Andrew Dobson

Avdelingsingeniør

(+47) 920 38 325
andrew.dobson@nibio.no

Sted
Ås - Bygg H7

Besøksadresse
Høgskoleveien 7, 1433 Ås

Sammendrag

Forsøksresultatene som presenteres i denne rapporten er biologisk godkjenningsprøving av soppmidler utført på oppdrag fra Mattilsynet i 2014. Inkludert i rapporten er også forsøk eller egne forsøksledd som grupperes som biologisk utviklingsprøving. Forsøkene er utført etter GEP-kvalitet1 hvis ikke annet er nevnt. Dette innebærer at det er utarbeidet skriftlige prosedyrer for nesten alle arbeidsprosesser. Disse prosedyrene, kalt standardforskrifter (SF’er), er samlet i en kvalitetshåndbok. Denne er delt ut til alle personer som arbeider med utprøving av plantevernmidler. De samme personene har også vært med på et endagskurs i GEP-arbeid.

Sammendrag

Forsøksresultatene som presenteres i denne rapporten er biologisk godkjenningsprøving av soppmidler utført på oppdrag fra Mattilsynet i 2012. Inkludert i rapporten er også forsøk eller egne forsøksledd som grupperes som biologisk utviklingsprøving. Forsøkene er utført etter GEP-kvalitet1 hvis ikke annet er nevnt. Dette innebærer at det er utarbeidet skriftlige prosedyrer for nesten alle arbeidsprosesser. Disse prosedyrene, kalt standardforskrifter (SF’er), er samlet i en kvalitetshåndbok. Denne er delt ut til alle personer som arbeider med utprøving av plantevernmidler. De samme personene har også vært med på et endagskurs i GEP-arbeid.

Sammendrag

Colletotrichum acutatum causes black spot in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), but it has also been isolated from 30 other cultivated and non-cultivated plant species in Norway, including almost all fruit and berry crops. Bitter rot, which is caused by C. acutatum, is a severe disease in sweet and sour cherry and apple. We have studied the possibility of cross infection of isolates from other hosts and the potential aggressiveness of these isolates on strawberry. Molecular analyses (AFLP) have shown that isolates collected in Norway could be separated into three major phylogenetic groups in which isolates collected from either Prunus spp., Malus domestica or Fragaria × ananassa predominated. Experiments were carried out under laboratory, greenhouse and field conditions, and strawberry fruits, leaves and stolons were inoculated. All experiments showed that isolates originating from the Fragaria group was much more aggressive than those from the other two groups. If detached strawberry fruits were wounded at time of inoculation, isolates from all groups developed black spot, but disease development went much slower for isolates from the Prunus or Malus groups. If not wounded, there was no or hardly any disease development caused by isolates from the latter two groups. On whole plants inoculated in the greenhouse, isolates in the Fragaria group developed an incidence of 27 to 28 % flower and fruit infections compared to 0 to 4 % for isolates from the other two groups. Under field conditions, Fragaria group isolates developed 50 to 70 % more infected fruit than the others at harvest. On stolons, we inoculated by wounding, and differences in aggressiveness between isolates were only minor. On strawberry leaf laminas, we observed that the ability to colonize the leaf surface was much larger for isolates from the Fragaria group compared to those from the other two groups. However, planting healthy strawberry transplants adjacent to infected sweet cherry trees resulted in latent infections of C. acutatum on strawberry leaves (but no visible infections on fruits), indicating that cross infection between host species may occur under field conditions.

Sammendrag

Skade av soppen Sclerophoma sp. er eit relativt stort problem i juletreproduksjonen i Rogaland. Dette heng truleg saman med at det fuktige og milde klimaet der er gunstig for soppen. I smitteforsøk har vi oppnådd tilsvarande symptom som i felt. Vidare indikerar forsøk i laboratorium at fleire soppmiddel kan vera aktuelle å prøva ut i felt mot denne sjukdomen.

Sammendrag

Denne artikkelen refererer til forsøk med nye kjemiske middel mot soppsjukdomar i bringebær og jordbær. Dei nye produkta Luna Privilege og Luna Sensation har god verknad mot gråskimmel i begge bærartane og skotsjuke i bringebær.

