations of SD treatment influenced on morphological and phenological traits. Regardless of timing and duration of the SD treatment, height growth was reduced compared to the untreated controls. Seedlings given split SD (7+7 days interrupted with two weeks in long days) had less height growth than all other treatments. Root collar diameter growth was significantly less in control seedlings than in seedlings exposed to early (7 or 14 days) or split (7+7 days) SD treatment. There were also differences in the frequency of reflushing and bud break timing among the SD treated seedlings, dependent on duration and starting date. If the SD treatment started early, a continuous 14-day SD treatment was not sufficient to avoid high frequencies of reflushing. However, by splitting the SD treatment into two periods of 7+7 days these negative effects were largely avoided, although spring bud break occurred earlier than in the controls.

Sammendrag

Hvert år importeres det store mengder av tømmer og treprodukter til Norge fra ulike land og verdensdeler. Uten tilstrekkelig årvåkenhet kan import av noen trevarer resultere i at det innføres fremmede arter av insekter, sopp, nematoder eller planter med svært uheldige virkninger i norske skoger. Import av tømmer og treprodukter kan dessuten i noen tilfeller medføre at Norge bidrar til handel med tømmer og treprodukter basert på tropiske treslag og hogst som på annen måte er ulovlig, og som kan bidra negativt for bærekraftig skogforvaltning og økonomi, fattigdomsreduksjon, beskyttelse av biomangfold og skogdekning for å redusere CO2-utslipp. Norge er del av tømmerforordningen som skal bidra til at import fra slik hogst ikke skal skje. I denne rapporten benytter vi tollstatistikk for å vurdere omfanget og variasjonen i import av tømmer og andre treprodukter som er relevant både for import av fremmede arter og for tømmerforordningen.

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Sammendrag

Subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hooker) Nuttall), which is native to western North America, is of considerable interest for Christmas tree production in northern Europe. Seedlings are usually grown from seeds under combined nursery greenhouse/outdoors conditions, but commonly show early growth cessation in the nursery, resulting in small plants for field transplanting. This increases the production time and makes the seedlings vulnerable to stressors at the planting site. Day extension with far-red (FR) light was shown to enhance elongation and delay bud set in seedlings of some woody species, but such information is limited for Abies. Here, we investigated the effects of day extension with FR, red (R), different R:FR-ratios or blue (B) light from light emitting diodes on subalpine fir seedlings grown at different temperatures. Day extension with FR or combined R-FR light, in contrast to R or B light, increased shoot elongation significantly as compared to short days without day extension, often with more growth at 18 ◦C than 24 ◦C. The FR treatments delayed terminal bud development, although bud set was not completely prevented. These results demonstrate that larger seedlings of subalpine fir seedlings for Christmas tree production can be obtained by employing day extension with FR or combined R:FR light, preferably under cool temperature.

Sammendrag

I rapporten er tilstanden med hensyn til forekomst av fremmede skadelige karplanter (FSK) i naturtypene sanddynemark, åpen grunnlendt kalkmark, kulturmarkseng, kystlynghei og høstingsskog gått gjennom. Resultatene viser omfattende problemer i alle naturtypene, men først og fremst i tettbygd strøk og i Sør Norge. Mot nord avtar problemene, men det er trolig store mørketall i datasettet på grunn av mangelfull kartlegging og innrapportering av funn. Rapporten foreslår på grunnlag av gjennomgangen en rekke tiltak både i naturtypene og for jordbrukslandskapet på et generelt grunnlag. Rapporten går i mindre grad inn på tiltak innenfor bebyggelse og i tettbygd strøk.

