Anette Sundbye

Forsker

Divisjon for bioteknologi og plantehelse

Skadedyr og ugras

(+47) 922 43 416
anette.sundbye@nibio.no

Sted
Ås - Bygg H7

Besøksadresse
Høgskoleveien 7, 1433 Ås

Sammendrag

I 2016 er det utført 6 forsøk med 8 kjemiske skadedyrmidler, 2 biologiske skadedyrmidler, 2 feromonpreparater og 5 vekstregulerende preparater. Effekten er undersøkt mot kålmøll i kål,bladlus i erter, ulike viklerarter i eple, vanlig pæresuger i pære, og for vekstregulering i sommerblomster. Preparatene hadde varierende virkning og det vurderes om forsøkene skal videreføres. Det er også et pågående forsøk mot gransnutebille i skogplanteskole fra 2015 som avsluttes og rapporteres i 2017.

Sammendrag

Forsøksresultatene som presenteres i denne rapporten er biologisk godkjenningsprøving av skadedyrmidler utført på oppdrag fra Mattilsynet i 2012. Inkludert i rapporten er også forsøk eller egne forsøksledd som grupperes som biologisk utviklingsprøving. Forsøkene er utført etter GEP-kvalitet1 hvis ikke annet er nevnt. Dette innebærer at det er utarbeidet skriftlige prosedyrer for nesten alle arbeidsprosesser. Disse prosedyrene, kalt standardforskrifter (SF’er), er samlet i en kvalitetshåndbok. Denne er delt ut til alle personer som arbeider med utprøving av plantevernmidler. De samme personene har også vært med på et endagskurs i GEP-arbeid.

Sammendrag

The agro-ecosystems (e.g. cropping system (tunnel/ greenhouse/ open field, etc.), plant species, cultivar, soil management (fertilization, pH, soil cover, etc.)) has an impact on pests (insects, mites, snails, nematodes, plant diseases and weeds) and the control strategies used. Biological control agents (BCA) can serve as alternatives or as supplements to chemical pesticides. They can reduce the need for chemical treatments and thus the risk of non-target effects to humans and the environment from pesticide use. Further, the use of BCA might help to reduce the risk of pesticide resistance development. The Regulation and use of BCA differs significantly between different European countries, especially for the macroorganisms (insects, mites and nematodes). Norway has its own regulation for macroorganisms, while regulation of microorganisms (fungi, bacteria, viruses and protozoa) is almost the same as for chemical pesticides, and is comparable to the EU regulations. There is a wide range of biological control products available on the international market, and access to these products would benefit Norwegian growers. Norway has, however, a very limited selection of registered biological control products. A new Norwegian project titled “Increasing the use of biological control agents of plant pests” is financed by the Norwegian Ministry of Agriculture and Food. In this project we try to identify the bottlenecks and propose solutions to promote the registration and increase the use of BCA in Norway. A survey has been conducted where experts and agricultural advisors on different cropping systems were asked to prioritize which BCA (products) on the European market should be promoted and registered in Norway (initially against pest insects and mites). Preliminary results from this project will be presented.

Sammendrag

Pest and disease management in organic greenhouse production in Norway Anette Sundbye1, Nina Svae Johansen2, Arne Stensvand3 1, 2, 3 Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research (Bioforsk) - Plant Health and Plant Protection, Email1: anette.sundbye@bioforsk.no Development of organic farming and marketing of organic products is a political priority in Norway, and the major goal is that 15% of the food production and consumption in year 2020 should be organic. This also relates to vegetables in greenhouses. The demand for organic vegetables is increasing and the consumers are increasingly more conscious of how their food is produced. Norwegian growers who choose to convert to organic cultivation have major challenges when it comes to marketing and keeping a stable production. However, guidance by the Norwegian agricultural extension service on organic production of cucumber has been successful (project “Organic cultivation of greenhouse vegetables and herbs” 2010-2012). Also growers of tomatoes, lettuce and herbs are in good progress in converting to organic production. According to current Norwegian regulations, the organic greenhouse production should mainly be based on natural light. The need for and use of artificial light should be documented and can only be used in certain periods of the cultivation time. The main goal of the project “Environmentally friendly development of Norwegian greenhouse industry (2009-2012)” is to reduce energy consumption in plant production. This is practiced by maximizing the utilization of natural radiation and manipulating the light with different greenhouse covering, shading materials and LED based lamps with specific wavelength spectrum. The effect of light quality on powdery mildew and pests is also studied. Experiments have shown that illumination with red or UV-B light some minutes a day can reduce powdery mildew significantly. Blue sticky traps equipped with low intensity LEDs have the potential to increase thrips catches on sticky traps, and lamps with repellent wavelengths may be used to confuse whiteflies in their host finding. Only a limited number of biological control agents (BCA) are currently registered in Norway. On the international market, a wide range of commercially products of BCA is available. Access to these products would benefit the Norwegian organic production. In order to increase the availability and use of BCA in Norway, two projects have been funded by the Ministry of Food and Agriculture. In the new project “Increasing the use of biological control agents of plant pests” (2012) bottlenecks will be identified and solution will be proposed to promote the registration and increase the use of BCA in Norway. The other project “Extension in greenhouse biological control” (2006-2012) has increased the implementation of biological control and IPM in Norwegian commercial greenhouses.

Sammendrag

De asiatiske trebukkene Anoplophora chinensis og Anoplophora glabripennis er påvist sporadisk fl ere ganger på løvtrær i Nord-Europa, etter at det er importert infi sert treemballasje, bonsaitrær m.m. fra Øst- Asia. Disse trebukkene er svært vanskelige å bekjempe, og kan utgjøre en alvorlig trussel for løvfellende grøntanleggsplanter, skogstrær og frukttrær. Vi bør derfor være oppmerksomme på store larveganger med sagfl is, sirkelrunde utgangshull og trebukker som ligner disse artene. Mistanke om funn bør meldes til Mattilsynet.

Sammendrag

Tomatdyrkere i Norge bør være oppmerksomme på et nytt skadedyr som er på frammarsj i Europa. Det er en bladminerende møll med det velklingende latinske navnet Tuta absoluta. Den foretrekker tomat, hvor den kan for¬årsake opptil 90 % avlingsreduksjon. Den kan også angripe andre planter i søtvierfamilien (Solanaceae), som f.eks. aubergine, paprika, potet, prydtobakk, piggeple og enkelte ugras-arter.