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The proportion of Norwegian wheat used for food has varied significantly during the recent decade, mainly because of the instability of factors that are essential to baking quality (i.e. protein content and gluten functionality). During the same period, serious contamination of Fusarium spp. and mycotoxins was observed in some grain lots [1, 2]. A project was established to generate greater knowledge of the interface between gluten functionality and effects of Fusarium species and other microorganisms on Norwegian wheat quality. Instances of severe degradation of gluten proteins that resulted in an almost complete loss of gluten functionality were observed in some lots of Norwegian wheat. The degradation of the gluten appeared to be caused by exogenous proteases. Metabarcoding of fungi and bacteria in these grain lots identified fungi within the Fusarium Head Blight complex, as well as one bacterial species, as candidate species for influencing gluten functionality. Some of these candidates were inoculated on wheat during flowering [3]. Analysis of baking quality of the flour from this experiment revealed a reduced proportion of un-extractable polymeric proteins (%UPP) and severe reductions in the gluten’s resistance to stretching (RMAX) in wheat flour from plants inoculated with Fusarium graminearum. Flour from wheat inoculated with Fusarium avenaceum was generally less infested, and showed minimal or no reduction in gluten functionality and %UPP compared to flour from the F. graminearum infested samples. Flour from wheat inoculated with Michrodochium majus is yet to be analysed. References 1. Koga, S., et al., Investigating environmental factors that cause extreme gluten quality deficiency in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B—Soil & Plant Science, 2016. 66(3): p. 237-246. 2. Hofgaard, I., et al., Associations between Fusarium species and mycotoxins in oats and spring wheat from farmers’ fields in Norway over a six-year period. World Mycotoxin Journal, 2016. 9(3): p. 365-378. 3. Nielsen, K.A.G., Effect of microorganisms on gluten quality in wheat., in Faculty of Biosciences. 2017, Norwegian University of Life Sciences: Ås.

Sammendrag

High concentrations of the mycotoxins HT-2 and T-2 (HT2 + T2), primarily produced by Fusarium langsethiae, have occasionally been detected in Norwegian oat grains. In this study, we identified weather variables influencing accumulation of HT2 + T2 in Norwegian oat grains. Oat grain samples from farmers’ fields were collected together with weather data (2004–2013). Spearman rank correlation coefficients were calculated between the HT2 + T2 contamination in oats at harvest and a range of weather summarisations within estimated phenological windows of growth stages in oats (tillering, flowering etc.). Furthermore, we developed a mathematical model to predict the risk of HT2 + T2 in oat grains. Our data show that adequate predictions of the risk of HT2 + T2 in oat grains at harvest can be achieved, based upon weather data observed during the growing season. Humid and cool conditions, in addition to moderate temperatures during booting, were associated with increased HT2 + T2 accumulation in harvested oat grains, whereas warm and humid weather during stem elongation and inflorescence emergence, or cool weather and absence of rain during booting reduced the risk of HT2 + T2 accumulation. Warm and humid weather immediately after flowering increased the risk, while moderate to warm temperatures and absence of rain during dough development, reduced the risk of HT2 + T2 accumulation in oat grains. Our data indicated that HT2 + T2 contamination in oats is influenced by weather conditions both pre- and post-flowering. These findings are in contrast with a previous study examining the risk of deoxynivalenol contamination in oat reporting that toxin accumulation was mostly influenced by weather conditions from flowering onwards.

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Different seed lots of Pinus spp. cultivated within South Africa were screened for the presence or absence of seed-borne fungi according to modified ISTA (International Seed Testing Association) prescribed protocols. Numerous (454 isolates) fungi were successfully isolated, purified and stored using agar slants and cryopreservation. Sydowia polyspora was isolated from six different seed lots from three Pinus species (P. greggii (South), P. elliottii and P. taeda) and was morphologically and molecularly identified. Koch’s postulates was fulfilled by inoculating one year old seedlings (wounded and unwounded) with a spore suspension (107 ml-1) obtained from 30 day old pure cultures grown on PDA. Inoculated and uninoculated control seedlings were incubated in a greenhouse at 220C until symptom development. Sydowia polyspora was re-isolated from symptomatic needles with both wounded and unwounded needles showing characteristic symptoms. No symptoms were apparent on the control seedlings. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the fungus being isolated and recorded within the country. Further investigations will look at the prevalence, pathogenicity and characterization of the fungus within South Africa.

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Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most common mycotoxin in Norwegian cereals, and DON is detected in most samples of crude cereal grain and cereal food commodities such as flour, bran, and oat flakes. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety assessed the risk for adverse effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) in different age groups of the domestic population. This review presents the main results from the risk assessment, supplemented with some recently published data. Impairment of the immune system together with reduced feed intake and weight gain are the critical effects of DON in experimental animals on which the current tolerable daily intake was established. Based on food consumption and occurrence data, the mean exposure to DON in years with low and high levels of DON in the flour, respectively, were in the range of or up to two times the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) in 1-year-old infants and 2-year-old children. In years with high mean DON concentration, the high (95th-percentile) exposure exceeded the TDI by up to 3.5 times in 1-, 2- , 4-, and 9-year-old children. The assessment concluded that exceeding the TDI in infants and children is of concern. The estimated dietary DON intakes in adolescent and adult populations are in the range of the TDI or below, and are not a health concern. Acute human exposure to DON is not of concern in any age group.

