Torstein Kvamme

Adviser

(+47) 900 85 153
torstein.kvamme@nibio.no

Place
Ås H8

Visiting address
Høgskoleveien 8, 1433 Ås

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Abstract

We present a revised checklist of harvestmen (Opiliones) covering all the Nordic countries, including Iceland and the Faroe Islands. Altogether 31 species from 18 genera and four families are currently known, of which 23 are from Norway, 21 from Sweden, 17 from Finland, 25 from Denmark, five from the Faroe Islands and four from Iceland. Five species are documented for the first time in Norway: Lacinius dentiger (C. L. Koch, 1847), Lacinius horridus (Panzer, 1794), Opilio saxatilis C. L. Koch, 1839, Leiobunum blackwalli Meade, 1861 and Leiobunum limbatum L. Koch, 1861.

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Abstract

A new subspecies of the European cerambycid Saperda populnea (Linnaeus, 1758) is described: Saperda populnea lapponica ssp. n. based on specimens from Scandinavia. The male genitalia characters were examined and found to provide support for this separation, as well as differences in morphology, geographical distribution and bionomy. The preferred host tree for the nominate subspecies S. populnea populnea is Populus tremula L., whereas S. populnea lapponica ssp. n. is considered to be monophagous on Salix lapponum L. DNA sequence data of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was generated from Scandinavian specimens of S. populnea populnea and specimens representing S. populnea lapponica ssp. n. The two subspecies were not reciprocally monophyletic and genetic distances in COI were small. All synonyms of S. populnea populnea have been considered, and species similar to S. populnea populnea have been examined, and not found to be related to S. populnea lapponica ssp. n. A male lectotype has been designated for each of the two following synonyms: Cerambyx decempunctatus De Geer, 1775, and Saperda salicis Zetterstedt, 1818. The synonymised species from Asia, S. balsamifera (Motshulsky, 1860), is elevated to subspecies: S. populnea balsamifera stat. n. We end with a discussion on the definition of subspecies under the unified species concept.

Abstract

The male and female genitalia characters of the European species of Monochamus Dejean, 1821, are described and compared in detail for the first time. The sclerites inside the median phallomer (internal sac) of M. sutor (Linnaeus, 1758) and M. galloprovincialis (Olivier, 1795) differ from those of all other examined species, and appear to be the best characters to separate M. sutor from M. galloprovincialis. There are no differences between the male or female genitalia characters of M. sartor (Fabricius, 1787) and M. urussovi (Fischer von Waldheim, 1805). Thus, M. urussovi is regarded as a subspecies of M. sartor: M. sartor urussovi nov. stat. The present results also support that the previously considered subspecies M. galloprovincialis pistor (Germar, 1818) is a true junior synonym of M. galloprovincialis galloprovincialis. No sclerites occur inside the internal sac of M. saltuarius (Gebler, 1830). The internal sac of M. sartor sartor (Fabricius, 1787), M. sartor urussovi and M. impluviatus impluviatus (Motschulsky, 1859) are distinctly different from the other European species of Monochamus: there is an elongated tube (terminal segment) inside the internal sac containing two very small and weakly sclerotized plates in M. sartor sartor and M. sartor urussovi and a larger sclerite in M. impluviatus impluviatus. A key to the European species and subspecies of Monochamus, incorporating male genitalia characters, is provided.

Abstract

Originally, Trypophloeus dejevi (Stark, 1936) was described from Sakhalin Island in the Far East of Russia, and it remained undetected in Europe until 2009, when one Swedish specimen was found in the collection of the late Lars Huggert. This specimen was sampled in Northern Sweden in Torne Lappmark: Årosjokk, 67°52’ N/19°22’E, in 1968. In 2010, the species was found in five new localities in the same area. Here we present T. dejevi, recorded in 2012 as a new species to Norway and Finland. In Norway, galleries with beetles were found in Salix myrsinifolia Salisbury and in Finland Salix glauca L. was the observed host tree. Both are common willow species in Northern Fennoscandia. The distribution of the beetle within trunks of living Salix combined with a low population-density may be an explanation to why T. dejevi has been overlooked until now.

Abstract

The genera Leiopus Audinet-Serville, 1835 and Acanthocinus Dejean, 1821 are redescribed. New morphological differences at the generic level are described, and the importance of genitalia characters in taxonomy at both species and generic level is emphasized. Carinopus subgen. nov. in Leiopus is described from mainland China and Taiwan. Acanthobatesianus subgen. nov. in Acanthocinus is described from China, the Korean peninsula and Japan. Leiopus (Carinopus) campbelli (Gressitt, 1937) comb. nov. is transferred from Acanthocinus, and Acanthocinus (Acanthobatesianus) guttatus (Bates, 1873) comb. nov. from Leiopus. Six new species of Leiopus from China are diagnosed, described, and illustrated: L. nigropunctatus sp. nov., L. flavomaculatus sp. nov., L. ocellatus sp. nov., L. nigrofasciculosus sp. nov., L. holzschuhi sp. nov. and L. multipunctellus sp. nov. Redescriptions of L. kharazii Holzschuh, 1974, L. albivittis albivittis Kraatz, 1879, L. stillatus (Bates, 1884), L. (Carinopus) shibatai Hayashi, 1974, L. (Carinopus) fallaciosus Holzschuh, 1993, L. (Carinopus) campbelli (Gressitt, 1937) comb. nov. and Acanthocinus (Acanthobatesianus) guttatus (Bates, 1873) comb. nov. are added. A key to the generic and subgeneric levels of Leiopus and Acanthocinus, and a dichotomous key to all six new species of Carinopus subgen. nov. (Leiopus str.) from China, are provided.

