Vedlegg

CV

Biografi

Forskar innan soppsjukdomar med ansvar for potet. Har lang erfaring med sjukdomar innan frukt og bær, og har også  jobba med enkelte grønsakskulturar. Arbeider også med varsling og modellering innan NIBIO sitt system for varsling av sjukdomar og skadedyr på planter (VIPS), og landbruksmeteorologisk tjeneste (LMT). 

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Sammendrag

The impact of Delphinella shoot blight (Delphinella abietis) and Grovesiella canker (Grovesiella abieticola) on subalpine (Abies lasiocarpa) and corkbark fir (A. lasiocarpa var. arizonica) in a provenance trial in Idaho (ID) was evaluated in 2013. Both pathogens were previously reported from North America on fir species. D. abietis had been found on subalpine fir in USA, but not in ID, and G. abieticola on grand fir (Abies grandis) in ID, but not on subalpine or corkbark fir. D. abietis kills current-year needles and in severe cases buds and shoots, and G. abieticola results in dead shoots and branches and can eventually kill whole trees. Significant differences between provenances in susceptibility to D. abietis and G. abieticola were observed in the provenance trial in ID. In general, subalpine fir was more susceptible to both diseases than corkbark fir. In 2013, D. abietis was also found on subalpine fir in the Puget Sound area of Washington State and G. abieticola was seen on white fir (Abies concolor), but neither disease was detected in native stands of subalpine fir in Washington State. Morphological features of both fungi were described from samples collected in the provenance trial in ID in May 2016.

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Det er per i dag påvist resistens eller nedsatt følsomhet mot kjemiske plantevernmidler hos flere skadedyr, plantepatogener og ugras i norske jord- og hagebrukskulturer. Hos skadedyr er resistens mot pyretroider og nedsatt følsomhet for tiakloprid vanlig hos rapsglansbille i oljevekster. Resistens mot pyretroider er påvist hos ferskenbladlus og potetsikade fra potet, gulrotsuger fra gulrot, ferskenbladlus fra persille, kålmøll og ferskenbladlus fra kålvekster, jordbærsnutebille fra jordbær, og ferskenbladlus, bomullsmellus, veksthusmellus og sør-amerikansk minerflue fra veksthus. Det er også funnet resistens mot pirimikarb hos ferskenbladlus og nedsatt følsomhet for imidakloprid hos ferskenbladlus og bomullsmellus. I jordbær og bringebær er det indikasjoner på begynnende resistensutvikling mot flere av middmidlene. Hos plantepatogener er resistens mot QoI-fungicider påvist hos gråskimmel fra jordbær, bringebær og gran i skogplanteskoler, hos mjøldoggsopper i jordbær og veksthusagurk, og hos bladflekksopper i hvete. Resistens mot triazoler er funnet i flere bladflekksopper i hvete. Resistens mot hydroksyanilid- og SDHI-er utbredt hos gråskimmel fra jordbær og bringebær, og i skogplanteskoler er det påvist resistens mot tiofanater.....

Sammendrag

En rekordvarm september markerte avslutningen på en vekstsesong som har vært litt varmere enn normalen i det meste av landet. Nedbør har imidlertid vært ujevnt fordelt gjennom sesongen, med store geogra ske forskjeller. Spesielt på Vestlandet var det vått store deler av sommeren.

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Sammendrag

Delphinella shoot blight (Delphinella abietis) attacks true firs (Abies spp.) in Europe and North America. Especially subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa), one of the main Christmas tree species in Norway, is prone to the disease. The fungus kills current year needles, and in severe cases entire shoots. Dead needles become covered with black fruiting bodies, both pycnidia and pseudothecia. Delphinella shoot blight has mainly been a problem in humid, coastal regions in the northwestern part of Southern Norway, but, probably due to higher precipitation in inland regions during recent years, heavy attacks were found in 2011 in a field trial with 76 provenances of subalpine fir in Southeastern Norway. However, the amount of precipitation seemed less important once the disease had established in the field. Significant differences in susceptibility between provenances were observed. In general, the more bluish the foliage was, the healthier the trees appeared. The analysis of provenance means indicated that, at least for the southern range, the disease ratings were correlated with foliage color. This study also includes isolation, identification, a pathogenicity test, a seed test and electron microscopy of the wax layer on the needles. The fungus was identified based on the morphology of spores and by sequencing the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of the ribosomal DNA. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled. The fungus was found present on newly harvested seeds and may therefore spread via international seed trade. When comparing the wax layers on green and blue needles, those of the latter were significantly thicker, a factor that may be involved in disease resistance.

Sammendrag

The woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) has become the model plant for the economically important, but genetically complex, octoploid F. × ananassa. Crown rot caused by the oomycete Phytophthora cactorum is a major problem for the strawberry industry and the identification and incorporation of efficient resistance genes into superior cultivars are important for breeding. In the present study, two experimental populations were used in inoculation experiments under controlled greenhouse condition. Studies of a sparse diallel cross between resistant and susceptible F. vesca genotypes concluded that resistance to crown rot is inherited as a dominant trait under nuclear control. Subsequently, an F2 population derived from the grandparents Bukammen (resistant) and Haugastøl 3 (susceptible) collected in Norway, were phenotyped in infection experiments and genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing. A 416.2-cM linkage map was constructed, and a single major gene locus was identified on linkage group 6 that we attributed to resistance to Phytopthora infection. We propose to name the resistance locus RPc-1 (Resistance to Phytophthora cactorum 1). Gene prediction of the 3.3 Mb QTL recovered 801 genes of which 69 had a potential role in plant disease resistance.