Sammendrag

High concentrations of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), produced by Fusarium graminearum have occurred frequently in Norwegian oats recently. Early prediction of DON levels is important for farmers, authorities and the Cereal Industry. In this study, the main weather factors influencing mycotoxin accumulation were identified and two models to predict the risk of DON in oat grains in Norway were developed: (1) as a warning system for farmers to decide if and when to treat with fungicide, and (2) for authorities and industry to use at harvest to identify potential food safety problems. Oat grain samples from farmers’ fields were collected together with weather data (2004–2013). A mathematical model was developed and used to estimate phenology windows of growth stages in oats (tillering, flowering etc.). Weather summarisations were then calculated within these windows, and the Spearman rank correlation factor calculated between DON-contamination in oats at harvest and the weather summarisations for each phenological window. DON contamination was most clearly associated with the weather conditions around flowering and close to harvest. Warm, rainy and humid weather during and around flowering increased the risk of DON accumulation in oats, as did dry periods during germination/seedling growth and tillering. Prior to harvest, warm and humid weather conditions followed by cool and dry conditions were associated with a decreased risk of DON accumulation. A prediction model, including only pre-flowering weather conditions, adequately forecasted risk of DON contamination in oat, and can aid in decisions about fungicide treatments.

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During August 2013, white-grayish lesions, typical of Sclerotinia stem rot, had developed around leaf axils on the stems of turnip rape ‘Pepita’ in a field at the NIBIO research station Apelsvoll in Oppland County, Norway. Sclerotia were collected from inside infected turnip rape stubble and from harvested seeds, surface sterilized, bisected, and placed onto potato dextrose agar (PDA). Following 1 to 2 days incubation at 20°C, fast-growing white mycelium characteristic of Sclerotinia was observed, and within 5 to 7 days, new sclerotia had started to develop. Sclerotia size and growing pattern although variable was characteristic of S. sclerotiorum. DNA extraction, PCR amplification, and sequencing of the ITS regions of the rDNA was then carried out for 20 isolates. BLASTn analysis of 475 bp amplicons showed that 15 isolates were S. sclerotiorum, while five were identified as S. subarctica (previously called Sclerotinia sp 1; Holst-Jensen et al. 1998; Winton et al. 2006, 2007), with 100% identity to a U.K. S. subarctica isolate (Clarkson et al. 2010). A representative ITS region sequence was deposited in GenBank (accession no. KX929095). The identity of the S. subarctica isolates was further confirmed by the lack of a 304-bp intron in the LSU rDNA compared with S. sclerotiorum (Holst-Jensen et al. 1998), which was visualized by PCR amplification and gel electrophoresis. Sclerotia of two S. subarctica isolates were placed on PDA and incubated for 7 days. Agar plugs of actively growing mycelium were used for the pathogenicity testing of spring oilseed rape plants (‘Mosaik’) in the greenhouse. Plants were inoculated at growth stage BBCH 57/59 (preflowering) and BBCH 64 (40% of flowers open) by attaching two PDA plugs of actively growing mycelium per main stems with small needles, using four plants per treatment. Noninoculated PDA agar plugs were attached to the control plants. The experiment was repeated three times. Symptoms typical of stem rot appeared after 1 to 2 weeks of incubation at 16 to 20°C, 100% relative humidity. Stems started to develop white lesions with fluffy mycelium around the inoculation sites. Control plants did not show the characteristic symptoms for Sclerotinia infection. After senescence of the plants, sclerotia were collected from inside the stems and cultured on PDA. White mycelium started to grow after 1 to 2 days and new sclerotia were formed within 7 days, similar to the ones used for producing the initial isolate. Brassica oil seed crops are cultivated as important break crops in the cereal-based production system in Norway and can be severely affected by Sclerotinia stem rot. The disease is observed in all regions where Brassica oil seed crops are grown, and in severe cases, a reduction in oilseed yield of 25% has been recorded in untreated control treatments of fungicide trials. Although S. subarctica has been previously reported on wild hosts (Holst-Jensen et al. 1998), this is the first report of the pathogen on a crop plant in Norway. In the United Kingdom, Clarkson et al. (2010) demonstrated pathogenicity of S. subarctica isolated from Ranunculus acris on oilseed rape. As symptoms for S. subarctica and S. sclerotiorum are indistinguishable, S. subarctica might be present undetected in many farmer fields.