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to complete the studies of the genus Stenostola in Northern Europe. Together with previous published studies the characters presented form a better basis for separation of S. ferrea and S. dubia both as imagines and as larvae. The presented paper consists of three parts: Studies of the genitalia, morphological characters for identification of the larvae and DNA barcoding of both Stenostola dubia (Laicharting, 1784) and S. ferrea (Shrank, 1776). Although very similar, the male genitalia have good characters for species separation. The easiest characters to use are the parameres and tips of sclerite 2. The posterior ends of the elongated median sclerites of S. ferrea are irregularly curved or “zigzag” shaped, while the posterior ends of the median sclerites of S. dubia are straight. The genitalia characters presented are not previously published. No single morphological character alone is enough to identify the larvae to species. However, when the characters are used together the mature larvae are usually identifiable. The younger the larvae are, the more difficult they are to identify. Barcoding analysis of mitochondrial COI gene shows that S. ferrea and S. dubia are genetically different. The genetic distance between the species is 10.3 %. These results, in addition to previous findings, show that despite the morphological similarities, they are clearly two different species.

Abstract

Myrmica specioides Bondroit, 1918 and Formica cunicularia Latreille, 1798 are recorded in Norway for the first time. Both species were found in 2008 at Jeløya, Østfold County in South-Eastern Norway. A total of 54 outdoor-living ant species are now known to occur in Norway.

Abstract

The common European cerambycid Leiopus nebulosus (Linnaeus, 1758) is herein split into two sibling species. The male genitalia characters, as well as spermathecae in females, were examined and found to provide strong support for this separation. A new species, Leiopus linnei sp. nov., is based on specimens mainly from Scandinavia. The establishment of the new species is supported by DNA barcoding of Scandinavian specimens of L. nebulosus, L. linnei sp. nov., and L. punctulatus (Paykull, 1800). There are significant genetic differences between all these species. The geographical distribution and the bionomy of L. nebulosus and L. linnei sp. nov. are described. The type of Cerambyx nebulosus Linnaeus, 1758 is lost. A neotype of Cerambyx nebulosus, currently Leiopus nebulosus (Linnaeus, 1758), is designated and a redescription of L. nebulosus is presented. A key for the identification of L. nebulosus and L. linnei sp. nov. is provided. The varieties L. nebulosus var. dissimilis Pic, 1889, L. nebulosus var. unifasciatus Pic, 1891, and L. nebulosus var. siculus Pic, 1924 are considered as junior synonyms, syn.nov. of L. nebulosus.

Abstract

The Norwegian records of the ant Camponotus vagus (Scopoli, 1763) are presented and the distribution is discussed. Information on its biology and habitat choice is given. C. vagus is an overlooked species that must be considered rare in Norway

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Abstract

Host tree terpenes can influence attraction of conifer-infesting bark beetles to their aggregation pheromones, and both synergistic and inhibitory effects have been reported. We tested a gradient of ratios of (–)-α-pinene, the predominant monoterpene in Norway spruce, to the pheromone of Ips typographus, a major pest of Norway spruce. Attraction of I. typographus increased as the release rate of (–)-α-pinene increased. The two highest (–)-α-pinene : pheromone ratios (526 : 1 and 2595 : 1) attracted twice as many I. typographus as pheromone alone, whereas low to intermediate ratios (56 : 1, 274 : 1) did not differ from pheromone alone. Our results are in agreement with a proposed model, which suggests that bark beetles display unique response profiles to host terpenes depending on the physiological condition of the host trees that they typically colonize. Ips typographus, which is an aggressive species capable of colonizing and killing healthy trees, showed an increased attraction to monoterpene : pheromone ratios, and this may be high enough to inhibit attraction of less aggressive beetle species typically colonizing dead, dying or stressed trees. Attraction of associates of I. typographus was also modified by (–)-α-pinene. Ips duplicatus, a competitor of I. typographus, showed increased attraction to the pheromone of I. typographus across all concentrations of (–)-α-pinene.

Abstract

The diversity in different groups of obligate saproxylic beetles was related to ecological variables at three levels of spatial scale in mature spruce-dominated forest. The variables were connected to: decaying woodwood-inhabiting fungilevel of disturbancelandscape ecologyvegetational structure. Several strong relationships were found at medium (1 km2) and large scales (4 km2), while only weak relationships were found at a small scale (0.16 ha; 1ha=104m2). This may be explained by the local variations in habitat parameters and the high mobilities of many beetle species. Factors connected to decaying wood and wood-inhabiting fungi were clearly the most important factors at all scale levels. In particular, the variables diversity of dead tree parts, number of dead trees of large diameter and number of polypore fungi species increased the species richness of many groups and increased the abundance of many species. Eight species were not recorded below a certain density of decaying wood per 1 or 4 km2. Former extensive cutting was a negative factor at large scale, probably because of decreasing recolonization with increasing distance to source habitats. Thinning reduced the diversity of species associated with birch. The development of guidelines favouring the diversity of saproxylic beetles are discussed below

Abstract

Thanasimus formicarius (L.) responds to racemic ipsdienol and ipsenol and less to (S)-cis-verbenol. All three are pheromone components in several bark beetles of the genus Ips. Synergistic effects appeared when the components were combined. Methylbutenol alone, the specific pheromone component of Ips typographus, elicited no response, but synergestic effects appeared when methylbutenol was combined with cis-verbenol and ipsdienol. The sympatric species Thanasimus femoralis (Zett.) responds to (S)-cis-verbenol, while ipsdienol and ipsenol synergize the response.