Sammendrag

Sommeren 2015 vil bli husket som kald og våt, med store nedbørmengder i enkelte perioder. Regnet på Østlandet fra midten av august vil bli husket spesielt godt. Til tross for dette ser kornavlingene ut til å bli like høye i 2015 som i 2014.

Sammendrag

Forsøksresultatene som presenteres i denne rapporten er biologisk godkjenningsprøving av soppmidler utført på oppdrag fra Mattilsynet i 2014. Inkludert i rapporten er også forsøk eller egne forsøksledd som grupperes som biologisk utviklingsprøving. Forsøkene er utført etter GEP-kvalitet1 hvis ikke annet er nevnt. Dette innebærer at det er utarbeidet skriftlige prosedyrer for nesten alle arbeidsprosesser. Disse prosedyrene, kalt standardforskrifter (SF’er), er samlet i en kvalitetshåndbok. Denne er delt ut til alle personer som arbeider med utprøving av plantevernmidler. De samme personene har også vært med på et endagskurs i GEP-arbeid.

Sammendrag

Forsøksresultatene som presenteres i denne rapporten er biologisk godkjenningsprøving av soppmidler utført på oppdrag fra Mattilsynet i 2012. Inkludert i rapporten er også forsøk eller egne forsøksledd som grupperes som biologisk utviklingsprøving. Forsøkene er utført etter GEP-kvalitet1 hvis ikke annet er nevnt. Dette innebærer at det er utarbeidet skriftlige prosedyrer for nesten alle arbeidsprosesser. Disse prosedyrene, kalt standardforskrifter (SF’er), er samlet i en kvalitetshåndbok. Denne er delt ut til alle personer som arbeider med utprøving av plantevernmidler. De samme personene har også vært med på et endagskurs i GEP-arbeid.

Sammendrag

In an attempt to find alternative products to classical fungicides, several products with low toxicity were tested against powdery mildew of roses. These products included resistance inducers (Bion, BABA, and ROS), potassium salts (Resistim, monopotassium phosphate), and seed extracts. The best results were obtained with acibenzolar-S-methyl (Bion). The utilization of Bion as prophylactic treatment, watered at a concentration 0.1–0.2 mg/ml, together with good cultural practices can be enough to effectively control powdery mildew on roses. Treatments with Resistim reduced the disease incidence, but not always significantly compared to the controls. None of the other products had effect on powdery mildew.

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Det vert i denne artikkelen gjort kort greie for sjukdomen lerrote og prosjektet "Jordbær uten lerrote til norsk konservesindustri" som starta i 2011. 

Sammendrag

Rotstokkråte i jordbær ble første gang rapportert i Norge i 1992 og siden er den blitt funnet på mer enn 100 steder over hele landet. Sykdommen forårsakes av Phytophthora cactorum og karakteriseres ved at unge blader visner raskt og hele planten visner i løpet av noen dager. I løpet av en sesong kan opptil 40 % av plantene dø. P. cactorum smitter plantene gjennom rothårene ved hjelp av svermesporer (zoosporer). Sykdommen starter oftest i fuktige områder av et felt siden sporene trenger vann for å bevege seg. Når en først har fått smitten i jorda er det vanskelig å bli kvitt den siden P. cactorum danner hvilesporer som kan overleve i flere år. Ulike jordbærsorter har ulik grad av mottakelighet for sykdommen. De mest brukte kommersielle sortene er dessverre mottakelige for sykdommen. Resistensegenskaper kan styres av ett eller flere gener og man kan derfor foredle fram resistente sorter. Tradisjonell foredling er tidkrevende og overføringa av resistens til en mottakelig sort vil kreve gjentatte tilbakekrysninger slik at man ikke mister alle de positive egenskapene til denne sorten. Ved å utvikle genetiske kart med markører for resistens kan man teste planter raskere og slik komme raskere fram til en resistent sort. Kunnskap om hvor mange resistensgener som er involvert i kampen mot skadegjøreren, når disse blir slått på og hvilke proteiner disse lager er også viktig. Når en skadegjører angriper en plante lager den bl.a. proteiner som bryter ned plantecelleveggen og svekker plantens immunforsvar. Planten på sin side lager resistensproteiner som gjenkjenner proteinene laget av skadegjøreren. Denne gjenkjennelsen setter i gang en forsvarsrespons hos planten. Resistensproteinene kodes for av resistensgener (R-gener). De fleste kjente R-genene inneholder en kort bestemt nukleotidsekvens. Dette fellestrekket gjør jakten på resistensgener enklere. I jakten på resistensgener i jordbær har vi valgt å arbeide med markjordbær (Fragaria vesca) istedenfor kommersielle jordbær (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.). Markjordbær er diploid og egner seg derfor godt for molekylærbiologiske studier. For å isolere R-gener og studere hvordan de ble uttrykt ble en mottakelig kultivar og en resistent kultivar smittet med zoosporer. Vevsprøver ble høstet i en tidsserie fra tid 0 (kontroll før smitting) til maksimum 8 dager etter smitting. Resultatet så langt viser at vi har isolert fragmenter fra mange ulike resistensgener og at disse blir uttrykt gjennom hele tidsrommet fra smitting til 8 dager etterpå.

