Til dokument

Sammendrag

Denne rapporten har fokus på dyrking og bruk av bygg i Nord-Norge. Innholdet er basert på kunnskapen som er generert gjennom det Nord-Atlantiske samarabeidsprosjektet Northern Cereals 2015-2018. I tillegg til kunnskap om hvordan man dyrker bygg i nord og bruker bygg til mat og malt omhandler rapporten dyrking og bruk av bygg i Nord-Norge i historisk sammenheng, samt et avsluttende kapittel om nye muligheter for denne næringen.

Sammendrag

Rhodiola rosea is a perennial flowering plant with a long history as a medicine plant. The plant contain a range of bioactive compounds including salidroside, rosavin, rosarian and rosin. Some of the compounds are characterized as adaptogens, meaning they can increase the body’s resistance to various stressors. An increased demand for better pharmaceuticals has stimulated the development of new methods for agricultural as well as in vitro cultivation of medicinal plants. A new technology, called rhizosecretion of biologically active chemicals, can provide a continuous supply of biologically active compounds over the lifetime of plants. The plants will then be grown under controlled conditions. In order to increase the production of bioactive compounds in Rhodiola rosea under these conditions it is therefore hypothesized that the biosynthesis can be upregulated by growing it under specific temperature and light quality treatments. An experiment with different light and temperature regimes was established for optimal accumulation of biologically active compounds. Four different clones of Rhodiola rosea were grown under three different light conditions (red, blue and white) combined with two different temperatures (9 and 18 °C) for three weeks. The gene expression of Tyrosine decarboxylase (TyrDC), found to have a key role in the biosynthesis of salidroside, were investigated. In addition, the content of various bioactive compounds were quantified before and after treatment. The results indicate that use if high producing clones is most important for high production and that there is a short-term upregulation during blue light treatment. During the three-week treatment, there was no significant effect of the temperature treatments.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Preliminary results on aroma profiles (GC-MS) related to storage conditions (temperature, time and packaging atmosphere) are presented. The vegetables used in the experiments were rutabaga, carrot and turnip, which were peeled and cut before packaging, and stored at two different temperatures. O2 and CO2 concentrations in the packaging atmosphere were measured during the storage period to calculate the respiration rates of the produce. Cubed carrot showed a higher respiration rate than cubed turnip and rutabaga. Samples for analysis of volatiles were taken after 0 and 7 or 10 days. This type of analysis could be used as a complement to sensory analysis.

Sammendrag

Rhodiola rosea is a well-known herbal medicinal plant, valued for highly active secondary metabolites. It is growing wild in most parts of Norway and mountainous areas in a number of countries. Some of the most important metabolites are believed to be salidroside, cinnamyl alcohol, glycosides (rosine, rosavine, rosarine), flavonoids (rhodionin, rhodiosin,rhodiolin) and terpenes (Galambosi 1999). In Norway, germplasm collections of R. rosea are maintained by NIBIO; at Apelsvoll in southern Norway, consisting of 97 different clones. The ranges in content of secondary metabolites in the collection are for rosavin 2.90-85.95 mg g-1, salidroside 0.03-12.85 mg g-1, rosin 0.08-4.75 mg g-1, tyrosol 0.04-2.15 mg g-1 and cinnamyl alcohol 0.02-1.18 mg g-1. Clones selected from the collection has throughout been studied for different aspects affecting plant growth and production of secondary metabolites. We have looked into cultivation requirements of the plant like water requirement, effects of nutrient levels (N and K) and soil types. Postharvest treatment from washing, cutting,drying and differences in the plant parts. Finally we will in this presentation also present results on requirements for dormancy release and the clonal differences and also how use of primers may affect production of secondary metabolites.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Swede is known as a healthy vegetable with a high content of vitamin C. However, very few studies have worked with the aim to evaluate how varieties, soil type and fertilizer interact and affect quality in swede. In the present study two varieties of swedes (‘Vige’ and ‘Vigod’) were grown on peat, loam and sand, with three levels of K (0, 120, 240 kg ha-1) and N fertilizer (0, 80, 160 kg ha-1). Low to moderate levels of N gave highest saleable yield, highest content of vitamin C and lowest content of nitrate. Peat soil gave highest saleable yield, lowest soluble solids and vitamin C and highest nitrate content. Soluble solids and vitamin C were negatively correlated with total root yield. Sandy soil gave lowest saleable yield, sweetest taste and lowest nitrate content. Contents of total, aliphatic, indole and individual glucosinolates, on dry matter basis, were highest on peat. N fertilization increased the content of most glucosinolates, whereas K affected glucobrassicin at the highest N level. Progoitrin was lowest in roots grown on sand, and was affected by N level and variety on sand and loam soils. Consumers preferred ‘Vigod’, which had the highest intensity of sweetness, although ‘Vige’ had more vitamin C and less nitrate.