Sammendrag

Gransnutebiller (Hylobius abietis) kan gjøre stor skade i plantefelt, ved at de gnager barken av småplantene slik at de skades eller dør. Høsten 2017 ble 200 ett- til toårige granplantefelt i Sør-Norge, fra Trøndelag og sørover, undersøkt for skader og avgang av snutebiller og andre årsaker. Undersøkelsen viser at snutebillene er til stede i hele Sør-Norge, og i alle høydelag opp til 800 m o.h. I kun 10 % av feltene ble det ikke funnet granplanter med snutebillegnag. Plantetetthet, målt som antall levende kulturplanter én til to sesonger etter planting, var i snitt 153 per dekar. I gjennomsnitt var det en avgang på grunn av snutebiller på minst 7 %, og en total avgang på 10 %. Fordi det er vanskelig å finne igjen plantene såpass lenge etter planting, særlig de som er døde, må dette ses på som et minimumsestimat. Snutebillene vil være til stede på hogstflatene inntil 3-5 år etter hogst, slik at avgangen må forventes å øke ytterligere. Problemet er størst i Vestlandsfylkene, særlig i Møre og Romsdal og Sogn og Fjordane. I deler av Østlandet er problemet mindre. Undersøkelsen viser at lenger ventetid mellom hogst og planting ga mindre avgang på grunn av snutebiller. Plantetype spilte også en rolle, ved at de mindre M95 1-årige plantene hadde større avgang enn 2-årige M95-planter. Bruk av markberedning virket positivt inn på overlevelsen, og ga også mindre gnagskader på plantene. Andre faktorer som virket positivt inn på andel planter med gnag var å vente med planting til tredje vår, og bruk av voksbehandling. Videre var det mindre skader på felt med lav bonitet eller tørr mark enn fuktige, rike felt.

Sammendrag

Klepp municipality ordered a report on how to manage weed control in urban green areas without use of chemical methods. Measures need to be taken already in the planning and in the establishment phase, when soils should be free of weed plants and with as little weed seeds as possible. Cleaning for weds needs to be followed up very methodologically. A standard for how much weeds that can be tolerated before treatment should be given to each specific area. In the report, we refer to different alternative methods of weed control. Choices of methods should be according to the specified area, the standards and with concern for the users of those areas. The treatments must be safe and efficient. Weeds removed with gas burners, treated with hot water or eventually with other suitable equipment. We emphasize that success depend on good planning and education of the persons that shall realize the weed control.

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Picea abies seedlings were given three different fertilization treatments in the nutrient solution by varying the potassium:nitrogen (K:N) ratios (2.5, 3.0 or 3.9 g g–1). All fertilization treatments were combined with short-day (SD) treatment or no such treatment (control). Above- and belowground growth responses in the seedlings were analyzed. The SD treatment resulted in significantly reduced shoot height, compared to untreated control, irrespective of K:N ratio. No combination of photoperiod treatment or fertilization treatment affected the root collar diameter. In the current year root fraction with diameter < 0.5 mm, the highest K:N ratio led to significantly increased root length in control plants. In each 0.1 mm root diameter class up to 0.5 mm, the highest K:N ratio significantly stimulated root growth in control plants, while the effect was less evident for SD plants. SD treatment stimulated length growth in some fine root diameter classes. We conclude that SD treatment is a good and sufficient measure to reduce height growth without compromising fine root growth of P. abies seedlings. Fertilization treatment did not significantly improve aboveground growth in SD treated seedlings, and only limited effects on root growth was seen on control plants.

Sammendrag

The Christmas tree industry in Norway is increasing and Abies lasiocarpa is, together with Abies nordmanniana, the most common exotic species for Christmas tree production. A. lasiocarpa today constitutes ca. 50% of the fir sold in Norway, and there is high demand for sufficient supply of high-quality seed and knowledge of seed sources with a potential for high Christmas tree quality. Two experimental plots were established to identify seed sources with potentially high survival and satisfactory Christmas tree quality. The high variation in traits on the two sites indicates promising possibilities for further selection of A. lasiocarpa clones for growing Christmas trees in Norway. Selection for late bud break to avoid spring frost is important. Pathogens were not found in any of the studied trials, but are an important factor to consider when selecting seed sources for Christmas trees. Due to the early bud break of this species, it is also of high importance to choose planting sites with minimal risks for spring frost. Good localities are slopes where the frost drains away during cold nights. In eastern Norway, A. lasiocarpa should be used with care in districts and sites where spring frost is commonly occurring.

Sammendrag

Fleire soppar kan angripa kongler av gran (Picea spp.) og føra til dårleg spiring av frø. Frøsmitte kan også overførast til planter og gjera skade seinare i omløpet, både i planteskular og i produksjonsfelt til skog og juletre.