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Denne artikkelen refererer til forsøk med nye kjemiske middel mot soppsjukdomar i bringebær og jordbær. Dei nye produkta Luna Privilege og Luna Sensation har god verknad mot gråskimmel i begge bærartane og skotsjuke i bringebær.

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Denne artikkelen omhandlar resultat frå prøving av ulike alternative middel mot jordbærmjøldogg. Forsøka vart gjort i laboratorium, veksthus og plasttunnel.

Sammendrag

Estimates of ascospore maturity generated by models developed for Venturia pirina in Victoria, Australia (V-NV, V-SV), Oregon, USA (S), or for Venturia inaequalis in New Hampshire, USA (NH-1 and NH-2) were compared to observed ascospore release of V. pirina in 21 site/yr combinations. When plotted against degree-days, the lag phase and slope of all model estimates differed from observed release. The S model and V-SV model fit well with the data from Southern Victoria, while the data from Norway, Belgium and most years from Northern Victoria show a lag phase in the beginning of the season that was not present in the two models. In particular, data from the high-rainfall region of southern Victoria showed more variation between years than the other sites. Identifying the precise biofix (bud break) to initiate degree-day accumulation for the NH-2 model was problematic at both Australian sites, as regions with warm winters and minimal chilling exhibit protracted bud break. Linear regressions generated similar R2 values for the various models in many cases, but where differences were noted they more often favored the most recent model developed for V. inaequalis (NH-2). The NH-2 model also provided the most accurate estimates of 95% ascospore depletion (a key event in many disease management programs) for Norway, Belgium, and the higher rainfall areas of southern Victoria. Although developed for use in management of apple scab, the NH-2 model appears a reasonably accurate tool for predicting the release of ascospores by the pear scab pathogen, in particular in regions with moderate rainfall and colder winters.

Sammendrag

Phytophthora cactorum, den sopp-lignende skadegjøreren som forårsaker kronråte i jordbær, kan overleve i mange år i jorda og det er ingen god måte å bli kvitt skadegjøreren på når den har kommet inn i et felt eller en planteskole. Smittede planter trenger ikke umiddelbart å vise symptomer, noe som gjør skadegjøreren enda mer vanskelig å hanskes med. Selv om det er variasjon i mottakelighet, er så godt som alle jordbærsorter i kommersiell bruk, mottakelige. Vi vet imidlertid at resistente varianter finnes innenfor jordbæras nære slektninger, foreldreartene Fragaria virginiana og Fragaria chiloensis. Det er mye uklarhet omkring hva som ligger bak forskjeller i kronråteresistens, og siden en slik forståelse er viktig for håndteringen i en foredlingssammenheng, ønsker vi å undersøke dette. Jordbæra (Fragaria x ananassa) og dens nevnte foreldrearter er imidlertid oktoploide - de har 8 sett kromosomer - noe som gjør dem vanskelig å bruke i genetiske studier. Vi, og mange andre forskergrupper, har derfor valgt å fokusere på en enklere modellplante for å finne basiskunnskap som vi i ettertid håper å kunne overføre til de dyrkede jordbæra.

Sammendrag

Most fungicide applications targeting apple scab aim to control primary infections caused by ascospores and spraying is thereby linked to ascospore availability. We investigated the effect of pre bud break climatic conditions on seasonal patterns of ascospore release. Apple leaves bearing pseudothecia of Venturia inaequalis were overwintered at orchard sites in 8 countries for up to 3 years. Leaf samples were collected 2 to 5 weeks before bud break and again at bud break, air dried, and sent via airmail to Norway. The samples were stored at -18ºC upon arrival until tested. Disks cut from each replicate leaf sample were incubated moist at 20ºC to allow ascospore maturation but prevent discharge. Matured ascospores were induced to discharge twice a week and enumerated until the supply was exhausted. The proportion of ascospores ejected was fitted against degree-day accumulation using logistic regression. The regression intercept (onset maturation), slope (maturation rate), as well as the absolute number of spores counted differed significantly (P< 0.001, P = 0.05, P< 0.001 respectively) among sites and sampling dates. There was a significant interaction between site and sampling date, indicating that climatic conditions prior to bud break differentially impacted the subsequent ascospore availability. Observed differences could perhaps be used to further refine previously described models of ascospore maturity.

Sammendrag

Phytophthora cactorum causes crown rot in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Dutch.), which is characterized by wilting and eventually collapse of the plant. An efficient control measure is the use of resistant cultivars, however most commercial cultivars are susceptible to the disease. The aim of our work is to generate basic knowledge about P. cactorum resistance as well as to develop genetic markers that can be used as tools for development of resistant cultivars. The genetic complexity of the octoploid cultivated strawberry, has led to development of the diploid wild strawberry (F. vesca) as a model system for Fragaria. We have identified suitable parents after screening accessions of diploid Fragaria sp. for resistance [1], and generated a mapping population which we are currently characterizing. In order to study the plant-pathogen interaction in detail we have identified and characterized resistance genes from diploid strawberry and effector genes from P. cactorum using different transcriptional analysis techniques; nucleotide-binding site (NBS)-profiling for resistance genes, and suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) as well as a designed effector-specific differential display (ESDD) for genes involved in pathogenicity.   This work is supported by The Research Council of Norway.   [1] Eikemo H, Brurberg MB, Davik J (2010). Resistance to Phytophthora cactorum in diploid Fragaria species. HortScience. 45:193-197.  

