Helmer Belbo

Research Scientist

(+47) 970 78 239
helmer.belbo@nibio.no

Place
Steinkjer

Visiting address
Statens Hus, Strandvegen 38, 7734 Steinkjer

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Abstract

Productivity of a mechanized P. patula cut-to-length harvesting operation was estimated and modelled using two methods of data collection: manual time study and follow-up study using StanForD stem files. The objective of the study was to compare the productivity models derived using these two methods to test for equivalence. Manual time studies were completed on four different machines and their operators. Two Ponsse Bear harvesters fitted with H8 heads, and two Ponsse Beaver harvesters, fitted with H6 heads, were included. All machines were equipped with Ponsse Opti2 information system. All four operators had approximately 1 year of experience working with their respective machines. The four machines worked in separate four-tree-wide harvesting corridors, and they each harvested 200 trees. Individual tree diameter at breast height (DBH), and height measurements were made manually. Subsequently, data on the trees in each study were extracted from the StanForD stem reports from each of the harvesters. Cycle times in the stem reports were determined based on the difference between consecutive harvest timestamps. The two methods were compared in terms of their abilities to estimate equivalent measures for tree DBH, volume, and productivity. In all four cases, significant differences were found between the DBH and volume measures derived using the two methods. Subsequently, the volume measures from the manual methods were used as the basis for productivity calculations. Results of the productivity comparisons found no significant differences between the models developed from the two methods. These results suggest that equivalent productivity models can be developed in terms of time using either method, however volume discrepancies indicate a need to reconcile bark and volume functions with the high variability experienced in the country.

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Abstract

Climate impacts of forest bioenergy result from a multitude of warming and cooling effects and vary by location and technology. While past bioenergy studies have analysed a limited number of climatealtering pollutants and activities, no studies have jointly addressed supply chain greenhouse gas emissions, biogenic CO2 fluxes, aerosols and albedo changes at high spatial and process detail. Here, we present a national-level climate impact analysis of stationary bioenergy systems in Norway based on wood-burning stoves and wood biomass-based district heating. We find that cooling aerosols and albedo offset 60–70% of total warming, leaving a net warming of 340 or 69 kg CO2e MWh−1 for stoves or district heating, respectively. Large variations are observed over locations for albedo, and over technology alternatives for aerosols. By demonstrating both notable magnitudes and complexities of different climate warming and cooling effects of forest bioenergy in Norway, our study emphasizes the need to consider multiple forcing agents in climate impact analysis of forest bioenergy.

Abstract

Whole trees from energy thinnings constitute one of many forest fuel sources, yet ten widely applied supply chains could be defined for this feedstock alone. These ten represent only a subset of the real possibilities, as felling method was held constant and only a single market (combustion of whole tree chips) was considered. Stages included in-field, roadside landing, terminal, and conversion plant, and biomass states at each of these included loose whole trees, bundled whole trees or chipped material. Assumptions on prices, performances, and conversion rates were based on field trials and published literature in similar boreal forest conditions. The economic outcome was calculated on the basis of production, handling, treatment and storage costs and losses. Outcomes were tested for robustness on a range of object volumes (50–350 m3solid), extraction distances (50–550 m) and transport distances (10–70 km) using simulation across a set of discrete values. Transport was calculated for both a standard 19.5 m and an extended 24 m timber truck. Results showed that the most expensive chain (roadside bundling, roadside storage, terminal storage and delivery using a 19.5 m timber truck) at 158 € td−1 was 23% more costly than the cheapest chain (roadside chipping and direct transport to conversion plant with container truck), at 128 € td−1. Outcomes vary at specific object volumes and transport distances, highlighting the need to verify assumptions, although standard deviations around mean supply costs for each chain were small (6%–9%). Losses at all stages were modelled, with the largest losses (23 € td−1) occurring in the chains including bundles. The study makes all methods and assumptions explicit and can assist the procurement manager in understanding the mechanisms at work.