Sammendrag

Denne artikkelen omhandlar resultat frå prøving av ulike alternative middel mot jordbærmjøldogg. Forsøka vart gjort i laboratorium, veksthus og plasttunnel.

Sammendrag

Current-season needle necrosis (CSNN) has been a serious foliage disorder on true fir Christmas trees and bough material in Europe and North America for more than 25 years. Isolations from symptomatic needles and inoculation tests in Norway clearly indicated that S. polyspora is involved in the development of CSNN. However, copper fungicides used in field trials were not effective. Laboratory tests confirmed that copper-based fungicides were not effective against S. polyspora, but other fungicides prevented spore germination and mycelia growth. The lack of results may be related to a failure of copper rather than an indication that the disease may not be controlled by fungicides. There is still much work to be done to further field test fungicides that showed an effect in the laboratory.  

Sammendrag

Moderat auka av frie koparion i næringsløysinga er kjent å kunna redusera spreiing av pseudosoppar som Pythium og Phytophthora. Effekten på Fusarium er meir usikker. Laboratorieforsøk gjennomført i prosjektet  "Redusert åtak av rotsjukdomar i norske prydplanter" viser at konsentrasjon av frie koparion må aukast til  relativt høge nivå for å hindra sporespiring hos Fusarium foetens.

Sammendrag

Artikkelen forteller om Colletotrichum acutatum i norsk jordbærproduksjon, om vertplanter for soppen, om genetiske analyser av soppisolater fra ulike vertplanter og smitteforsøk i jordbær og kirsebær.

Sammendrag

Cleistothecia on leaves of deciduous perennials are often dispersed before leaf fall to other substrates. In contrast, strawberry leaves remain attached during winter, and cleistothecia of Podosphaera macularis remained attached to these leaves. Release of overwintered ascospores was coincident with renewed plant growth, and pathogenicity of ascospores was confirmed. Upper and lower surfaces of emergent leaves were similarly susceptible, but upper surfaces were obscured by folding in emergent leaves. Emergent leaves exposed to airborne inoculum developed severe infection of the lower surface, but not the obscured upper surface. Emergent leaves acquired ontogenic resistance during unfolding, and the upper leaf surface thereby escaped infection. We found no evidence that the pathogen survives winters in New York, USA or Norway within crown tissue. Plants stripped of infected leaves remained mildew-free when forced after overwintering, while mildew colonies commonly developed on emergent leaves of plants not stripped of mildewed leaves. Unsprayed plots established using mildew-free plants either remained asymptomatic or developed only traces of powdery mildew during one growing season, even when located within 100 to 150 meters of severely diseased plots. In summary, our results suggest the following: (i) sanitation, use of disease-free plants, and eradicative treatments could contribute greatly to management of strawberry powdery mildew; (ii) cleistothecia represent a functional source of primary inoculum; and (iii) the common observation of higher mildew severity on lower leaf surfaces may reflect escape of the upper epidermis due to the combined effect of leaf folding and rapid acquisition of ontogenic resistance.

Sammendrag

Denne artikkelen forteller om et nordisk prosjekt på Colletotrichum acutatum i jordbær og kirsebær. Artikkelen har vekt på genetisk variasjon og evne til kryss-infeksjon av isolater mellom ulike vertplanter. Hovedkonklusjonen så langt er at isolater fra jordbær er mer aggressive på jordbær enn isolater fra andre vertplanter.