Sammendrag

Cleistothecia on leaves of deciduous perennials are often dispersed before leaf fall to other substrates. In contrast, strawberry leaves remain attached during winter, and cleistothecia of Podosphaera macularis remained attached to these leaves. Release of overwintered ascospores was coincident with renewed plant growth, and pathogenicity of ascospores was confirmed. Upper and lower surfaces of emergent leaves were similarly susceptible, but upper surfaces were obscured by folding in emergent leaves. Emergent leaves exposed to airborne inoculum developed severe infection of the lower surface, but not the obscured upper surface. Emergent leaves acquired ontogenic resistance during unfolding, and the upper leaf surface thereby escaped infection. We found no evidence that the pathogen survives winters in New York, USA or Norway within crown tissue. Plants stripped of infected leaves remained mildew-free when forced after overwintering, while mildew colonies commonly developed on emergent leaves of plants not stripped of mildewed leaves. Unsprayed plots established using mildew-free plants either remained asymptomatic or developed only traces of powdery mildew during one growing season, even when located within 100 to 150 meters of severely diseased plots. In summary, our results suggest the following: (i) sanitation, use of disease-free plants, and eradicative treatments could contribute greatly to management of strawberry powdery mildew; (ii) cleistothecia represent a functional source of primary inoculum; and (iii) the common observation of higher mildew severity on lower leaf surfaces may reflect escape of the upper epidermis due to the combined effect of leaf folding and rapid acquisition of ontogenic resistance.

Sammendrag

Sprøyting basert på modellar som varslar fare for infeksjon av gråskimmel i jordbær, har vore samanlikna med rutinesprøyting over fleire år. Resultata viser at sprøyting etter varsel gir færre sprøytingar og kan gi god effekt, men ved for lange sprøyteintervall vil det vera fornuftig å leggja inn ekstra sprøytingar.

Sammendrag

Several non-chemical control agents are now registered and available for control of powdery mildews. However, there is little or no information about their efficacy against strawberry powdery mildew, caused by Podosphera aphanis. Trials were conducted to compare the performance of non-chemical control agents to chemical fungicides under laboratory, greenhouse and high plastic tunnel conditions. The treatments included: AQ10 (active ingredient is Ampelomyces quisqualis, a hyperparasite on powdery mildew), AQ10 + Silwet Gold (organosilicon adjuvant, enhances distribution and wetting), Vacciplant (active ingredient is laminarin, an extract from brown algae), JMS Stylet oil (mineral oil), Rape seed oil + detergent, Thiovit (wettable sulphur), Topas 100 EC (penconazole) + Candit (kresoximmethyl) and water as control. In the greenhouse, one quarter of the recommended dose was used either daily in one experiment or three times per week in another. In the field, half of recommended rates were applied twice weekly. Both in the greenhouse and tunnel experiments, the chemical control Topas + Candit and AQ10 + Silwet Gold significantly reduced disease severity. AQ10,Vacciplant and Thiovit were moderately effective when applied daily in the greenhouse trial, but not significantly different from the water control when applied three time per week in the greenhouse and twice a week in the tunnel experiment. In the plastic tunnel, the JMS stylet oil and Rape seed oil + detergent treatments caused severe phytotoxic reaction (necrosis). AQ10 used alone had the poorest performance in the tunnel. This indicated that the spreader either enhances the effect of AQ10 and/or the spreader itself had an effect. In laboratory experiments with powdery mildew grown on strawberry leaflets in Petri dishes, spore germination after treatments with water, Stylet oil, Candit and Thiovit were 74, 53, 8 and 7%, respectively. The effect of Thiovit found in the laboratory was not reflected in the greenhouse and plastic tunnel trials.  We will further explore the protectant, curative and eradicative effects of the compounds included here.

Sammendrag

Several non-chemical control agents are now registered and available for control of powdery mildews. However, there is little or no information about their efficacy against strawberry powdery mildew, caused by Podosphera aphanis. Trials were conducted to compare the performance of non-chemical control agents to chemical fungicides under laboratory, greenhouse and high plastic tunnel conditions. The treatments included: AQ10 (active ingredient is Ampelomyces quisqualis, a hyperparasite on powdery mildew), AQ10 + Silwet Gold (organosilicon adjuvant, enhances distribution and wetting), Vacciplant (active ingredient is laminarin, an extract from brown algae), JMS Stylet oil (mineral oil), Rape seed oil + detergent, Thiovit (wettable sulphur), Topas 100 EC (penconazole) + Candit (kresoximmethyl) and water as control. In the greenhouse, one quarter of the recommended dose was used either daily in one experiment or three times per week in another. In the field, half of recommended rates were applied twice weekly. Both in the greenhouse and tunnel experiments, the chemical control Topas + Candit and AQ10 + Silwet Gold significantly reduced disease severity. AQ10,Vacciplant and Thiovit were moderately effective when applied daily in the greenhouse trial, but not significantly different from the water control when applied three time per week in the greenhouse and twice a week in the tunnel experiment. In the plastic tunnel, the JMS stylet oil and Rape seed oil + detergent treatments caused severe phytotoxic reaction (necrosis). AQ10 used alone had the poorest performance in the tunnel. This indicated that the spreader either enhances the effect of AQ10 and/or the spreader itself had an effect. In laboratory experiments with powdery mildew grown on strawberry leaflets in Petri dishes, spore germination after treatments with water, Stylet oil, Candit and Thiovit were 74, 53, 8 and 7%, respectively. The effect of Thiovit found in the laboratory was not reflected in the greenhouse and plastic tunnel trials. We will further explore the protectant, curative and eradicative effects of the compounds included here.