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During August 2013, white-grayish lesions, typical of Sclerotinia stem rot, had developed around leaf axils on the stems of turnip rape ‘Pepita’ in a field at the NIBIO research station Apelsvoll in Oppland County, Norway. Sclerotia were collected from inside infected turnip rape stubble and from harvested seeds, surface sterilized, bisected, and placed onto potato dextrose agar (PDA). Following 1 to 2 days incubation at 20°C, fast-growing white mycelium characteristic of Sclerotinia was observed, and within 5 to 7 days, new sclerotia had started to develop. Sclerotia size and growing pattern although variable was characteristic of S. sclerotiorum. DNA extraction, PCR amplification, and sequencing of the ITS regions of the rDNA was then carried out for 20 isolates. BLASTn analysis of 475 bp amplicons showed that 15 isolates were S. sclerotiorum, while five were identified as S. subarctica (previously called Sclerotinia sp 1; Holst-Jensen et al. 1998; Winton et al. 2006, 2007), with 100% identity to a U.K. S. subarctica isolate (Clarkson et al. 2010). A representative ITS region sequence was deposited in GenBank (accession no. KX929095). The identity of the S. subarctica isolates was further confirmed by the lack of a 304-bp intron in the LSU rDNA compared with S. sclerotiorum (Holst-Jensen et al. 1998), which was visualized by PCR amplification and gel electrophoresis. Sclerotia of two S. subarctica isolates were placed on PDA and incubated for 7 days. Agar plugs of actively growing mycelium were used for the pathogenicity testing of spring oilseed rape plants (‘Mosaik’) in the greenhouse. Plants were inoculated at growth stage BBCH 57/59 (preflowering) and BBCH 64 (40% of flowers open) by attaching two PDA plugs of actively growing mycelium per main stems with small needles, using four plants per treatment. Noninoculated PDA agar plugs were attached to the control plants. The experiment was repeated three times. Symptoms typical of stem rot appeared after 1 to 2 weeks of incubation at 16 to 20°C, 100% relative humidity. Stems started to develop white lesions with fluffy mycelium around the inoculation sites. Control plants did not show the characteristic symptoms for Sclerotinia infection. After senescence of the plants, sclerotia were collected from inside the stems and cultured on PDA. White mycelium started to grow after 1 to 2 days and new sclerotia were formed within 7 days, similar to the ones used for producing the initial isolate. Brassica oil seed crops are cultivated as important break crops in the cereal-based production system in Norway and can be severely affected by Sclerotinia stem rot. The disease is observed in all regions where Brassica oil seed crops are grown, and in severe cases, a reduction in oilseed yield of 25% has been recorded in untreated control treatments of fungicide trials. Although S. subarctica has been previously reported on wild hosts (Holst-Jensen et al. 1998), this is the first report of the pathogen on a crop plant in Norway. In the United Kingdom, Clarkson et al. (2010) demonstrated pathogenicity of S. subarctica isolated from Ranunculus acris on oilseed rape. As symptoms for S. subarctica and S. sclerotiorum are indistinguishable, S. subarctica might be present undetected in many farmer fields.

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Sclerotinia species are important fungal pathogens of a wide range of crops and wild host plants. While the biology and population structure of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has been well-studied, little information is available for the related species S. subarctica. In this study, Sclerotinia isolates were collected from different crop plants and the wild host Ranuculus ficaria (meadow buttercup) in England, Scotland, and Norway to determine the incidence of Sclerotinia subarctica and examine the population structure of this pathogen for the first time. Incidence was very low in England, comprising only 4.3% of isolates while moderate and high incidence of S. subarctica was identified in Scotland and Norway, comprising 18.3 and 48.0% of isolates respectively. Characterization with eight microsatellite markers identified 75 haplotypes within a total of 157 isolates over the three countries with a few haplotypes in Scotland and Norway sampled at a higher frequency than the rest across multiple locations and host plants. In total, eight microsatellite haplotypes were shared between Scotland and Norway while none were shared with England. Bayesian and principal component analyses revealed common ancestry and clustering of Scottish and Norwegian S. subarctica isolates while English isolates were assigned to a separate population cluster and exhibited low diversity indicative of isolation. Population structure was also examined for S. sclerotiorum isolates from England, Scotland, Norway, and Australia using microsatellite data, including some from a previous study in England. In total, 484 haplotypes were identified within 800 S. sclerotiorum isolates with just 15 shared between England and Scotland and none shared between any other countries. Bayesian and principal component analyses revealed a common ancestry and clustering of the English and Scottish isolates while Norwegian and Australian isolates were assigned to separate clusters. Furthermore, sequencing part of the intergenic spacer (IGS) region of the rRNA gene resulted in 26 IGS haplotypes within 870 S. sclerotiorum isolates, nine of which had not been previously identified and two of which were also widely distributed across different countries. S. subarctica therefore has a multiclonal population structure similar to S. sclerotiorum, but has a different ancestry and distribution across England, Scotland, and Norway.