Sammendrag

Several non-chemical control agents are now registered and available for control of powdery mildews. However, there is little or no information about their efficacy against strawberry powdery mildew, caused by Podosphera aphanis. Trials were conducted to compare the performance of non-chemical control agents to chemical fungicides under laboratory, greenhouse and high plastic tunnel conditions. The treatments included: AQ10 (active ingredient is Ampelomyces quisqualis, a hyperparasite on powdery mildew), AQ10 + Silwet Gold (organosilicon adjuvant, enhances distribution and wetting), Vacciplant (active ingredient is laminarin, an extract from brown algae), JMS Stylet oil (mineral oil), Rape seed oil + detergent, Thiovit (wettable sulphur), Topas 100 EC (penconazole) + Candit (kresoximmethyl) and water as control. In the greenhouse, one quarter of the recommended dose was used either daily in one experiment or three times per week in another. In the field, half of recommended rates were applied twice weekly. Both in the greenhouse and tunnel experiments, the chemical control Topas + Candit and AQ10 + Silwet Gold significantly reduced disease severity. AQ10,Vacciplant and Thiovit were moderately effective when applied daily in the greenhouse trial, but not significantly different from the water control when applied three time per week in the greenhouse and twice a week in the tunnel experiment. In the plastic tunnel, the JMS stylet oil and Rape seed oil + detergent treatments caused severe phytotoxic reaction (necrosis). AQ10 used alone had the poorest performance in the tunnel. This indicated that the spreader either enhances the effect of AQ10 and/or the spreader itself had an effect. In laboratory experiments with powdery mildew grown on strawberry leaflets in Petri dishes, spore germination after treatments with water, Stylet oil, Candit and Thiovit were 74, 53, 8 and 7%, respectively. The effect of Thiovit found in the laboratory was not reflected in the greenhouse and plastic tunnel trials.  We will further explore the protectant, curative and eradicative effects of the compounds included here.

Sammendrag

Several non-chemical control agents are now registered and available for control of powdery mildews. However, there is little or no information about their efficacy against strawberry powdery mildew, caused by Podosphera aphanis. Trials were conducted to compare the performance of non-chemical control agents to chemical fungicides under laboratory, greenhouse and high plastic tunnel conditions. The treatments included: AQ10 (active ingredient is Ampelomyces quisqualis, a hyperparasite on powdery mildew), AQ10 + Silwet Gold (organosilicon adjuvant, enhances distribution and wetting), Vacciplant (active ingredient is laminarin, an extract from brown algae), JMS Stylet oil (mineral oil), Rape seed oil + detergent, Thiovit (wettable sulphur), Topas 100 EC (penconazole) + Candit (kresoximmethyl) and water as control. In the greenhouse, one quarter of the recommended dose was used either daily in one experiment or three times per week in another. In the field, half of recommended rates were applied twice weekly. Both in the greenhouse and tunnel experiments, the chemical control Topas + Candit and AQ10 + Silwet Gold significantly reduced disease severity. AQ10,Vacciplant and Thiovit were moderately effective when applied daily in the greenhouse trial, but not significantly different from the water control when applied three time per week in the greenhouse and twice a week in the tunnel experiment. In the plastic tunnel, the JMS stylet oil and Rape seed oil + detergent treatments caused severe phytotoxic reaction (necrosis). AQ10 used alone had the poorest performance in the tunnel. This indicated that the spreader either enhances the effect of AQ10 and/or the spreader itself had an effect. In laboratory experiments with powdery mildew grown on strawberry leaflets in Petri dishes, spore germination after treatments with water, Stylet oil, Candit and Thiovit were 74, 53, 8 and 7%, respectively. The effect of Thiovit found in the laboratory was not reflected in the greenhouse and plastic tunnel trials. We will further explore the protectant, curative and eradicative effects of the compounds included here.

Sammendrag

Field trials at Ås, Norway and Geneva, NY, USA revealed a substantial impact of initial levels of powdery mildew (Podosphaera macularis) upon disease development in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa). Five-row plots of 50 to 100 mildew-free plants (planting distance 0.45 × 1.2 m) were established each year within large grain fields with a minimum distance of 90 m between plots and were left untreated with fungicides. Beginning each season, plants at the center of each plot were inoculated with 0, 1, 10, or 100 mildew-infected leaflets. Uninoculated plots developed only trace levels of powdery mildew, despite nearby diseased plots and wild strawberries in both Norway and NY trials over 3 years. More rapid and severe disease development was observed in the inoculated plots; e.g., mildew was observed on 31, 36, 311, and 912 leaflets in the 0, 1, 10, and 100 plots, respectively, in Norway in year 1 of the trial, and reached only 6 leaves per plot in the 0 plot in year 2. Spatiotemporal analyses were subsequently performed, but the practical impact of the trials was to demonstrate long-lasting benefits of clean, mildew-free planting stock in commercial strawberry production, even in areas where the pathogen is endemic and the environment is very conducive to disease.