Sammendrag

Natural regeneration of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) is a relatively common practice in Norway on medium to low site indices. However, seedling establishment is often hampered by rapid regrowth of competing vegetation in scarified patches. The aim of our study was to examine the effect of coordinating scarification towards an expected seed-fall, by studying germination and seedling establishment in scarified patches of different age (fresh, one- and two-year-old). The experiment was conducted in two stands in southeast Norway that were clear-cut in 2007. Scarification was applied to subplots in autumn 2008–2010. To simulate seed-fall, seeds were sown in fresh scarification patches in spring 2009–2011, in one-year-old patches in 2010 and 2011, and in twoyear- old patches in 2011. Both germination and seedling survival were negatively affected by the age of the scarified patches. Germination was higher, and mortality lower, at the small fern woodland site, compared with the bilberry woodland site. Sowing in fresh patches also resulted in increased height and root collar diameter of the seedlings compared with sowing in older patches. It is likely that the competing vegetation both on the site and in the scarification patches affected the growth of the seedlings. In conclusion, the age of the scarified patches affected both germination and mortality, as well as early growth of the seedlings.

Sammendrag

Removal of logging residues causes significant nutrient losses from the harvesting site. Furthermore,collection of residues into piles could lead to small-scale differences in establishment conditions for seedlings. We studied the effects of stem-only (SOH) and aboveground whole-tree harvesting (WTH) on Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedling growth and pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) damage at two sites (SE and W Norway). We also compared two planting environments within the WTH plots (WTH-0: areas with no residues, WTH-1: areas where residue piles had been placed and removed before planting). In practice, one-third of the residues were left on site after WTH. After three growing seasons there were no differences for height or diameter increment between SOH and WTH (WTH-1 and WTH-0 combined) treatments. However, relative diameter increment was largest for WTH-1 seedlings and lowest for WTH-0 seedlings. Few seedlings sustained pine weevil attacks at the W Norway site, with no differences among treatments. At the SE Norway site, the percent of seedlings damaged by pine weevils and average debarked area were significantly higher after WTH (82% and 3.3 cm2) compared to SOH (62% and 1.7 cm2). We conclude that WTH may lead to spatial differences in establishment conditions.

Sammendrag

Knowledge about the reproduction strategies of invasive species is fundamental for effective control. The invasive Fallopia taxa (Japanese knotweed s.l.) reproduce mainly clonally in Europe, and preventing spread of vegetative fragments is the most important control measure. However, high levels of genetic variation within the hybrid F. × bohemica indicate that hybridization and seed dispersal could be important. In Norway in northern Europe, it is assumed that these taxa do not reproduce sexually due to low temperatures in the autumn when the plants are flowering. The main objective of this study was to examine the genetic variation of invasive Fallopia taxa in selected areas in Norway in order to evaluate whether the taxa may reproduce by seeds in their most northerly distribution range in Europe. Fallopia stands from different localities in Norway were analyzed with respect to prevalence of taxa, and genetic variation within and between taxa was studied using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Taxonomic identification based on morphology corresponded with identification based on simple sequence repeats (SSR) and DNA ploidy levels (8× F. japonica, 6× F. × bohemica and 4× F. sachalinensis). No genetic variation within F. japonica was detected. All F. × bohemica samples belonged to a single AFLP genotype, but one sample had a different SSR genotype. Two SSR genotypes of F. sachalinensis were also detected. Extremely low genetic variation within the invasive Fallopia taxa indicates that these taxa do not reproduce sexually in the region, suggesting that control efforts can be focused on preventing clonal spread. Climate warming may increase sexual reproduction of invasive Fallopia taxa in northern regions. The hermaphrodite F. × bohemica is a potential pollen source for the male-sterile parental species. Targeted eradication of the hybrid can therefore reduce the risk of increased sexual reproduction under future warmer climate.