Sammendrag

Over the recent decades, the Norwegian cereal industry has had major practical and financial challenges associated with the occurrence of Fusarium and mycotoxins in cereal grains. From 2011, payment reductions to farmers were implemented for oat grain lots with high levels of deoxynivalenol (DON). However, according to preliminary results by NIBIO, NMBU and Graminor, certain oat varieties with generally medium or low DON contamination, may contain high levels of HT-2 and T-2-toxins (HT2+T2). These mycotoxins, formed by Fusarium langsethiae, are considerably more toxic than DON. Resistance to F. langsethiae is not included in the variety screening in Norway. In 2016 a new project, SafeOats, was initiated. This project is led by NIBIO and is a collaboration between NIBIO, NMBU, Kimen, and the main Norwegian and Swedish breeding companies, Graminor and Lantmännen. Harper Adam University (UK) and Julius Kühn-Institut (Germany) are international collaborators. SafeOats will develop resistance screening methods in order to facilitate the phase-out of susceptible oat germplasm. Furthermore, SafeOats will give new insight into the biology of F. langsethiae and HT2+T2 accumulation in oats, and thus facilitate the choice of relevant control measures. The results from SafeOats will benefit consumers nationally and internationally by providing tools to increase the share of high quality grain into the food and feed industry. SafeOats is financed by The Foundation for Research Levy on Agricultural Products/Agricultural Agreement Research Fund/Research Council of Norway with support from the industry partners Graminor, Lantmännen, Kimen, Felleskjøpet Agri, Felleskjøpet Rogaland Agder, Fiskå Mølle Moss, Norgesmøllene and Strand Unikorn/Norgesfor.

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During the last ten years, Norwegian cereal grain industry has experienced large challenges due to Fusarium spp. and Fusarium mycotoxin contamination of small-grained cereals. To prevent severely contaminated grain lots from entering the grain supply chain, it is important to establish surveys for the most prevalent Fusarium spp. and mycotoxins. The objective of our study was to quantify and calculate the associations between Fusarium spp. and mycotoxins prevalent in oats and spring wheat. In a 6-year period from 2004-2009, 178 grain samples of spring wheat and 289 samples of oats were collected from farmers’ fields in South East Norway. The grains were analysed for 18 different Fusarium-mycotoxins by liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry. Generally, the median mycotoxin levels were higher than reported in Norwegian studies covering previous years. The DNA content of Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium langsethiae, Fusarium poae and Fusarium avenaceum were determined by quantitative PCR. We identified F. graminearum as the main deoxynivalenol (DON) producer in oats and spring wheat, and F. langsethiae as the main HT-2 and T-2-toxins producer in oats. No association was observed between quantity of F. graminearum DNA and quantity of F. langsethiae DNA nor for their respective mycotoxins, in oats. F. avenaceum was one of the most prevalent Fusarium species in both oats and spring wheat. The following ranking of Fusarium species was made based on the DNA concentrations of the Fusarium spp. analysed in this survey (from high to low): F. graminearum = F. langsethiae = F. avenaceum > F. poae > F. culmorum (oats); F. graminearum = F. avenaceum > F. culmorum > F. poae = F. langsethiae (spring wheat). Our results are in agreement with recently published data indicating a shift in the relative prevalence of Fusarium species towards more F. graminearum versus F. culmorum in Norwegian oats and spring wheat.

Sammendrag

The proportion of Norwegian wheat used for food has recently been dramatically lower due to both reduced production and poor quality. Furthermore, the Norwegian milling and baking industries have experienced major challenges in utilizing Norwegian wheat due to the instability of factors, such as protein content and gluten functionality, that are of major importance for baking quality. The variation in the wheat quality can itself cause economic losses for the milling and baking industry due to uncertainty in the marketplace. In the same period as a large variation in baking quality was reported in Norwegian wheat, serious contamination of Fusarium spp. and mycotoxins were observed in some grain lots. We have revealed the severe degradation of gluten proteins in some Norwegian wheat samples leading to an almost complete loss in the gluten functionality. The degradation of the gluten appears to be caused by exogenous proteases, and was associated with the presence of Fusarium spp., and their metabolites, and other microorganisms in the wheat. Increased knowledge is needed to establish the cause of the poor gluten functionality and to develop control measures to reduce the amount of poor quality wheat entering the food value chain. In 2014, a new project was established to generate deeper knowledge in the interface between gluten functionality and effects of Fusarium spp. and other microorganism on wheat quality, and to better utilize Norwegian wheat grown in this challenging environment. A metagenomic analysis, designed to identify microorganisms associated with reduced baking quality, has been undertaken. To study the influence of the identified microorganisms and their metabolites on gluten functionality, wheat plants were inoculated with microorganisms, selected based upon the results of the metagenomics study. Fusarium species are among those microorganisms being tested.