Sammendrag

Colletotrichum acutatum is the causal agent of bitter rot in fruit crops (cherry, plum, apple, pear) and black spot in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa). C. acutatum has also been isolated from a number of other cultivated and non-cultivated plant species; to date the fungus has been found on more than 25 different host species in Norway. The wide host range of C. acutatum necessitates research on the possibility of cross infection between alternative hosts and the potential of isolates of different origin to cause disease in strawberry. Planting healthy strawberry transplants adjacent to infected sweet cherry (Prunus avium) trees resulted in latent C. acutatum infections in the strawberry plants, indicating that cross infections between host species readily occur under field conditions. Molecular analyses (AFLP) have shown that isolates collected in Norway could be separated into three major phylogenetic groups in which isolates collected from either Prunus spp., Malus domestica or Fragaria × ananassa predominated. Two isolates from each of these groups were selected for experiments in vitro and in the field. Preliminary results indicate that isolates from all these groups are able to cause disease in strawberry, but that there may be differences in aggressiveness. In a field trial carried out in 2009 all six isolates caused symptoms in strawberry fruits when spore suspensions were applied three times during fruit development. The isolates from the Prunus group resulted in black spot on 42 and 53% of the strawberry fruits at harvest, while the corresponding numbers were 22 and 54% for the isolates from the Malus group, and 90 and 98% for the isolates from the Fragaria group.

Sammendrag

As an attempt to settle the matter of the uncertain etiology of CSNN, an international research group with representatives from Austria, Denmark, Germany, Norway, and USA was established after the 8th International Christmas Tree Research & Extension Conference in Denmark in 2007.   

Sammendrag

Mjøldogg (Podosphaera macularis) er ein viktig sjukdom i jordbær og ser ut til å verta eit aukande problem med meir dyrking i plasttunnelar. Denne artikkelen omhandlar nokre resultat frå eit 4-årig prosjekt om jordbærmjøldogg finansiert av Forskingsrådet.

Sammendrag

Mjøldogg (Podosphaera macularis) er ein viktig sjukdom i jordbær og ser ut til å verta eit aukande problem med meir dyrking i plasttunnelar. Denne artikkelen omhandlar nokre resultat frå eit 4-årig prosjekt om jordbærmjøldogg finansiert av Forskingsrådet.

Sammendrag

Development of ontogenic resistance to powdery mildew (Podosphaera aphanis) in strawberry fruit has not been quantified, and thus cannot be exploited in disease management programs. Four commercially-relevant strawberry cultivars were evaluated for ontogenic resistance to powdery mildew. Fruits were inoculated at one of the four growth stages: flowering, green, white and early pink fruit. There was a significant difference between and within cultivars at the bloom and green stage of inoculations (P ≤ 0.05) for both disease incidence and severity. On average 16.4, 39.5, 48.7, and 60.3 % of the fruits inoculated at bloom developed powdery mildew in cultivars Elan, Korona, Frida and Inga, respectively. None of the cultivars developed powdery mildew when inoculated at the pink stage. It may be concluded that flowers and green fruits of strawberry were much more susceptible to powdery mildew infection than white and pink fruits. The high susceptibility of cultivars at the flower and early green stages seemed coincident with the succulent nature of the fruits at these stages, making it easy for penetration and establishment of mildew. Control measures targeting at these critical windows of fruit susceptibility are likely to reduce yield loss.