Sammendrag

Field trials at Ås, Norway and Geneva, NY, USA revealed a substantial impact of initial levels of powdery mildew (Podosphaera macularis) upon disease development in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa). Five-row plots of 50 to 100 mildew-free plants (planting distance 0.45 × 1.2 m) were established each year within large grain fields with a minimum distance of 90 m between plots and were left untreated with fungicides. Beginning each season, plants at the center of each plot were inoculated with 0, 1, 10, or 100 mildew-infected leaflets. Uninoculated plots developed only trace levels of powdery mildew, despite nearby diseased plots and wild strawberries in both Norway and NY trials over 3 years. More rapid and severe disease development was observed in the inoculated plots; e.g., mildew was observed on 31, 36, 311, and 912 leaflets in the 0, 1, 10, and 100 plots, respectively, in Norway in year 1 of the trial, and reached only 6 leaves per plot in the 0 plot in year 2. Spatiotemporal analyses were subsequently performed, but the practical impact of the trials was to demonstrate long-lasting benefits of clean, mildew-free planting stock in commercial strawberry production, even in areas where the pathogen is endemic and the environment is very conducive to disease.

Sammendrag

Sprøyting basert på modellar som varslar fare for infeksjon av gråskimmel har vore samanlikninga med rutinesprøyting, og resultata så langt viser at sprøyting etter varsel kan gi like god effekt som tradisjonell sprøyting.

Sammendrag

Mjøldogg (Podosphaera macularis) er ein viktig sjukdom i jordbær og ser ut til å verta eit aukande problem med meir dyrking i plasttunnelar. Denne artikkelen omhandlar nokre resultat frå eit 4-årig prosjekt om jordbærmjøldogg finansiert av Forskingsrådet.

Sammendrag

Mjøldogg (Podosphaera macularis) er ein viktig sjukdom i jordbær og ser ut til å verta eit aukande problem med meir dyrking i plasttunnelar. Denne artikkelen omhandlar nokre resultat frå eit 4-årig prosjekt om jordbærmjøldogg finansiert av Forskingsrådet.

Sammendrag

Crown rot caused by Phytophthora cactorum is an important disease in commercial strawberry production worldwide. The level of resistance varies greatly between cultivars, and many of the most commonly grown cultivars are quite susceptible to P. cactorum. Adequate soil drainage, clean planting material and use of highly resistant cultivars are the most important measures against crown rot. Previous work at our institute has involved evaluation of methods to screen for resistance, cultivar and progeny screening, and use of induced resistance against the disease. That work also included a genetic study of P. cactorum isolates from various host plants and different geographic origins. P. cactorum has many host plants, but it turned out that isolates causing crown rot of strawberry differs genetically from those with other host origin. A project was recently initiated, where one of the main goals has been to identify molecular markers for resistance against P. cactorum in strawberry. Genotypes of diploid Fragaria species have been screened for resistance, and the progeny from a cross between a susceptible and a resistant genotype will be evaluated by the end of this year. Commercially grown strawberry is very heterozygous and octoploid. Diploid Fragaria species are therefore useful as model organisms. The Fragaria genus has a conserved organisation, and hopefully information obtained from the study of diploid genotypes can be transferred to cultivated Fragaria x ananassa and possibly to other important crop plants in Rosaceae.

Sammendrag

Crown rot caused by Phytophthora cactorum is an important disease in commercial strawberry production worldwide. The level of resistance varies greatly between cultivars, and many of the most commonly grown cultivars are quite susceptible to P. cactorum. Adequate soil drainage, clean planting material and use of highly resistant cultivars are the most important measures against crown rot. Previous work at our institute has involved evaluation of methods to screen for resistance, cultivar and progeny screening, and use of induced resistance against the disease. That work also included a genetic study of P. cactorum isolates from various host plants and different geographic origins. P. cactorum has many host plants, but it turned out that isolates causing crown rot of strawberry differs genetically from those with other host origin. A project was recently initiated, where one of the main goals has been to identify molecular markers for resistance against P. cactorum in strawberry. Genotypes of diploid Fragaria species have been screened for resistance, and the progeny from a cross between a susceptible and a resistant genotype will be evaluated by the end of this year. Commercially grown strawberry is octoploid and very heterozygous. Diploid Fragaria species are therefore useful as model organisms. The Fragaria genus has a conserved organisation, and hopefully information obtained from the study of diploid genotypes can be transferred to cultivated Fragaria x ananassa and possibly to other important crop plants in Rosaceae.