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This paper presents peer-reviewed studies comparing the content of deoxynivalenol (DON), HT-2+T-2 toxins, zearalenone (ZEA), nivalenol (NIV), ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisins in cereal grains, and patulin (PAT) in apple and apple-based products, produced in organically and conventionally grown crops in temperate regions. Some of the studies are based on data from controlled field trials, however, most are farm surveys and some are food basket surveys. Almost half of the studies focused on DON in cereals. The majority of these studies found no significant difference in DON content in grain from the two farming systems, but several studies showed lower DON content in organically than in conventionally produced cereals. A number of the investigations reported low DON levels in grain, far below the EU limits for food. Many authors suggested that weather conditions, years, locations, tillage practice and crop rotation are more important for the development of DON than the type of farming. Organically produced oats contained mainly lower levels of HT-2+T-2 toxins than conventionally produced oats. Most studies on ZEA reported no differences between farming systems, or lower concentrations in organically produced grain. For the other mycotoxins in cereals, mainly low levels and no differences between the two farming systems were reported. Some studies showed higher PAT contamination in organically than in conventionally produced apple and apple products. The difference may be due to more efficient disease control in conventional orchards. It cannot be concluded that any of the two farming systems increases the risk of mycotoxin contamination. Despite no use of fungicides, an organic system appears generally able to maintain mycotoxin contamination at low levels. More systematic comparisons from scientifically controlled field trials and surveys are needed to clarify if there are differences in the risk of mycotoxin contamination between organically and conventionally produced crops.

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Fusarium and Microdochium may cause seedling blight and poor germination of cereal seeds. However, indications of poor survival of Fusarium in seed and improved germination after some months of storage have been observed. A study was carried out to investigate if seed storage can contribute to improved seed quality. Samples from seed lots of barley, oats and spring wheat were tested for germination capacity and Fusarium /Microdochium infection frequencies a few days after harvest, and after 5, 12 and 15 months of storage. In barley, the average germination percentage increased slightly, from 92% at harvest to 95% after five months of storage. In oats, the average germination percentage increased from 82% to 85% during the first five months. In spring wheat, the average germination percentage was reduced from 81% at harvest to 67% after five months. In barley and oats, average Fusarium /Microdochium frequencies were reduced during storage, with the highest reduction observed during the first five months (from 50% to 37%, and from 60% to 46%, barley and oats respectively). In spring wheat, no significant reduction in average infection level was recorded (58% at harvest, 50% after 15 months of storage). There was however, variation between seed lots in all three cereal species in both germination percentage and Fusarium /Microdochium frequencies during the storage period. It is concluded that storage of barley and oats seeds for 5 months after harvest may in some cases increase the seed quality and thereby meet the certification requirements of minimum 85% germination.

Sammendrag

The plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium langsethiae produces the highly potent mycotoxins HT-2 and T-2. Since these toxins are frequently detected at high levels in oat grain lots, they pose a considerable risk for food and feed safety in Norway, as well as in other north European countries. To reduce the risk of HT-2/T- 2-contaminated grain lots to enter the food and feed chain, it is important to identify factors that influence F. langsethiae infection and mycotoxin development in oats. However, the epidemiology of F. langsethiae is unclear. A three-year survey was performed to reveal more of the life cycle of F. langsethiae and its interactions with oats, other Fusarium species, as well as insects, mites and weeds. We searched for inoculum sources by quantifying the amount of F. langsethiae DNA in weeds, crop residues, and soil, sampled from a predetermined selection of oat-fields. To be able to define the onset of infection, we analysed the amount of F. langsethiae DNA in oat plant material sampled at selected growth stages (between booting and maturation), as well as the amount of F. langsethiae DNA and HT-2 and T-2 toxins in the mature grain. We also studied the presence of possible insect- and mite vectors sampled at the selected growth stages using Berlese funnel traps. All the different types of materials were also analysed for the presence F. graminearum DNA, the most important deoxynivalenol producer observed in Norwegian cereals, and which presence has shown a striking lack of correlation with the presence F. langsethiae in oat. Preliminary results show that F. langsethiae DNA may occur in the oat plant before heading and flowering. Some F. langsethiae DNA was observed in crop residues and weeds, though at relatively low levels. More results from this work will be presented at the meeting.