Sammendrag

Development of ontogenic resistance to powdery mildew (Podosphaera aphanis) in strawberry fruit has not been quantified, and thus cannot be exploited in disease management programs. Four commercially-relevant strawberry cultivars were evaluated for ontogenic resistance to powdery mildew. Fruits were inoculated at one of the four growth stages: flowering, green, white and early pink fruit. There was a significant difference between and within cultivars at the bloom and green stage of inoculations (P <0.05) for both disease incidence and severity. On average 16.4, 39.5, 48.7, and 60.3 % of the fruits inoculated at bloom developed powdery mildew in cultivars Elan, Korona, Frida and Inga, respectively. None of the cultivars developed powdery mildew when inoculated at the pink stage. It may be concluded that flowers and green fruits of strawberry were much more susceptible to powdery mildew infection than white and pink fruits. The high susceptibility of cultivars at the flower and early green stages seemed coincident with the succulent nature of the fruits at these stages, making it easy for penetration and establishment of mildew. Control measures targeting at these critical windows of fruit susceptibility are likely to reduce yield loss.

Sammendrag

This presentation is on development of age related (ontogenic) resistance to powdery mildew (Podosphaera aphanis) in strawberry fruits. Four cultivars were tested. Flowers and immature green fruits were much more susceptible to powdery mildew than white or pink fruits. No fruits developed mildew if inoculated at the pink stage, and very few at the white stage.

Sammendrag

The objective of this work was to investigate how primary disease levels of powdery mildew (Podosphaera aphanis) in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) influence disease development in time and space. Experiments were repeated over two seasons in field trials in Norway (Ås, cv. Korona) and USA (Geneva, NewYork, cvs. Earliglow and Elan). Five-row plots of 50 to 100 mildew-free plants (planting distance 0.45 x 1.2 m) were established each year within large grain fields, with a minimum distance of 90 m between plots, and no fungicide treatments. At start of the experiments, plants at the center of each plot were inoculated with 0, 1, 10, or 100 mildew-infected leaflets. Uninoculated plots developed only trace levels of powdery mildew, despite nearby diseased plots. More rapid and severe disease development was observed in the inoculated plots; e.g., mildew was observed on 31, 36, 311, and 912 leaflets in the 0, 1, 10, and 100 plots, respectively, in Norway in year 1 of the trial. Within the plots, disease development was highest close to the inoculum source and downwind from the prevailing wind. It may be concluded that in the absence of nearby sources of contamination, disease severity in strawberry plantings is determined by the dose of initial inoculum resident within the planting. The practical impact of the trials was to demonstrate long-lasting benefits of clean, mildew-free planting stock in commercial strawberry production, even in areas where the pathogen is endemic and the environment is very conducive to disease.

Sammendrag

Cleistothecia on leaves of deciduous perennials are often dispersed before leaf fall to other substrates. In contrast, strawberry leaves remain attached during winter, and cleistothecia of Podosphaera macularis remained attached to these leaves. Release of overwintered ascospores was coincident with renewed plant growth, and pathogenicity of ascospores was confirmed. Upper and lower surfaces of emergent leaves were similarly susceptible, but upper surfaces were obscured by folding in emergent leaves. Emergent leaves exposed to airborne inoculum developed severe infection of the lower surface, but not the obscured upper surface. Emergent leaves acquired ontogenic resistance during unfolding, and the upper leaf surface thereby escaped infection. We found no evidence that the pathogen survives winters in New York, USA or Norway within crown tissue. Plants stripped of infected leaves remained mildew-free when forced after overwintering, while mildew colonies commonly developed on emergent leaves of plants not stripped of mildewed leaves. Unsprayed plots established using mildew-free plants either remained asymptomatic or developed only traces of powdery mildew during one growing season, even when located within 100 to 150 meters of severely diseased plots. In summary, our results suggest the following: (i) sanitation, use of disease-free plants, and eradicative treatments could contribute greatly to management of strawberry powdery mildew; (ii) cleistothecia represent a functional source of primary inoculum; and (iii) the common observation of higher mildew severity on lower leaf surfaces may reflect escape of the upper epidermis due to the combined effect of leaf folding and rapid acquisition of ontogenic resistance.