Sammendrag

Optimization of produce quality and storage conditions to reduce loss during long-term storage of root vegetables in Norway (OPTIROOT, 2016-2019) Authors: Thomsen, M.G., Indergaard, E., Asalf, B., Heltoft, P., Wold, A.B., Nordskog, B., Guren, G, Dyste, J. & Larsen, H. Author’s affiliation: Key words: carrot, swede, celeriac, storage technology, diseases, physiological disorder, packaging, nutrition Reducing yield loss along the supply chains is important for resource sustainability in vegetable production. Norwegian root vegetables are typically stored 6 to 8 months before consumption, often resulting in 20-30% loss post harvest. In OptiRoot 26 producers, refrigeration-technology companies, sensor developer, grower’s organisation, agricultural advisory service, and four research institutes are cooperating and conducting research to improve storage quality of carrot, swede and celeriac. The research focuses on: i) Fertilizer/Boron deficiency affects the storage quality of root vegetables and amount, methods of application, and timing of boron are studied in swede and celeriac. ii) Interaction between storage conditions/functions and produce quality of the root vegetables through mapping of technical features of 27 storages. The storage conditions recorded are relative humidity, air movement, temperature in boxes and storages, and physical features of storages. In addition, the physiological and health status of the produces are assessed one week before harvest, postharvest and post-storage. The prevalence of fungal diseases or disorders varied from region to region and between storages. iii) Effects of pre-storage wound healing are tested using seven different temperature strategies (direct to 0° C vs. down 0.2° C per day vs. 1° C per day) and low/high humidity in carrot (2016/17/18), celeriac and swede (2017/18/19). Preliminary results show that wound healing reduced loss due to fungal infections in carrot iv) CO2 concentration, temperature and relative humidity were recorded over time inside carrot storage bin liners with different numbers of perforations. An initial screening indicated a positive correlation between number of holes and number of fresh roots. As a post storage method, coating of swede with chitosan oligomers will be tested to inhibit growth of post-harvest pathogens. In conclusion, OptiRoot have gained good progress and promising preliminary results by connecting data on biology and technology for reduction of loss during long-term storage.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Although grass dominates most agricultural systems in the North Atlantic region (NAR), spring barley is the most important cereal and is used for animal feed and food and drink products. Recent changes in climate have resulted in warmer conditions across the NAR which have major implications for crop production. In this paper, we investigate the thermal requirement of spring barley in the region and use the results to examine the effects of recent trends in temperature and rainfall on barley cultivation, based on 11 regional meteorological sites. At these sites, between 1975 and 2015, we found significant warming trends for several months of the cropping season and significant trends for increases in the cropping season degree days (CSDD). In recent years, this has resulted in an increased proportion of years when the estimated minimum thermal requirement for barley has been met at sites above about 60°N. However, annual variations in CSDD are large and years still occur at these sites where this is insufficient. While warming could potentially allow an earlier start and later end to the cropping season, it is likely that high rainfall at maritime sites, and low rainfall at continental sites, will limit the ability of growers to benefit from this. Warming is considered to have been one of the main factors contributing to the large expansion of the area of barley cultivated in Iceland since the 1990s.