Sammendrag

The plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium langsethiae produces the highly potent mycotoxins HT-2 and T-2. Since these toxins are frequently detected at high levels in oat grain lots, they pose a considerable risk for food and feed safety in Norway, as well as in other north European countries. To reduce the risk of HT-2/T- 2-contaminated grain lots to enter the food and feed chain, it is important to identify factors that influence F. langsethiae infection and mycotoxin development in oats. However, the epidemiology of F. langsethiae is unclear. A three-year survey was performed to reveal more of the life cycle of F. langsethiae and its interactions with oats, other Fusarium species, as well as insects, mites and weeds. We searched for inoculum sources by quantifying the amount of F. langsethiae DNA in weeds, crop residues, and soil, sampled from a predetermined selection of oat-fields. To be able to define the onset of infection, we analysed the amount of F. langsethiae DNA in oat plant material sampled at selected growth stages (between booting and maturation), as well as the amount of F. langsethiae DNA and HT-2 and T-2 toxins in the mature grain. We also studied the presence of possible insect- and mite vectors sampled at the selected growth stages using Berlese funnel traps. All the different types of materials were also analysed for the presence F. graminearum DNA, the most important deoxynivalenol producer observed in Norwegian cereals, and which presence has shown a striking lack of correlation with the presence F. langsethiae in oat. Preliminary results show that F. langsethiae DNA may occur in the oat plant before heading and flowering. Some F. langsethiae DNA was observed in crop residues and weeds, though at relatively low levels. More results from this work will be presented at the meeting.

Sammendrag

Hvilken jordarbeiding som benyttes i den enkelte kornåker påvirker blant annet avlingsmengde, kvaliteten på kornet og miljøet. I denne publikasjonen er det samlet informasjon om effekter av ulik jordarbeiding, som hjelp til korndyrkere ved vurdering av jordarbeidingsmetoder, og for myndigheter ved beslutninger om jordarbeiding i regionale miljøprogram (RMP).

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Forsøksresultatene som presenteres i denne rapporten er biologisk godkjenningsprøving av soppmidler utført på oppdrag fra Mattilsynet i 2014. Inkludert i rapporten er også forsøk eller egne forsøksledd som grupperes som biologisk utviklingsprøving. Forsøkene er utført etter GEP-kvalitet1 hvis ikke annet er nevnt. Dette innebærer at det er utarbeidet skriftlige prosedyrer for nesten alle arbeidsprosesser. Disse prosedyrene, kalt standardforskrifter (SF’er), er samlet i en kvalitetshåndbok. Denne er delt ut til alle personer som arbeider med utprøving av plantevernmidler. De samme personene har også vært med på et endagskurs i GEP-arbeid.

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In 2008, an epidemic caused by a new Neonectria sp. was discovered on white fir (Abies concolor) in several counties in southern Norway [1]. Later the pathogen was also found on other fir species in Norway and Denmark [2]. Typical symptoms and signs were dead shoots, flagging (dead branches), canker wounds, heavy resin flow, and occasionally red fruiting bodies (perithecia). Pathogenicity tests on several Abies spp. proved the fungus to be very aggressive, which corresponds well with observations of mortality of white fir and subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa) from different age classes under field conditions. Sequencing of the internal transcribed regions (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA showed that this Neonectria sp. was most similar to N. ditissima (only 5 bp different from isolates in the GenBank), a common pathogen worldwide on broad leaf trees. The ITS sequences were very different (> 20 bp) from N. fuckeliana, a well-known fungus on Norway spruce in Scandinavia and other parts of the world, especially in the northern hemisphere. In 2011, the new Neonectria species was found on diseased trees in a Danish nordmann fir (Abies nordmanniana) seed orchard. Resin flow was seen from mature cones, and tests revealed that the seeds were infected by the Neonectria sp.

Sammendrag

Norsk juletreproduksjon har de siste årene hatt stor vekst, og det har spesielt blitt satset på edelgran (Abies spp.). Dette har ført til uforutsette sykdomsproblemer. Blant annet gjør soppen Sydowia polyspora, som også har vist seg å være frøoverført, stor skade. Vi har i den forbindelse forsøkt å finne effektive metoder for å eliminere frøsmitten samtidig som spireevnen opprettholdes.

Sammendrag

Forsøksresultatene som presenteres i denne rapporten er biologisk godkjenningsprøving av soppmidler utført på oppdrag fra Mattilsynet i 2012. Inkludert i rapporten er også forsøk eller egne forsøksledd som grupperes som biologisk utviklingsprøving. Forsøkene er utført etter GEP-kvalitet1 hvis ikke annet er nevnt. Dette innebærer at det er utarbeidet skriftlige prosedyrer for nesten alle arbeidsprosesser. Disse prosedyrene, kalt standardforskrifter (SF’er), er samlet i en kvalitetshåndbok. Denne er delt ut til alle personer som arbeider med utprøving av plantevernmidler. De samme personene har også vært med på et endagskurs i GEP-arbeid.

Sammendrag

Aksfusariose er en utbredt og destruktiv sjukdom i korn som kan forårsakes av en rekke ulike sopparter innen slekta Fusarium. I tillegg til å redusere avlingsmengde, kvalitet og frøspiring, kan ulike Fusarium-arter produsere en rekke ulike soppgifter (mykotoksiner) som kan være giftige for mennesker og dyr. Fuktige værforhold i perioden rundt blomstring av kornet ser ut til å øke risikoen for angrep av Fusarium. I tillegg kan dyrkningspraksis påvirke forekomsten av aksfusariose og utvikling av mykotoksiner i kornet.