Sammendrag

Pythium angriper rotter og rothals i agruk. I en kartlegging gjennomført i "pythium-prosjektet" ble Pythium pahanidermatum funnet i ulike dyrkingsmedier som perilte og torv. det synes også å være gurnn til å betrakte gjenstander(støttepinner, dryppvanningspinner etc) som over tid har vært i direkte kontakt med infiserte media, som infiserte. patogenet er i noen tifeller også funnet i returvann og i jordgulv. i et forsøk hvor smittet materiale ble plassert ute, er det demonstrert at patogenet kan overleve norske vinterforhold. Damping er forsøk som desinfeksjon og det fungerte tilfredstillende.

Sammendrag

Pythium aphanidermatum er en pseudosopp som angriper røtter og rothals hos agurk. I en kartlegging gjennomført i forbindelse med "Pythium-prosjektet" ble P.aphanidermatum funnet i ulike dyrkingsmedier som perlite og torv. Det synes også å være grunn til å betrakte gjenstander (støttepinner, dryppvanningspinner etc) som over tid har vært i direkte kontakt med infiserte media som infiserte. Patogenet er i noen tilfeller også funnet i returvann og i jordgulv. Det er ikke enkelt å påvise P.aphanidermatum utendørs. I et forsøk hvor smittet materiale ble plassert ute, er det demonstrert at patogenet kan overleve norske vinterforhold. Damping er forsøkt for desinfeksjon, og fungerte tilfredsstillende.

Sammendrag

Experiments of the effect of haulm killing and different other treatments during end of season on tuber blight of potato were presented

Sammendrag

The effect of different end of season treatements of the haulm on tuber blight has beeen investigated in a five year project. Haulm killing reduced the amount of inoculum in the haulm and soil and the amount of tuber blight compared to harvest on green haulm treated with fungicide. The infectivity of the soil was reduced to about the half in three weeks and the infectivity persistes longer in dry soil than in wet soil. Most of the inoculum washed down from the haulm remaines in the top soil, at 15 mm precipitation in pot experiments.

Sammendrag

I to års forsøk med beising av settepoteter med ulik smittegrad av svartskurvsoppen har beising bare ført til litt raskere spiring, og ingen sikre effekter på avlingsmengden og tørrstoff. Settepoteter med lavt smittenivå av svartskurv spirte raskest. Mengsen svartskurv-sklerotier på knollene ble redusert ved beising, men frekvensen av knoller med svartskurv-sklerotier ble ikke redusert. Det ble ikke sikre forskjeller i virkningen av beisemidlene eller påføringsmetodene på avling eller kvalitet.

Sammendrag

I to års forsøk med beising av settepoteter med ulik smittegrad av svartskurvsoppen har beising bare ført til litt raskere spiring, og ingen sikre effekter på avlingsmengde og tørrstoff. Settepoteter med lavt smittenivå av svartskurv spirte raskest. Mengden svartskurv-sklerotier på knollene ble litt redusert ved beising, men frekvens av knoller med svartskurv-sklerotier ble ikke redusert. Det ble ikke sikre forskjeller i virkning av beisemidlene eller påføringsmetodene på avling eller kvalitet.

Sammendrag

Denne artikkelen beskriver forsøk med ulike sopparter (isolert fra jordbærplanter) som kunne ha et potensiale som nyttesopper (biologisk kontroll) mot gråskimmel i jordbær. Epicoccum nigrum og Aureobasidium pullulans ga redusert råtning (gråskimmel) et år, mens ingen av de potensielle nyttesoppene reduserte råtningen året etter.

Sammendrag

I 2003 startet et femårig prosjekt som omfatter vekstavslutning i potet. Foreløpige resultater fra forsøkene med vekstavslutning i sorten Folva viser at risdreping 14 dager før høsting reduserer mengden infektive risrester og jord ved høsting og dermed antall knollinfeksjoner sammenlignet med høsting på grønt ris med eller uten behandling med Shirlan (fluazinam) 7 dager før høsting. Likevel reduserte behandlingen med Shirlan (fluazinam) mengden infektive sporer i jord ved høsting sammenlignet med ubehandlet grønt ris. Vekstavslutningsbehandlingene hadde ingen innvirkning på mengden svartskurv og sølvskurv på knollene, men det ble klart mer skade i ledd som var lysgrodd trolig fordi knollene i disse var med fysiologisk modne.