Sammendrag

Beskrivelse: Mekanisk jordbearbejdning og specielt pløjning er en vigtig metode til at kontrollere rodukrudt i økologisk jordbrug. Mette Goul Thomsen giver et bud på bekæmpelsesstrategier med optimal tilpasning af pløjedybde og –tidspunkt og redusert miljøeffekter. Mette Goul Thomsen har lavet undersøgelser af rodukrudtets biologi kombineret med markforsøg med forskellige bekæmpelsesstrategier, hvor fokus primært har været på tidsler, men også på kvik og agersvinemælk.  Indlægget er på dansk/norsk.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Cover crops are included in cropping systems in order to achieve various ecological benefits. In stockless organic cereal systems in Scandinavia, nitrogen is commonly supplied by undersowing a legume shortly after sowing. Retarding the growth of annual weeds is considered an additional benefit of using cover crops. However, studies on the influence of undersown cover crops on the growth of perennial weeds are lacking. In this paper we present data from a four- year field experiment on the growth of Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Sonchus arvensis L. and Elymus repens (L.) Gould., in cereals with and without undersown red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), combined with contrasting stubble treatments after harvest. Clover did not significantly reduce the growth of any of the weed species. Regression analyses showed, however, that the growth of C. arvense and S. arvensis increased with increasing clover biomass at low densities of clover, whereas at higher densities it decreased with increasing biomass of clover. Amongst the stubble treatments, shallow ploughing followed by harrowing gave the best control of all weed species. The effect was most pronounced on E. repens, and least on S. arvensis, for whichneither the number nor the weed biomass were significantly different from the untreated control. Rotary tilling gave a similar effect, but again less pronounced on S. arvensis. Mowing suppressed E. repens to some degree, tended to suppress S. arvensis (n.s.) but had no effect on C. arvense. Thegrowth and survival of seed-propagated plants of the same species were studied in a one-year field experiment and in a greenhouse experiment, the latter only including the species S. arvensis andC. arvense. The use of a cover crop reduced the number of leaves per plant in S. arvensis both in the field and in the greenhouse. The same effect was found for C. arvense, but only in the greenhouse experiment. In the latter, above-ground biomass of the cover crop explained 67 % of the variation intotal biomass of S. arvensis and 47 % of that for C. arvense. From a practical point of view, the study has shown that undersown red clover has only marginal effects on perennial weeds, in contrast to various stubble treatments which influence strongly on weed growth. In general, soil tillagesuppresses perennial weeds best, but mowing may be a more environmentally friendly alternative for some weed species, such as. E. repens.      

Sammendrag

In the present study we evaluated the effect of phenological stage at harvest and drying temperature on the content of secondary metabolites in six year old cultivatedclones of Rhodiola rosea. The experimental work was performed in cooperation between MTT in Finland and Bioforsk in Norway. In spite of the differences in growing season, we found similar development in biomassproduction and content of secondary metabolites in the two field experiments.During the period with intensive shoot growth the dry weight of the rootdecreased until budding / full flowering followed by an increase towards thelast harvest after wilting. The % dry matter followed the same development. The content of total rosavins in the dry rhizomes was highest at flowering at both sitesand the average content for spring was 24 % respectively 21% higher than inautumn in Finland and Norway  (P=0,002). In Finland the average content of salidroside in spring of the dry rhizomewas 68 % higher than in autumn. While in Norway there were no differences insalidroside content at the different phenological stages (P = 0,097), lowvariation in the content of cinnamic alcohol at both sites was observed, but atendency to a small increase after flowering.  The content of total rosavins was significantly higher at drying temperatures at or below50˚C (P

Sammendrag

En rekke urter og urteekstrakter har i tillegg til gode smaks kvaliteter også egenskaber som innhold av antimikrobielle og antioksidative stoffe. Disse egenskapene kan brukes inn i matvarer for at gi en økt smaksopplevelse, øke holdbarhet samt forlenge levetiden for produktet. I SALTO prosjektet undersøkes en rekke urter for disse egenskaper, hvor målet er at redusere innholdet av salt uten at dette endre på kvalitets egenskapene i produktene.

Sammendrag

Gulrot og kålrot med riktig kvalitet                                                                - et samarbeidsprosjekt for å styrke konkurranseevnen i norsk produksjon Smak og kvalitet av gulrot og kålrot påvirkes av flere dyrkingsmessige faktorer som gjødsling, jordtype og angrep av insekter. For å forstå forbrukerens krav til gulrot og kålrot er det nødvendig å se bruken av disse i en bredere sosial sammenheng. Prosjektet "Gulrot og kålrot med riktig kvalitet" ble startet opp i 2004 med Dr. Steinar Dragland som prosjektleder. Prosjektet er avsluttet i 2008 og publiseringer fra prosjektet vil foreligge utover i 2009. Grønnsaksnæringen, forskningen og forsøksringene har samarbeidet om dette prosjektet, for å avklare hvilke dyrkningskrav gulrot og kålrot stiller for å gi en smak etter forbrukernes ønsker.  