Sammendrag

Sydowia polyspora was found to be seed borne on true fir (Abies spp.) where it is associated with two serious diseases; current season needle necrosis (CSNN) and Sclerophoma shoot dieback [1]. To our knowledge, S. polyspora was previously only reported to be seed borne on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) [3]. In 2009, we discovered S. polyspora on Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings from germination tests at the Norwegian Forest Seed Center. This indicated that S. polyspora also was seed borne on spruce. Based on this, we wanted to investigate how widespread S. polyspora was on conifer seeds. In 2010, we tested 44 seed lots from 8 genera. S. polyspora was isolates from seeds from the following genera; Abies, Larix, Picea, Pinus, Pseudotsuga, Thuja, and Tsuga. Interestingly, they are the exact same genera that Funk [2] reported S. polyspora from on diseased foliage and shoots. We found S. polyspora on Norway spruce harvested in 1970, thus, the fungus may survive for decades in seed lots. In Norway, Sclerophoma shoot dieback has been found on Norway spruce in Christmas tree fields. Fungal species from a number of other genera were also detected in the seed test, but here we only report S. polyspora.

Sammendrag

Sydowia polyspora is a pathogenic, seed borne fungus on conifers [1]. It is especially troublesome in the Christmas tree industry, where it causes current season needle necrosis (CSNN) on fir (Abies spp.). Needles get chlorotic spots or bands and in severe cases the entire needles turn necrotic and shed. The fungus also commonly kills current year shoots (Sclerophoma shoot dieback) on both fir and spruce (Picea spp.). The latter we proved on subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa) inoculated by S. polyspora from noble fir (Abies procera) seeds. Two conifer seed lots known from previous tests to contain a high percentage of S. polyspora were selected for a treatment experiment; alpine pine (Pinus mugo var. rotundata) and Noble fir. Both seed lots received the following five treatments; surface sterilized (10 sec. in 70 % ethanol plus 90 sec. in 0,5 % NaOCl), dipped in 15 % acidic acid, mixed with 0,36 gram Signum (boskalid and pyraklostrobin) per 100 gram seeds, mixed with 0,8 gram Mycostop (Streptomyces griseovirides) per 100 gram seeds, dipped in different concentrations of thyme oil (extracted from Thymus vulgaris), and control (no treatment). Based on the results we recommend Signum for conifer seed treatment. This fungicide controlled S. polyspora well and did not influence on the germination ability. Agricultural

Sammendrag

Gårdsvarsling gjør det mulig å beregne lokalt tilpassede plantevernvarsler ved bruk av værvarsel og radarmåling av nedbør. Vanligvis beregnes plantevernvarsler på grunnlag av data fra værstasjoner, men mange gårdsbruk ligger langt unna nærmeste målepunkt. For disse brukene vil varsler basert på værvarsler og radarmålt nedbør være et godt alternativ. Gårdsvarsler tilpasset det enkelte gårdsbruk vil derfor øke nytteverdien av varslingstjenesten innen planteskadegjørere (VIPS) for mange dyrkere.

Sammendrag

Aksfusariose er en kornsjukdom som kan angripe alle kornarter. Sjukdommen forårsakes av sopparter innen slekta Fusarium. Ulike Fusarium-arter kan produsere en rekke forskjellige mykotoksiner (soppgifter). Grenseverdier for innhold av enkelte mykotoksiner i korn og kornprodukter til mat og fôr er fastsatt av Mattilsynet (i henhold til EU’s regelverk). Denne dyrkningsveiledningen gir, på bakgrunn av dagens kunnskap, råd om hvordan en kan redusere risikoen for utvikling av mykotoksiner i korn.

Sammendrag

Bipolaris sorokiniana, som forårsaker Bipolaris-brunflekk, har i økende grad blitt registrert i såkorn av bygg i Norge de seinere årene. Særlig sortene Edel og Annabell har høye angrep. Forsøk viser at såkornsmitte av denne sjukdommen kan forårsake redusert oppspiring i felt og betydelige avlingstap og at beising med kjemiske midler har god effekt.

Sammendrag

De senere årene er det registrert økt forekomst av sopparten Fusarium graminearum i norskprodusert korn. F. graminearum produserer blant annet soppgiften deoksynivalenol (DON). Korn høstet fra angrepne planter kan derfor være uegnet til mat og fôr.

Sammendrag

Aksfusariose er en utbredt og destruktiv sjukdom i korn. Korn høsta fra angrepne planter kan inneholde soppgifter (mykotoksiner) og derfor være uegnet til mat og fôr. I Fusariumprosjektet ved Bioforsk Plantehelse ønsker vi å kartlegge faktorer som kan ha betydning for angrep av aksfusariose og utvikling av mykotoksiner i kornet.