Sammendrag

On September 6th – 11th in 2015, the Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO) organized The 12th International Christmas Tree Research and Extension Conference (CTREC) at Honne, Norway. Around 40 participants from Australia, Austria, Canada, Denmark, France, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Norway, UK, and USA gathered to share skills and recent research related to Christmas tree production and marketing. Nearly 50 presentations (oral and poster) were given during the conference covering the following topics; Breeding & genetic, Insects, Tree health, Physiology, Growth conditions & integrated pest management, Postharvest, and Market & economy. Abstracts, extended abstracts or papers from all presentations are available in this proceedings.

Sammendrag

Fokus i denne rapporten er på skogbehandlingen, og på maksimering av verdiproduksjon. En forutsetning for dette er høy sagtømmerproduksjon, samtidig som det er viktig å vurdere arealets totale tømmerverdi. Følgende forutsetninger ligger til grunn for rapporten: Bevaring av biologisk mangfold og ivaretakelse av andre flerbrukshensyn Det legges til grunn at all skogbehandling utføres i henhold til dagens lovverk og frivillige sertifiseringsordninger, og at dette ivaretar hensyn til biologisk mangfold og andre flerbrukshensyn. Vi går derfor ikke inn på betydningen ulik skogbehandling vil ha for biologisk mangfold eller andre flerbrukshensyn, eller tilpasninger av skogbehandlingen for dette. Bærekraftig skogbruk i klimasammenheng Miljødirektoratet mfl. (2016) drøfter vern eller bruk av skog som klimatiltak. I rapporten konkluderes det med at det ikke er grunnlag for å vektlegge vern av norsk skog som klimatiltak. En forutsetning er at det drives et bærekraftig skogbruk i klimasammenheng. Dette ble definert som følger: «Bærekraftig skogbruk i klimasammenheng innebærer at skogens produktivitet og evne til å lagre karbon ikke forringes, og at karbonbeholdninger ikke reduseres permanent.» (Miljødirektoratet mfl. 2016). Vi forutsetter gjennom rapporten at skogbehandling drives bærekraftig i tråd med denne definisjonen, uten at vi går nærmere inn på betydningen og eventuelle nødvendige tilpasninger. Skogbehandling for å motvirke klimaendringer Skogbehandling som motvirker klimaendringer, for eksempel ved å øke karbonopptaket, vil i mange tilfeller være i samsvar med skogbehandling for maksimal verdiproduksjon, men ikke alltid. Vi har i denne rapporten kun fokusert på verdiproduksjon, og betydning av skogbehandling på ulike karbonbeholdninger er ikke vurdert. Driftstekniske forhold («hvordan ta ut tømmeret») Driftskostnader vil være av stor betydning for skogeiers økonomiske resultat, og både de endringer vi allerede ser og forventede klimaendringer er forventet å gi større driftstekniske utfordringer. I denne rapporten ser vi imidlertid utelukkende på den betydning skogbehandlingen vil ha for antatt verdiproduksjon.

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Sammendrag

Feeding by pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) causes severe damage to newly planted conifer seedlings in most parts of Scandinavia. We investigated the effect of planting time and insecticide treatment on pine weevil damage and seedling growth. The main objective was to study if planting in early autumn on fresh clear-cuts would promote seedling establishment and reduce the amount of damage caused by pine weevil the following season. The experiment was conducted in southern Sweden and in south-eastern Norway with an identical experimental design at three sites in each country. On each site, Norway spruce seedlings with or without insecticide treatment were planted at four different planting times: August, September, November and May the following year. In Sweden, the proportion of untreated seedlings that were killed by pine weevils was reduced when seedlings were planted at the earliest time (August/September) compared to late planting in November, or May the following year. This pattern was not found in Norway. The average length of leading shoot, diameter growth and biomass were clearly benefited by planting in August in both countries. Insecticide treatment decreased the number of seedlings killed or severely damaged in both Norway and Sweden.