Sammendrag

At present the development of a modern life-stile in the Barents region has become not only a medical, but a social and economic problem as well. To prevent organism from unfavorable factors of the North and life-stile diseases much attention is paid now to the application of adaptogenic plants. "Herbs in the Barents region - a natural resource that improves health and creates business" is a title of the joint project of Norwegian, Finnish and Russian scientists on the adaptogenic plants. The project main goal is to create job opportunities in the Barents region based on the natural resources of adaptogenic herbs. This shall be done by the development of cultivation techniques for the adaptogenic pants Rhodiola rosea, Rhaponticum carthamolides and Serratula coronata. The industry will develop new herb products that will improve health conditions in the region. In order to promote adaptogenic products made from local plant raw material we have investigated the effect of the climate and geographical location on the level of active substances. Gene banks of plant species studied are established in all countries-participants. Experiments conducted in phytotrone showed that all three plant species like long days (northern conditions) and the levels of adaptogen"s substances are highest at the low and intermediate temperatures. Cultivation techniques are developed. To ensure the best quality of the raw material the methods of harvesting, drying and storing of plants are optimized.  New methods for extraction from fresh raw material of R. rosea are developed. Fields at growers are established. The project was financing by Interreg IIIA, Norwegian Barents Secretary and agricultural offices of the counties Troms and Finnmark.

Til dokument

Sammendrag

Six clones of Rhodiola rosea, obtained from plants originating from widely different areas in Norway, were investigated for their in vitro inhibitory potential on CYP3A4-mediated metabolism and P-gp efflux transport activity. Presumed active constituents in the ethanol extracts of the different clones were quantified. C-DNA baculovirus expressed CYP3A4 and Caco-2 cells were used for inhibitory assays, and as positive control inhibitors ketoconazole and verapamilwere applied, respectively. A validated HPLC methodology was used to quantify the formation of 6-β-OH-testosterone and scintillation counting was used to quantify the transport of 3H-digoxin in Caco-2 cells. All clones showed potent inhibition of CYP3A4 and P-gp activities, with IC50 values ranging from 1.7 to 3.1 μg/mL and from 16.7 to 51.7 μg/ mL, respectively, being below that reported for other herbs and some known classic drug inhibitors, such as St. John’s wort and fluoxetine. Rhodiola rosea might thus be a candidate for clinically relevant drug interactions. The concentration of presumed biologically active constituents in the different clones varied considerably, but this variationwas not related to the clones’ inhibitory potential on CYP3A4 or P-gp activities. Other constituents might thus be responsible for the observed inhibitory properties. The place of origin seemed to be of minor importance for CYP3A4 or P-gp inhibition.

Sammendrag

At bregnen strutseving er spiselig er ikke så godt kjent. At den også er en svært næringsrik plante burde få flere til å bruke den. Strutseving er en godt synlig bregne i den norske natur. Den kan bli rundt 2 m høy og vokser ofte i store grupper. Den forekommer i lavlandet i det meste av Norge, men er mindre vanlig i ytre Agder, Rogaland og Finmark (Lid og Lid 1994). For øvrig forekommer den sirkumboreal i et belte rundt den nordlige halvkulen gjennom Europa, Asia og Nordamerika. Det latinske navn er Matteúccia struthiópteris (L.) Tod. På norsk kjennes planten bl.a. under navnet strutseving eller bispestav, og på engelsk Ostrich fern og "fiddleheads". Strutseving og Ostrich fern kommer fra det latinske struthiópteris og refererer til formen på de utvokste bladene, mens navnet bispestav og det engelske fiddelheads viser til formen på de spiselige nye skudd. http://www.skogoglandskap.no/Artsbeskrivelser/strutseving

Sammendrag

Det er både et politisk og helsefaglig ønske om økt forbruk av frukt og grønnsaker i Norge, og det er enighet om at det er nødvendig med god produktkvalitet for å oppnå dette. Grunnlaget for å oppnå bedre kvalitet, med spesiell fokus på god smak og helseeffekter, må være bedre kjennskap til hvordan de dyrkningsmessige faktorene påvirker disse.

Sammendrag

Forskningsresultater innenfor forebyggende og direkte tiltak for kontroll av rotugras i økologisk korndyrking ble gjennomgått. I løpet av kort tid vil det bli etablert en "link" til PDF filer med presentasjonene fra møtet i Rygge 27. novemer 2007.