Sammendrag

The objective of this work was to investigate how primary disease levels of powdery mildew (Podosphaera aphanis) in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) influence disease development in time and space. Experiments were repeated over two seasons in field trials in Norway (Ås, cv. Korona) and USA (Geneva, NewYork, cvs. Earliglow and Elan). Five-row plots of 50 to 100 mildew-free plants (planting distance 0.45 x 1.2 m) were established each year within large grain fields, with a minimum distance of 90 m between plots, and no fungicide treatments. At start of the experiments, plants at the center of each plot were inoculated with 0, 1, 10, or 100 mildew-infected leaflets. Uninoculated plots developed only trace levels of powdery mildew, despite nearby diseased plots. More rapid and severe disease development was observed in the inoculated plots; e.g., mildew was observed on 31, 36, 311, and 912 leaflets in the 0, 1, 10, and 100 plots, respectively, in Norway in year 1 of the trial. Within the plots, disease development was highest close to the inoculum source and downwind from the prevailing wind. It may be concluded that in the absence of nearby sources of contamination, disease severity in strawberry plantings is determined by the dose of initial inoculum resident within the planting. The practical impact of the trials was to demonstrate long-lasting benefits of clean, mildew-free planting stock in commercial strawberry production, even in areas where the pathogen is endemic and the environment is very conducive to disease.

Sammendrag

Rotstokkråte i jordbær og rød rotråte i bringebær kan gi store avlingstap. En effektiv måte å kontrollere sykdommene på er bruk av resistente sorter. Sortsforedling er både tids- og arbeidskrevende, men ved bruk av bioteknologiske verktøy kan prosessen rasjonaliseres. Bioteknologiske verktøy er også meget godt egnet for å få detaljert kunnskap om samspillet mellom en plante og en skadegjører, hvilket på sikt kan gi nye metoder for bekjempelse.

Sammendrag

Most fungicide applications targeting apple scab aim to control primary infections caused by ascospores and spraying is thereby linked to ascospore availability. We investigated the effect of pre bud break climatic conditions on seasonal patterns of ascospore release. Apple leaves bearing pseudothecia of Venturia inaequalis were overwintered at orchard sites in 8 countries for up to 3 years. Leaf samples were collected 2 to 5 weeks before bud break and again at bud break, air dried, and sent via airmail to Norway. The samples were stored at -18 ºC upon arrival until tested. Disks cut from each replicate leaf sample were incubated moist at 20 ºC to allow ascospore maturation but prevent discharge. Matured ascospores were induced to discharge twice a week and enumerated until the supply was exhausted. The proportion of ascospores ejected was fitted against degree day accumulation using logistic regression. The regression intercept (onset maturation), slope (maturation rate), as well as the absolute number of spores counted differed significantly (P < 0.001, P = 0.05, P < 0.001 respectively) among sites and sampling dates. There was a significant interaction between site and sampling date, indicating that climatic conditions prior to bud break differentially impacted the subsequent ascospore availability. Observed differences could perhaps be used to further refine previously described models of ascospore maturity.

Sammendrag

Cleistothecia on leaves of deciduous perennials are often dispersed before leaf fall to other substrates. In contrast, strawberry leaves remain attached during winter, and cleistothecia of Podosphaera macularis remained attached to these leaves. Release of overwintered ascospores was coincident with renewed plant growth, and pathogenicity of ascospores was confirmed. Upper and lower surfaces of emergent leaves were similarly susceptible, but upper surfaces were obscured by folding in emergent leaves. Emergent leaves exposed to airborne inoculum developed severe infection of the lower surface, but not the obscured upper surface. Emergent leaves acquired ontogenic resistance during unfolding, and the upper leaf surface thereby escaped infection. We found no evidence that the pathogen survives winters in New York, USA or Norway within crown tissue. Plants stripped of infected leaves remained mildew-free when forced after overwintering, while mildew colonies commonly developed on emergent leaves of plants not stripped of mildewed leaves. Unsprayed plots established using mildew-free plants either remained asymptomatic or developed only traces of powdery mildew during one growing season, even when located within 100 to 150 meters of severely diseased plots. In summary, our results suggest the following: (i) sanitation, use of disease-free plants, and eradicative treatments could contribute greatly to management of strawberry powdery mildew; (ii) cleistothecia represent a functional source of primary inoculum; and (iii) the common observation of higher mildew severity on lower leaf surfaces may reflect escape of the upper epidermis due to the combined effect of leaf folding and rapid acquisition of ontogenic resistance.

Sammendrag

Vi studerer to sykdommer forårsaket av Phytophthora, rotstokkråte i jordbær (P. cactorum) og rød rotråte i bringebær (P. fragariae var. rubi (Pfr)). Bringebær og jordbær sorter varierer i resistens, men de fleste kommersielle kultivarene er mottakelige for disse to sykdommene. En universell merkemetode ble brukt for å gjøre markøranalyse for å identifisere genetiske markører koblet til resistens. For bringebær er populasjonen brukt for kartlegging avkommene fra en krysning mellom resistent Asker og mottakelig Glen Moy. Resistensen til 200 avkom har blitt testet under kontrollerte betingelser med smitting i vannkultur. Tretti dager etter inokulering med mycel av Pfr ble grad av symptom registrert. Kommersielt dyrket jordbær er en svært heterozygot oktoploid. Vi bruker derfor diploid villjordbær som en modellplante. Bioforsk har en samling av diploide jordbærgenotyper fra ulike steder i Norge. Totalt har 68 genotyper blitt testet for deres resistens mot P. cactorum. Ulik grad av resistens har blitt observert. Mottakelige så vel som svært resistente aksesjoner har blitt identifisert. Basert på disse resultatene vil genotyper bli valgt for å lage en segregerende populasjon fra en resistent x mottagelig krysning for å studere nedarvingen av P. cactorum resistensen.