Sammendrag

I denne rapporten gis en beskrivelse av dagens praksis og status med hensyn på gjennomføring av foryngelseshogster og etterfølgende tiltak for å etablere foryngelse i norsk granskog. Datamaterialet er i hovedsak basert på den årlige Resultatkontrollen for skogbruk/miljø, supplert med data fra Landsskogtakseringen innen utvalgte tema. Resultatene er gjengitt for fem ulike regioner som omfatter: Region 1: Østfold, Akershus, Oslo og Hedmark Region 2: Oppland og Buskerud Region 3. Vestfold, Telemark og Aust-Agder Region 4: Vest-Agder, Rogaland, Hordaland, Sogn og Fjordane og Møre og Romsdal Region 5: Sør-Trøndelag, Nord-Trøndelag og søndre del av Nordland (Helgeland) Oppsummert viser resultatene at det er et potensial for å øke skogens produksjon ved å redusere andelen forsømte foryngelsesfelt og gjennom tiltak for tettere foryngelser på plantet areal. I og med at andelen foryngelsesfelt med utilfredsstillende tetthet øker med økende bonitet, er konsekvensene sett i et produksjonsperspektiv større enn arealandelen tilsier. Økt fokus på tettere foryngelser synes derfor å være nærliggende om en ønsker å øke mulighetene for økt virkeuttak og et større karbonlager i skogen på mellomlang og lang sikt. Markberedning vil i så måte kunne være et aktuelt tiltak på vesentlig større arealer enn tilfelle er i dag, spesielt på Østlandet. Resultatene viser også at en betydelig andel av avvirkningen gjennomføres før normal hogstmodenhetsalder, med et potensielt tilveksttap og redusert karbonlagring på arealene som konsekvens. Bedre kunnskap om grunnlaget for skogeiernes beslutninger om å hogge, knyttet til for eksempel driftsøkonomi, forventet prisutvikling, skogtilstand og risiko ved å overholde skogen til hogstmodenhetsalder, vil kunne avdekke bakenforliggende årsaker til tidlig avvirkning.

Sammendrag

Ten exotic Abies species were tested in two field trials, where the aim was to find suitable species and provenances for Christmas tree production in coastal and fjord areas in Norway. The material included 14 provenances of Abies nordmanniana, 3 provenances of Abies bornmuelleriana, 3 provenances of Abies koreana, 2 provenances of Abies amabilis, and 1 provenance each of Abies equi-trojani, Abies alba, Abies procera, Abies homolepis, Abies nephrolepis, and Abies forrestii. Field trials were established at Gulen in Sogn og Fjordane County and at Verdal in Nord-Trøndelag County. Christmas tree classification was done seven and eight growing seasons after establishment. The Christmas tree yield was higher in Gulen (64%) than in Verdal (45%), which is situated further north. Also, the survival and the height growth were higher in Gulen than in Verdal. A more humid climate and a longer growth season in Gulen may explain some of the differences. Of the 10 species, A. nordmanniana, A. homolepis, and A. bornmuelleriana produced the highest Christmas tree yield at Gulen, while A. homolepis and A. koreana had the highest yield at Verdal. Due to early bud burst, A. equi-trojani and A. bornmuelleriana are only suited for Christmas tree growing in the best climatic areas.

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Sammendrag

I et samarbeidsprosjekt mellom fylkesmennene i Oslo & Akershus, Østfold, Vestfold og Hedmark og landbruksetaten i Ringsaker, Stange, Follo og Hobøl, Spydeberg & Askim har Bioforsk (nå NIBIO) gjennomført en studie av ulike strategier for bekjempelse av rødhyll (Sambucus racemosa) for å fremskaffe et bedre kunnskapsgrunnlag som grunnlag for råd om praktisk og effektiv bekjempelse. Hovedresultatene sammenfattes i dette temaarket.

Sammendrag

God plantekvalitet er en forutsetning for tilfredsstillende etablering. Dyrkingsteknikk og rutiner i planteskolene påvirker plantekvaliteten, men også mellomlagring og transport frem til planteplassen er sammen med godt utført planting, viktige faktorer for å sikre god plantekvalitet.

Sammendrag

Plantenes etableringsevne påvirkes både av forholdene på planteplassen og plantenes vitalitet og evne til å tåle stress. Kunnskap om plantenes kvalitet er derfor viktig for å vurdere plantenes etableringspotensiale, men er også et godt verktøy for planteskolen ved egenkontroll av dyrkingsrutinene.