Sammendrag

To stabilize organic cereal production systems it is necessary to control Canadian thistle (Cirsium arvense) and other perennial weed species. The aim of the two presented experiments (I and II) has been to evaluate the effects of mechanical treatment in spring combined with competition from a one season cover crop. In both experiments we used the same mixture of cover crops; phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia Benth.), common vetch (Vicia sativa L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). The first experiment (I) was arranged in a complete factorial split-plot design. In this experiment different root burial depths and root lengths of C. arvense simulated different mechanical treatments. Use of cover crop was the single factor that most effectively reduced the gain of biomass of C. arvense. At the final harvest combined treatment of deep root burial (15 cm), short root length (5 cm) and cover crop reduced number of new shoots of C. arvense by 95% and root biomass by 97% compared to shallow burial and no cover crop. At minimum regenerative capacity of C. arvense the number of leaves were 2 to 6 for the treatment with cover crop and 4 to 8 for the treatment without cover crop. In the second experiment (II), which had a complete factorial design, ± ploughing in autumn was combined with different fallow strategies in spring before sowing the cover crop. The disc harrowing during the fallow period was performed either 2x when fallow lasted for 3 weeks, or 4x when fallow lasted for 6 weeks. Additionally, all combinations of ± ploughing in autumn and length of the fallow period were combined with ± ploughing before sowing the cover crop (all together 8 treatments). In two additional subplots shallow ploughing preceded the autumn ploughing treatment (± ploughing). Preliminary results from experiment II confirms in general the conclusions from experiment I. Combining soil tillage and competition from a fast growing cover crop have potential for retarding perennial weeds. The classical approach for controlling couch grass (Elymus repens) was confirmed in this experiment, the longer soil tillage period the better weed control, and the soil tillage period should be proceeded by a deep ploughing. Ploughing in the autumn gave no additional effect on couch grass. Best control of Canadian thistle was obtained when only shallow ploughing was performed in the autumn, followed by a 6 week soil tillage period (3 weeks was not tested here) in spring and early summer and completed by ploughing before sowing the green manure cover crop. In conclusion, the experiments showed that intensive soil tillage combined with competition from a cover crop gave promising results for weed control. Due to the positive effect of moderate tillage operations attention to factors as nutrient supply, soil structure and energy use may still be ensured while a satisfying weed control is obtained.

Sammendrag

Cover crops are included in cropping systems to achieve various ecological benefits. In stockless organic cereal systems, nitrogen is commonly supplied by undersowing a legume shortly after sowing of cereals. Retarded growth of annual weeds is considered as an additional benefit of using cover crops. There is, however, less knowledge on the influence of undersown cover crops on the growth of perennial weeds. This issue was addressed in a field experiment at Ås in southeast Norway. For obtaining an experimental field with uniform distribution of the perennial weed species, root fragments of Cirsium arvense and Sonchus arvensis and rhizomes of Elymus repens, were transplanted by hand in the spring of 2001. A split plot design with 3 replications was initiated in 2002 and continued until the autumn of 2006. Barley undersown with red clover versus barley alone composed the two main plot treatments, except in 2006, in which barley was grown without red clover in the whole field. This was combined with four sub-plot mechanical treatments in the autumn: 1) untreated control; 2) mowing; 3) rotary tilling and 4) shallow ploughing plus harrowing. The autumn treatments were only carried out in 2004 and 2005. Number of weeds was counted at different dates throughout the growing season, and weed biomass was assessed just before harvest. Preliminary results indicate that red clover undersown in barley, compared to barley alone, reduced the biomass of established stands of S. arvensis by 50%, 42% and 13% in 2004, 2005 and 2006 respectively. The effect on E. repens varied from +10% in 2004 to -42% in 2005 and -50% in 2006. There was no suppression on established stands of C. arvense (+10%, 0 % and +70%). Of the autumn mechanical treatments rotary tilling and shallow ploughing most effectively retarded the growth of perennial weeds, especially C. arvense and E. repens. Rotary tilling and shallow ploughing reduced mean weed biomass for 2005 and 2006 of C. arvense by 80% (rotary tilling) and 40% (shallow ploughing), and E. repens by 77% and 89%, respectively. Mowing and shallow ploughing reduced mean weed biomass for 2005 and 2006 of S. arvensis most effectively, with a reduction of 62% for both treatments. Although the results need more attention before detailed recommendations can be given, the study indicates clearly that the effect of different mechanical treatments in the autumn depend on weed species.