Sammendrag

Vi studerer to sykdommer forårsaket av Phytophthora, rotstokkråte i jordbær (P. cactorum) og rød rotråte i bringebær (P. fragariae var. rubi (Pfr)). Bringebær og jordbær sorter varierer i resistens, men de fleste kommersielle kultivarene er mottakelige for disse to sykdommene. En universell merkemetode ble brukt for å gjøre markøranalyse for å identifisere genetiske markører koblet til resistens. For bringebær er populasjonen brukt for kartlegging avkommene fra en krysning mellom resistent Asker og mottakelig Glen Moy. Resistensen til 200 avkom har blitt testet under kontrollerte betingelser med smitting i vannkultur. Tretti dager etter inokulering med mycel av Pfr ble grad av symptom registrert. Kommersielt dyrket jordbær er en svært heterozygot oktoploid. Vi bruker derfor diploid villjordbær som en modellplante. Bioforsk har en samling av diploide jordbærgenotyper fra ulike steder i Norge. Totalt har 68 genotyper blitt testet for deres resistens mot P. cactorum. Ulik grad av resistens har blitt observert. Mottakelige så vel som svært resistente aksesjoner har blitt identifisert. Basert på disse resultatene vil genotyper bli valgt for å lage en segregerende populasjon fra en resistent x mottagelig krysning for å studere nedarvingen av P. cactorum resistensen.

Sammendrag

Models for prediction of diseases and pests in fruits and vegetables are important tools in the decision of crop management strategies. In the Nordic countries several models are currently available for the farmers and extension services on the Internet. The most widespread pests and diseases which are forecasted and/or monitored include apple scab (Venturia inaquealis) and apple fruit moth (Argyresthia conjugella) in apples, cabbage root fly (Delia brassicae) and turnip root fly (D. floralis) in Brassica vegetables, carrot root fly (Psila rosea) in carrots, and downy mildews in lettuce (Bremia lactucae) and onion (Peronospora destructor).

Sammendrag

Artikkelen skildrar effekten av klimatiske tilhøve (nedbør og temperatur) før sporekastinga tar til om våren på sporemodninga/sporekastinga seinare i sesongen hos epleskurvsoppen. Di fuktigare klimaet er siste månaden før sporekastinga tar til (som regel rundt grøn spiss), di større mengde sporar vert kasta tidleg i sesongen. Data er basert på innsamla bladverk med soppsmitte frå 11 ulike land.

Sammendrag

Ein modell som estimerer modning av askosporar utvikla i New Hampshire, USA, vart samanlikna med kasting av askosporar på 3 ulike stader i Noreg. For år med hyppig regn stemde sporekastinga bra med modellen, medan ein i år med lange turre periodar fekk sporekasting som låg etter modellen ut resten av sesongen. Ved å stansa døgngradeakkumuleringen ved 7 turre dagar vart sporekastinga i "turre år" betre tilpassa modellen, utan at det vart større unøyaktighet i "våte år".

Sammendrag

Analysis of 44 isolates of Phytophthora cactorum, isolated from strawberry and other hosts, by AFLP showed that the crown rot pathotype is different from leather rot isolates and from P. cactorum isolated from other hosts. 16 of 23 crown rot isolates, including isolates from Europe, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand, were identical in an analysis based on 96 polymorphic bands from seven primer combinations. Leather rot isolates of strawberry could not be distinguished from isolates from other hosts. The pathogenicity test of all 44 isolates on strawberry plants mostly gave unambiguous results, except for three American isolates, which seemed to have reduced aggressiveness compared to the crown rot isolates. These isolates also differed in the AFLP analysis. Comparing information on the origin of the isolates with results from the pathogenicity test, showed that isolates from strawberry fruits or petioles could be either leather rot or crown rot pathotypes. None of the isolates from hosts other than strawberry caused crown rot symptoms in strawberry.

Sammendrag

Indusert resistens er eit fenomen der plantene sine eigne forsvarsmekanismar vert aktivert ved hjelp av middel som ikkje har direkte effekt på skadegjeraren. Fordelen med bruk av slike middel er at skadegjeraren ikkje bygger opp resistens mot det, og det har effekt mot eit breitt spekter av sjukdomsframkallande organismar. Middel som induserer resistens har vist seg å ha like god effekt mot rotstokkròte og raud marg i jordbær som det mest brukte kjemiske middelet.

Sammendrag

Utbrot av rotstokkròte i jordbær har i stor grad samanheng med sortane som vert dyrka. Utviklinga dei siste tiåra har gått mot meir mottakelege sortar, og dette er hovudårsaka til den sterke spreiinga av sjukdomen. Ved Planteforsk har ei stor mengde sortar vortne testa dei siste åra, og også nedarving av motstandsevne mot sjukdomen har vorte studert.