Sammendrag

For å kunne imøtekomma EU sine krav (som er handheva av Mattilsynet) om å redusera innhaldet av mykotoksin i korn som går til mat og for, jobbar vi på ’Fusariumprosjektet’ på Bioforsk med å etablere ein strategi for identifisering av kontaminerte kornprøver. Denne strategien går blant anna ut på å etablere ei metode for hurtigtesting av eit større antal prøver.

Sammendrag

Fungicidresistens har fått økt aktualitet på grunn av tilgang på relativt få fungicider i flere kulturer. I tillegg har flere av de nyere fungicidene et iboende potensial for at skadegjørerne lett kan utvikle resistens overfor disse. Kartlegging av problemene og riktige bekjempelsesstrategier er nødvendig.

Sammendrag

I felt finnes en rekke ulike Fusarium-arter som kan forårsake aksfusariose. Disse artene påvirker hverandre i et komplisert samspill. Dette samspillet har betydning for sykdomsutviklingen hos den enkelte kornart, og vil influere på veksten av den enkelte Fusarium-art og på mengden av de ulike mykotoksinene som blir produsert.

Sammendrag

Friskt såkorn er spesielt viktig ved økologisk dyrking fordi konvensjonelle fungicider ikke kan benyttes verken til beising eller til kontroll av angrep i vekstsesongen. Ikke all såkornsmitte forårsaker angrep i felt. Hvor mye sjukdomssmitte som kan aksepteres i såkorn av bygg og havre til økologisk dyrking, samt effekten av alternative behandlingsmidler og -metoder er undersøkt i prosjektet Sunn økologisk såvare ved Bioforsk Plantehelse.

Sammendrag

Ut fra økonomiske hensyn og politiske føringer dyrkes korn i store sammenhengende jordbruksområder med liten grad av vekstskifte, og etterhvert med til dels lite jordarbeiding av hensyn til miljø og vannkvalitet. En slik dyrkningsstrategi kan medføre høyere risiko for utvikling av mykotoksiner (soppgifter) i kornet i tillegg til å øke behovet for bruk av kjemiske plantevernmidler mot ugras og kornsjukdommer.

Sammendrag

Målet med dette prosjektet er å utvikle metoder som kan bidra til å redusere risikoen for Fusarium-toksiner i norsk korn. I samarbeid med næringa pågår aktiviteter på to hovedområder: 1 Kartlegging av klimatiske og agronomiske forhold som påvirker angrep av Fusarium og utvikling av mykotoksiner (grunnlag for varsling), samt fokus på dyrkingsteknikk, inkludert sprøyting, som kan redusere risikoen for Fusarium-angrep/toksin-utvikling. 2 Komme fram til analysemetodikk som raskt og rimelig kan måle innhold av mykotoksiner i kornprøver (hurtigmetode) for å identifisere kornpartier med uakseptabelt høyt toksinnivå og dermed avverge at slike partier brukes til mat og fôr.

Sammendrag

Hovedmålsetningen til prosjektet er å redusere mengden av mykotoksiner i norsk korn. Vi ønsker blant annet å klargjøre hvordan klima og dyrkningsmessige forhold påvirker utvikling av Fusarium og mykotoksiner i havre og vårhvete. De resultatene som fremkommer i løpet av prosjektperioden vil videre brukes til å utvikle systemer for varsling ved særlig fare for Fusarium-angrep (på regionnivå, evt. gårdsnivå).

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Bladsjukdommer i norsk hvete


Vi har sett en alarmerende skift i balansen av sopp patogene i de siste 3 årene. Bladsjukdommer kan redusere hveteavlinger betydelig. Soppsjukdommer på hveteblader inkluderer hveteaksprikk, hvetebladprikk, hvetebrunflekk, mjøldogg, og i de siste årene, gulrust. Vi har dokumentert at hveteaksprikk har vært den dominerende arten på hveteblader fra 2005 til 2014, men vi vet fra andre europeiske land at dominerende sopparter kan skifte raskt over tid. Hveteaksprikk har forsvunnet fra Sverige, Danmark, Tyskland og Stortbritania i løpet av de siste 20 år og ble erstattet av hvetebladprikk. Ulike sopper behøver ulike tiltak.  Med hensyn til optimal bruk av plantevernmidler og resistensforedling er det avgjørende å vite hvilke sopparter vi har og hvilke arter vi kan forvente i framtiden. Vi ønsker å gjennomføre en systematisk kartlegging av de ulike sopparter på høst- og vårhveteblader over to år. Samtidig skal vi sammenstille ulike dyrkningsfaktorer som jordtype, hvetesort, jordarbeiding og næringsstoffnivå av planter fra de samme åkrene for å bestemme mulige faktorer som kan påvirke hvilke bladsjukdommer vi kan forvente i framtidig hvetedyrking. Basert på resultatene skal vi utvikle anbefalinger for optimale dyrkningsstrategier for ulike områder.

Aktiv Sist oppdatert: 11.01.2017
Slutt: des 2018
Start: jan 2017