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Abstract

Since the late nineteenth century when high-cost equipment was introduced into forestry there has been a need to calculate the cost of this equipment in more detail with respect to, for example, cost of ownership, cost per hour of production, and cost per production unit. Machine cost calculations have been made using various standard economic methods, where costs have been subdivided into capital costs and operational costs. Because of differences between methods and between national egulations, mainly regarding tax rules and subsidies, inter-national comparisons of machine costs are difficult. To address this, one of the goals of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action FP0902 was to establish a simple format for transparent cost calculations for machines in the forest biomass procurement chain. A working group constructed a Microsoft Excel – based spreadsheet model which is easy to understand and use. Input parameters are easy to obtain or possible to estimate by provided rules of thumb. The model gives users a simultaneous view of the input parameters and the resulting cost outputs. This technical note presents the model, explains how the calculations are made, and provides future users with a guide on how to use the model. Prospective users can view the model in the Supplementary Material linked to this article online

Abstract

Skilled, motivated and well-informed contractors today form the backbone of a professional, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly forest sector in the Nordic countries. This understanding forms the playground for policy makers, forestry certification bodies, forestry education, business standards and research in forest operations. The aim of this workshop is to provide a special forum for researchers, practitioners and other interested parties to get together in exchanging information, experiences and outlooks in the field of contractor forestry. The fundamental goal and our prime hope is that events like this will bring the Nordic-Baltic forest sector further in improving local and global competitiveness. These proceedings are a collection of abstracts that represent a range of issues being faced, and the status of research within the field of contractor forestry in participating countries. Contractor forestry is a term that includes both operating skills and business management acumen of forestry contractors, but also the formulation of the special environment in which they operate, not least the conditions set and information passed on by landowners, forest management companies, other supply chain actors, and the markets themselves. As such, it represents the whole spectrum of ‘service provision’ in the forestry sector – both the process of placing the work tasks on the market, successfully winning the contract, and carrying out the work in both an economically and environmentally sustainable way that promotes the long-term existence of professional contracting outfits. Not only is the Nordic forestry sector fully dependent on contractor forestry, but the region plays an important role in determining international trends in forest operations and the world closely watches developments and emulates many of them, as the CTL method continues to expand into new markets. This places special impetus on the importance of the research work being done in this field. We wish to thank the OSCAR coordinating committee for their constructive input, as well as all those who participated or contributed to making the seminar a success. We also would like to thank the Nordic Forest Research Cooperation Committee (SNS) for the financial support of the OSCAR2 network, and the Forestry Extension Institute at Honne who provided an exceptionally suitable environment and hosting for the workshop participants.

Abstract

The theoretical potential for increased efficiency in early thinning by using accumulating harvester heads was investigated through simulation. Thinning was performed in corridors perpendicular to the strip road in 75 artificially generated stands with varying average tree size and density. The work pattern and work time in the crane work for five sizes of heads, with grapple diameters in the range of 10 to 50 cm, was estimated by the simulation model. The efficiency increased rapidly when the grapple diameter increased from two to four times the average diameter in the harvested stand, reducing the work time per tree by 15 to 50 percent compared to the single tree handling harvester head. Further increases in grapple dimension also increased the efficiency, but not at the same rate. In real work, the efficiency increase by an accumulating harvester head will probably be slightly lower due to less optimal harvesting conditions, operator skills and other non-productive work tasks that are not affected by work method.

Abstract

In this study, the efficiency of a small multi-tree felling head, mounted on a farm tractor with a timber trailer was studied, when harvesting small trees for energy in thinnings. Both separate loading and direct loading of the felled trees was studied. Time studies were carried out in a mixed stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.). The time consumption of the work elements in the different work methods was formulated by regression analysis, where the independent variables were tree size and degree of accumulation. The average size of the harvested trees was 0.035 m3. The time consumption for the harvesting and loading were similar for the two studied methods, 20 minutes per m3 at a tree size of 0.035 m3, but the two methods showed different characteristics for different tree sizes and level of accumulation. The direct loading method had the highest productivity when more than 0.1 m3 were collected in the felling cycle, whereas the separate loading method had the highest productivity when less than 0.05 m3 were collected in the felling cycle. The total effective time consumption for harvesting and forwarding the biomass 300 meters to roadside landing was 27 minutes per m3. The efficiency of the initial felling and collecting of the small trees was the main challenge. Both the harvesting technique and harvesting technology needs further development to provide a feasible production chain for woodfuel from energy thinning.

Abstract

The OSCAR network was formed in 2005 and includes five Nordic forest research institutes Metla (Finland), Mesäteho (Finland), Skogforsk (Sweden), Skov & Landskab (Denmark) and Skog og Landskap (Norway) and SILAVA (Latvia). The network is open for all relevant research bodies in the Nordic and Baltic countries. OSCAR is one of five virtual centres of advanced research financed by the Nordic Forest Research Cooperation Committee (SNS). The main target of OSCAR is increasing the excellence and critical mass of R&D within the field of forest operations research by integrating research resources and expertise, besides promoting and developing efficient, competitive and environmentally friendly forest operation systems on a joint Nordic basis....