Sammendrag

Fleire forsøk vart gjennomført for å sjå på ein mogleg effekt av to forsvarsaktivatorar (acibenzolar-S-methyl og kitosan) på motstandsevne mot rotstokkròte og raud marg i jordbær. Begge stoffa hadde god effekt mot rotstokkròte hjå to ulike jordbærsortar, og effekten auka når tida mellom behandling og smitting vart utvida frå 2 til 20 dagar. Det var ingen skilnad mellom behandlingane når konsentrasjonen av acibenzolar-S-methyl vart auka frå 10 til 1000 µg a.i./plante. For kitosan var effekten best i dei lågaste konsentrasjonane.cibenzolar-S-methyl og soppmiddelet Aliette. Berre acibenzolar-S-methyl hadde effekt mot raud marg (Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae), og verknaden var der framleis når plantene vart smitta 40 dagar etter behandling. For begge sjukdomane var effekten av elicitorane samanlikneleg med effekten av fungicidet Aliette.

Sammendrag

Two putative elicitors (Bion and chitosan) showed effect against crown rot (Phytophthora cactorum (Leb. & Cohn) Schroet) in strawberry in preliminary experiments, and were tested further to investigate the effect of different concentrations, the possible duration of the resistance response and to compare the effect with that of fungicide treatment (phosetyl-Al). The experiments took place in either a greenhouse or a growth chamber. The effect of both Bion and chitosan was enhanced when the time between treatment and inoculation was prolonged from 2 to 20 days. Bion showed increasing effect when the concentration was raised from 50 to 1000 mg per plant, while chitosan seemed to have a negative effect when the concentration exceeded 250 mg per plant. There were no significant differences in disease score between phosetyl-Al (0.3 % solution), Bion (100 µg/plant) and chitosan (100 µg/plant) treatments when applied 15 or 5 days before inoculation. The effect of Bion and chitosan was also tested against red stele (P. fragariae Hickman var. fragariae) in strawberry in a growth chamber. Both compounds were applied in 2 concentrations (50 or 250 µg/plant) at 4 different times (either 5, 10, 20 or 40 days before inoculation), and phosetyl-Al (0.3 %) was included as a control. Chitosan had no effect at all, while phosetyl-Al and all treatments with Bion reduced the severity of the disease significantly. There was no significant difference between the effect of 250 µg Bion and phosetyl-Al when both compounds were applied at the same time.

Sammendrag

During a period of five years (1998 - 2002), 26 strawberry cvs and 5 selections were tested for resistance to crown rot. Cold stored plants inoculated with zoospores of Phytophthora cactorum were used in all experiments. The results showed that resistance to P. cactorum vary greatly between cvs, and the most resistant ones were Senga Sengana, Induka, Melody, Glima, and Bogota, while the most susceptible were Tamella, Inga, Evita and Jonsok. The results were compared to those obtained by other authors, and there were clear indications that the genetic background affects the degree of susceptibility to P. cactorum. Many of the most resistant cvs descend from Senga Sengana (e.g. Bounty, Glima, Induka and Melody), and several of the most susceptible cvs have common parentage (e.g. Inga, Tamella, Elsanta and Evita). In a resistance test of the progeny from two separate crosses between a resistant and a susceptible cv. 61 and 65 % of the offspring were intermediately to very susceptible, and 17 and 13 % were resistant at the level of Senga Sengana. Hence, there is a high risk of losing offspring with high levels of resistance if selection for resistance to crown rot is not performed at an early stage in a breeding programme.

Sammendrag

To investigate the variability in Phytophthora cactorum, 44 isolates from different geographic locations were collected. The isolates originated from various plant species, but the majority were crown rot and leather rot isolates from strawberry. DNA was extracted from all isolates, and examined by AFLP using seven different primer combinations. The resulting dendrogram revealed that isolates from crown rot in strawberries from all locations showed a very low degree of variation, and were clearly separated from the more variable leather rot isolates (of strawberry fruits) and isolates from other hosts. The separation of isolates with and without the ability to cause crown rot was confirmed in a pathogenesis test on strawberry plants. Several methods of screening strawberry cultivars for resistance to Phytophthora cactorum were tested and evaluated in this study. The methods involved both fresh and cold stored plants, and either mycelium on agar or a zoospore suspension was used to inoculate wounded or unwounded plants. Also inoculation of detached leaves and inoculation of plants in vitro were tested as possible methods of screening for resistance. Several of these methods discriminated well between cultivars, but they varied in reproducibility and accuracy. The preferred method was inoculation of unwounded, cold stored plants with a zoospore suspension. It was the least laborious method, and the results were reproducible when the same cultivars were tested several times over several years. Sammendraget er redigert.

Sammendrag

Four methods were evaluated in measuring resistance of strawberry cultivars to crown rot caused by Phytophthora cactorum. Meristem propagated plants grown in vitro were inoculated with mycelial discs. Four to five days after inoculation, it was possible to distinguish between cultivars with large differences in susceptibility to the disease. Ten days later, all plants were totally necrotic making it impossible to distinguish between cultivars. When detached leaves were inoculated by inoculating a plug of mycelium into the petiole, disease symptoms developed more slowly in resistant cultivars, but leaf age greatly affected the rate of symptom development. When plug plants (not cold stored) were lightly wounded in the rhizome with a scalpel and inoculated with either zoospores or mycelium, differences in disease development between cultivars were mainly as would be expected from previous information on susceptibility, but both age and size of plants influenced the rate of disease development. Unwounded, inoculated plants did not develop symptoms. When cold-stored plug plants were either unwounded or lightly wounded with a scalpel in the rhizome and inoculated with zoospores, the relative rates of disease development consistently reflected the susceptibility to crown rot. At the time of final assessment, disease was much more severe in wounded plants, but the relative susceptibility of cultivars was not affected by the wounding.